The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner
The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, (Full title, The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner: Written by Himself: With a detail of curious traditionary facts and other evidence by the editor) is a novel by the Scottish author James Hogg, published anonymously in 1824.
Considered by turns part-gothic novel, part-psychological mystery, part-metafiction, part-satire, part-case study of totalitarian thought, it can also be thought of as an early example of modern crime fiction in which the story is told, for the most part, from the point of view of its criminal anti-hero. The action of the novel is located in a historically definable Scotland with accurately observed settings, and simultaneously infers a pseudo-Christian world of angels, devils, and demonic possession.
The first edition sold very poorly and the novel suffered from a period of critical neglect, especially in the nineteenth century. However, since the latter part of the twentieth century it has won greater critical interest and attention. It was praised by Andre Gide in an introduction to the 1947 reissue and described by the critic Walter Allen as 'the most convincing representation of the power of evil in our literature'. It has also been seen as a study of religious fanaticism through its deeply critical portrait of the Calvinist concept of predestination. It is written in English, with some sections of Scots that appear in dialogue.
Many of the events of the novel are narrated twice. First by the 'editor', who gives his account of the facts as he understands them to be, and then in the words of the 'sinner' himself.
The 'Editor's Narrative' starts in 1687 with the marriage of Rabina Orde to the much older George Colwan, the Laird of Dalcastle. Rabina disapproves of her new husband because he lacks her religious beliefs, dances and drinks alcohol, leading to the couple soon separating. However, Rabina Colwan gives birth to two children. The first, George, is the son of the Laird. It is strongly implied, though never absolutely confirmed, that her second son, Robert, was fathered by the Reverend Wringhim, Rabina’s spiritual adviser.
George, raised by the Laird, becomes a friendly young man who enjoys sport and the company of his friends. Robert, educated by his mother and adoptive father Wringhim, is brought up to follow Wringhim’s radical sect of Calvinism, which holds that only certain elect people are predestined to be saved by God. These chosen few will have a heavenly reward regardless of how their lives are lived.
The two brothers meet, as young men, in Edinburgh where Robert starts following George through the town, mocking and provoking him and disrupting his life. He appears to have the ability of appearing wherever George is. When on a hill-top, George sees a vision of his brother in the sky and turns to find him behind him, preparing to throw him off a cliff. Robert rejects any friendly or placatory advances from his brother.
Finally, George is murdered, stabbed in the back, apparently during a duel with one of his drinking acquaintances. The only witness to the murder is a prostitute, who claims that the culprit was Robert, aided by what appears to be the double of George’s friend. Before Robert can be arrested, he disappears.
The second part of the novel, 'Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner', consists of Robert's account of his life. It is, supposedly, a document, some of it handwritten, and some printed, which was found after his death. It recounts his childhood, under the influence of the Rev Wringhim, and goes on to explain how he becomes in thrall to an enigmatic companion who says his name is Gil-Martin. This stranger, who could be seen to be the devil, appears after Wringhim has declared Robert to be a member of 'the elect' and so predestined to eternal salvation. Gil-Martin, who is able to transform his appearance at will, soon directs all of Robert’s pre-existing tendencies and beliefs to evil purposes, convincing him that it is his mission to “cut sinners off with the sword”, and that murder can be the correct course of action.
The confession traces Robert's gradual decline into despair and madness, as his doubts about the righteousness of his cause are counteracted by Gil-Martin’s increasing domination over his life. Finally, Robert loses control over his own identity and even loses track of time. During these lost weeks and months, it is possible that Gil-Martin assumes Robert’s appearance in order to commit further crimes. However, there are also suggestions in the text, that 'Gil-Martin' is a figment of Robert's imagination, and is simply an aspect of his own personality: as, for example when 'the sinner' writes: 'I feel as if I were the same person' (as Gil-Martin).
The novel concludes with a return to the 'Editor's Narrative' which explains how the sinner's memoir was discovered.
The Private Memoirs and Confessions was published as if it were the presentation of a found document from the previous century offered to the public with a long introduction by its unnamed editor. The structure thus is of a single, self-contained publication offering a historically contextualised story, but the effect is unsettling. When taken together, the different elements create an impression of ambivalence and inconsistency, as if they were intended to present the reader with a conundrum. Because Hogg's novel appears to test concepts of internal validity, historical truth or a single rational world-view, contemporary critics sometimes regard it as an early anticipation of ideas associated with postmodernism.
The Confession (which comprises the middle section of the novel) is an autobiographical account of the life of Robert Wringhim and, passim, his statement on the crimes with which his name was associated. The document is revealed to be in part a printed document intended for publication  and in part a handwritten manuscript. The first section narrates events retrospectively. It is followed by events recounted "in real time", describing events during his last days on earth.
The Editor's Narrative "introduces" this memoir with "factual" descriptions "from local tradition" of events associated with Wringhim up to the murder of his estranged brother, George Colwan. This Editor's Narrative later resumes at the end of the novel as a post-script appending further details that supposedly comment on the text. This includes the transcript of an "authentic letter" published in Blackwoods Magazine "for August 1823" by a certain James Hogg. The ending finally places the novel in the present time by relating the mystery of a suicide's grave, the exhumation of its remains and (only on the very last pages) the "recovery" of the manuscript. In effect, this post-script reveals what a real "editor" may more properly have set at the beginning, and casts it as the "conclusion".
Discounting any transcendental inferences, there are two time-frames in the novel. The events of the memoir are set in a carefully identifiable period of Scottish history between the late 17th century and early 18th century. (The first date on the opening page is the year 1687.) The editor's narrative is even more concretely dated and situated in present time, external to the novel, through the device of the letter by Hogg included by the fictional editor (which was in fact published in Blackwood's Magazine as described). Hogg's brief cameo role in the final pages of the novel is effectively his "signature" appended to the otherwise anonymous original publication.
- The novel has been cited as an inspiration for Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, examining the duality of good and evil.
- In 1988 the Scottish film maker Bill Douglas (d.1991) created a screenplay treatment of the novel that has as yet not been filmed.
- The novel "Gilchrist" (1995) by Maurice Leitch is a reworking of Confessions in a contemporary Northern Ireland setting, with a central character loosely based on Ian Paisley.
- James Hynes' gothic horror novel, The Lecturer's Tale, features a Hogg scholar whose intention to write his dissertation on guilt and predestination in Justified Sinner, is deflected into writing on the more fashionable Conrad.
- In James Robertson's novel "The Testament of Gideon Mack", the protagonist Gideon Mack, a minister of the Scottish kirk, comes across a copy of a book on elves, fauns and fairies in his father's study. Gideon learns that the book was signed for his father by one "G.M.". Like the anti-hero of Hogg's novel, Gideon claims to have had an encounter with the Devil and begins to think that his father has met him as well. He suggests that "G.M." might be short for "Gil Martin" (p. 355).
- Eve Sedgwick, in her book Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire, views Robert Wringhim's character as failing to successfully negotiate the demands of the configuration of male homosocial desire existing in his society by being too manifest in his desire for other men.
- Boucher and McComas described the 1949 edition as a "forgotten classic," praising "this terrifying picture of the devil's subtle conquest of a self-righteous man" as "a masterpiece of the supernatural."
- "The Bad Sister" by Emma Tennant is a modern-day version of Hogg's novel with a female protagonist.
- In the short film "Voices" starring Sean Biggerstaff the central character uses audio extracts of himself reading Hogg's novel to create his final apology.
Portrayal of Calvinist theology 
Many proponents[who?] of Calvinist theology argue that James Hogg misrepresented Calvinism. It is true that Calvinists believe that once a person reaches a state which fulfils the conditions for salvation (i.e. once someone has experienced true conversion), they cannot subsequently fall from this state ("once saved, always saved"). This doctrine of Calvinist theology is known as the perseverance of the saints. Calvinists also argue the doctrine of irresistible grace, which says that if God has elected to save someone, he will overpower all of that person's resistance, resulting in that person's repentance and consequent salvation. However, proponents of Calvinist theology would argue that even with the Five points of Calvinism, a genuinely converted person is easily recognisable and the novel's protagonist shows no signs of having been born again, pointing to biblical passages, such as Matthew 7:16, where Jesus says during the Sermon on the Mount that people will know each other by their fruits and James 2:20, which says that faith is dead unless good works come as a consequence thereof.
Theatrical productions 
- 2009 dramatisation of the novel starring Iain Robertson and Ryan Fletcher produced by the Royal Lyceum Theatre, Edinburgh
- 1985 Polish film adaptation by director Wojciech Jerzy Has, Osobisty pamiętnik grzesznika... przez niego samego spisany, (English title: Memoirs of a Sinner)
- Scottish crime writer Ian Rankin, creator of the famous Inspector Rebus novels, has written a script for a film based on James Hogg's Memoirs and Confessions. According to his website his team are 'still on the hunt for the right director.
- Thomas Wilson's, opera, Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1972–75), commissioned by Scottish Opera, was based on the novel.
See also 
- Walter Allen, The English Novel, 1954
- James Hogg, The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner. Ed., John Wain. Penguin, 1983. pp.215-6.
- James Hogg, The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner. Ed., John Wain. Penguin, 1983. p.230.
- James Hogg, The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner. Ed., John Wain. Penguin, 1983. Introduction, p.7.
- "Recommended Reading," F&SF, February 1950, p.107
- "Ian Rankin Newsletter, About Ian Rankin, Rebus novels official site, Ian Rankin background, Scottish writer Rankin, Edinburgh set books, Scottish crime novel". Ianrankin.net. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
|Wikisource has original text related to this article:|
- The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, at Project Gutenberg.
- Review of The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner, by Louise Norlie.
- Ian Rankin's Introduction to 2007 edition
- Memoirs of a Sinner at the Internet Movie Database