The Prodigal Son, or L'enfant prodigue, Op. 46 (Russian: Блудный сын), is a ballet created for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes by George Balanchine, to music by Sergei Prokofiev (1928–29). The libretto, based on the parable in the Gospel of Luke, was by Boris Kochno, who added a good deal of drama and emphasized the theme of sin and redemption ending with the Prodigal Son's return. Susan Au writes in Ballet and Modern Dance that the ballet was the last of the Diaghilev era, choreographed the year the great impresario died. She continues: "Adapted from the biblical story, it opens with the prodigal's rebellious departure from home and his seduction by the beautiful but treacherous siren, whose followers rob him. Wretched and remorseful, he drags himself back to his forgiving father."
Serge Lifar created the role. The premiere took place on Tuesday, May 21, 1929, at the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt, Paris, with décor by Georges Rouault and lighting by Ronald Bates, in what was to be the Ballets Russes's last Paris season: "Balanchine's choreography upset Prokofiev, who conducted the premiere. The composer had envisioned a production that was 'real'; his concept of the Siren, whom he saw as demure, differed radically from Balanchine's. Prokofiev refused to pay Balanchine royalties for his choreography." Balanchine's American Ballet danced The Prodigal Son at its first public performance in 1934.
The New York City Ballet premiere was on Thursday, February 23, 1950, at City Center of Music and Drama, New York, the title role danced by Jerome Robbins, with lighting by Mark Stanley. Hugh Laing and Francisco Moncion also danced it before it lapsed from the performance rota for a decade. It was restaged in 1960 with Edward Villella in the title role (Villella recounts his work in recreating the role in his autobiography of the same name).