First edition cover
The Sea-Wolf is a 1904 psychological adventure novel by American novelist Jack London about a literary critic, survivor of an ocean collision, who comes under the dominance of Wolf Larsen, the powerful and amoral sea captain who rescues him. Its first printing of forty thousand copies was immediately sold out before publication on the strength of London's previous The Call of the Wild. Ambrose Bierce wrote, "The great thing—and it is among the greatest of things—is that tremendous creation, Wolf Larsen... the hewing out and setting up of such a figure is enough for a man to do in one lifetime... The love element, with its absurd suppressions, and impossible proprieties, is awful."
The personal character of the novel's antagonist "Wolf Larsen" was attributed to a real sailor London had known, Captain Alex MacLean. According to London himself, "much of the Sea Wolf is imaginary development, but the basis is Alexander McLean". Captain Alex MacLean, or McLean, was born May 15, 1858 in East Bay, Nova Scotia. He did sail mostly in the Pacific North West with his brother, Captain Dan MacLean. MacLean was at one time the Sheriff of Nome, Alaska. The MacLean Captains maintained their ties to Cape Breton Island despite having spent much of their lives sailing the Pacific Coast and do have living descendants.
London, who was called "Wolf" by his close friends, also used a picture of a wolf on his bookplate, and named his mansion Wolf House. Given that Van Weyden's experiences in the novel bear some resemblance to experiences London had, or heard told about, when he sailed on the Sophia Sutherland, the autodidact sailor Wolf Larsen has been compared to the autodidact sailor Jack London.
London's intention in writing The Sea-Wolf was "an attack on (Nietzsche's) super-man philosophy." Nietzsche and Schopenhauer are mentioned in the second sentence of the novel as the preferred reading of the friend Humphrey van Weyden visited before his shipwreck. The novel also contains references to Herbert Spencer in chapters 8, 10, Charles Darwin in chapters 5, 6, 10, 13, Omar Khayyám in chapters 11, 17, 26, Shakespeare in chapter 5, and John Milton in chapter 26.
The plot has some initial similarities to Captains Courageous by Rudyard Kipling in that they each have an idle, rich young man rescued from the sea and shanghaied into becoming a working sailor; however, the two stories differ widely in plot and moral tone.
Like The Call of the Wild, The Sea Wolf tells the story of a soft, domesticated protagonist, in this novel's case an intellectual man named Humphrey van Weyden, forced to become tough and self-reliant by exposure to cruelty and brutality. The story starts with him aboard a San Francisco ferry, called Martinez, which collides with another ship in the fog and sinks. He is set adrift in the Bay, eventually being picked up by Wolf Larsen. Larsen is the captain of a seal-hunting schooner, the Ghost. Brutal and cynical, yet also highly intelligent and intellectual (though highly biased in his opinions, as he was self-taught), he rules over his ship and terrorizes the crew with the aid of his exceptionally great physical strength. Van Weyden adequately describes him as an individualist, hedonist, and materialist. Larsen does not believe in the immortality of the soul, he finds no meaning in his life save for survival and pleasure and has come to despise all human life and deny its value. Being interested in someone capable of intellectual disputes, he somewhat takes care of Van Weyden, whom he calls 'Hump', while forcing him to become a cabin boy, do menial work, and learn to fight to protect himself from a brutal crew.
A key event in the story is an attempted mutiny against Wolf Larsen by several members of the crew. The organizers of the mutiny are Leach and Johnson. Johnson had previously been beaten severely by Larsen, and Leach had been punched earlier while being forced to become a boat-puller, motivating the two. The first attempt is by sending Larsen overboard; however, he manages to climb back onto the ship. Searching for his assailant, he ventures into the sleeping quarters, located beneath the main deck, the only exit being a ladder. Several, at least seven men, take part in the mutiny and attack Larsen. Larsen however, demonstrating his inhuman endurance, strength, and conviction, manages to fight his way through the crew, climb the ladder with several men hanging off him, and escape relatively unharmed. Van Weyden is promoted as mate, for the original mate had been murdered. Larsen later gets his vengeance by torturing his crew, and constantly claiming that he is going to murder Leach and Johnson at his earliest convenience, being the hunting season is done, as he can't afford to lose any crew. He later allows them to be lost to the sea when they attempt to flee on a hunting boat.
During this section, the Ghost picks up another set of castaways, including a poet named Maud Brewster. Miss Brewster and van Weyden had known each other previously—but only as writers. Both Wolf Larsen and van Weyden immediately feel attraction to her, due to her intelligence and "female delicacy". Van Weyden sees her as his first true love. He strives to protect her from the crew, the horrors of the sea, and Wolf Larsen. As this happens, Wolf Larsen meets his brother Death Larsen, a bitter opponent of his. Wolf kidnapped several of Death's crew and forced them into servitude to fill his own ranks, lost previously during a storm. During one of Wolf Larsen's intense headaches, which render him near immobile, van Weyden steals a boat and flees with Miss Brewster.
The two eventually land on an uninhabited island, heavily populated with seals. They hunt, build shelter and a fire, and survive for several days, using the strength they gained while on the Ghost. The Ghost eventually crashes on the island, with Wolf Larsen the only crew member. As a revenge, Death Larsen had tracked his brother, bribed his crew, destroyed his sails, and set Larsen adrift at sea. It is purely by chance that van Weyden and Miss Brewster meet Larsen again.
Van Weyden obtains all of the weapons including firearms left on the ship, but he cannot bear to murder Larsen, who does not threaten him. Van Weyden and Miss Brewster decide they can repair the ship, but Larsen, who intends to die on the island and take them with him, sabotages any repairs they make. After a headache, Larsen is rendered blind. He feigns paralysis and attempts to murder van Weyden when he draws within arm's reach but just then is hit with a stroke that leaves him blind and the right side of his body paralyzed. His condition only worsens; he loses usage of his remaining arm, leg, and voice. Miss Brewster and van Weyden, unable to bring themselves to leave him to rot, care for him. Despite this kindness, he continues his resistance, setting fire to the bunk's mattress above him.
Van Weyden finishes repairing the Ghost, and he and Miss Brewster set sail. During a violent storm, Wolf Larsen dies. They give Larsen a burial at sea, an act mirroring an incident van Weyden witnessed when he was first rescued. The story ends with the two being rescued by an American revenue cutter.
Humphrey van Weyden
Van Weyden starts the book weak of body but strong of mind. He grows stronger as the story progresses, physically through the manual labor, including his learning of the ship's workings and rivalry with ship's cook Thomas Mugridge and spiritually as he endures the various hardships, including his inconsistent relationship with Wolf Larsen. Upon meeting Maud Brewster, he realizes just how much he has changed, gaining muscle mass, a more rugged appearance, and a different outlook on life.
Van Weyden has a unique relationship with Wolf Larsen. Though he is in effect the captain's prisoner, Larsen shows him favoritism and occasionally acts as a father figure, giving advice on how to survive aboard the ship. Though Larsen claims to take van Weyden aboard primarily because he needed an additional hand, he also seems to genuinely believe he is doing something good for van Weyden. He claims that van Weyden has never "stood on his own legs", meaning he has never had to work and always relied on his inheritance from his father to survive. Throughout the book, Larsen compliments van Weyden on his growth, eventually telling him he is proud of him, and calling him a real man, able to stand on his own legs rather than a "dead man's (his father's)" legs.
Van Weyden has an ideology that is in sharp contrast to Larsen's. He believes in the eternal soul, inherent good, and that men should act justly under all circumstances. His views are constantly being challenged by Larsen, who encourages him to give in to his desires and behave in an amoral fashion. Van Weyden resists Larsen's influence and retains his original ideology. By the end of the story, Larsen is annoyed that van Weyden still clings to his beliefs and refuses to murder him, despite all the suffering Larsen has put him through.
Physically, Larsen is described as approximately five feet ten with a massive build: broad shoulders and a deep chest. He displays tremendous strength throughout the story. Van Weyden describes Larsen as beautiful on more than one occasion, perfectly symmetrical, a perfect specimen of masculinity. Yet, despite this, his true strength is described as something more primal, more primitive, and animalistic. He is extremely intelligent, having taught himself a variety of fields, including mathematics, literature, science, philosophy, and technology.
Larsen was born in Norway, though he is of Danish descent. He spent his entire life at sea: cabin-boy at twelve, ship's boy at fourteen, seaman at sixteen, able seaman at seventeen. It is unclear when he obtained the Ghost and became captain. He has several brothers, but only Death Larsen is mentioned.
Larsen displays characteristics of a sociopath. He has absolutely no qualms about manipulating and bullying people to better serve his needs. He routinely takes men hostage, castaways such as van Weyden and seal hunters from other ships, and uses them to fill his own ranks when needed. He murders and abuses people without hesitation, seeing no value in life. He enjoys the intellectual stimulation that van Weyden and Miss Brewster provide, but van Weyden describes their relationship as one between a king and his jester. According to van Weyden, he is only a toy to Larsen.
Despite his immense internal strength, Larsen at times shows signs of weakness and depression. He is envious of his brother, because his brother is simple minded, and so is able to enjoy life unburdened. He also claims he is envious of Miss Brewster's and van Weyden's faith, but later says it is only his mind, and he knows he is better off without it. He also speaks of frustration that he never amounted to anything great. He claims that he had all the determination and will required, but was never given the proper opportunity.
Wolf is not Larsen's real given name. His genuine given name is never revealed. Dialogue heavily implies that he is called "Wolf" because of his nature and viciousness, and, for similar reasons, his brother is called "Death".
The word "Wolf" has the highest number of occurrences in the novel, appearing 422 times. The name "Larsen" comes second, with 363 appearances.
Maud Brewster is "captured" by Wolf Larsen just as Van Weyden was. She is rich and her work involves writing: she tells Wolf and Humphrey that she earns 1800 dollars a year, but would need a typewriter, pen and paper to work on the ship. She is not accustomed to doing things for herself. She is twenty-seven years old and beautiful. As a captive on Larsen's boat, she uses her intelligence to survive. Miss Brewster has the ability to stare into people's eyes and tell their emotions. Her beliefs are similar to Van Weyden and she has read widely.
Jack London's novel has been adapted for motion pictures:
- The Sea Wolf, a silent motion picture starring Hobart Bosworth, with author Jack London appearing as an unnamed sailor
- The Sea Wolf a silent motion picture starring Noah Beery (Larsen) and Tom Forman (van Weyden);
- The Sea Wolf, a silent motion picture starring Ralph Ince and Claire Adams (Maud);
- The Sea Wolf, starring Milton Sills and the former USRC Bear as the sealer Macedonia;
- The Sea Wolf starring Edward G. Robinson (Larsen), Ida Lupino (Maud), and John Garfield;
- Wolf Larsen, starring Barry Sullivan and Peter Graves;
- Der Seewolf (Germany, 1972, TV, 4 part miniseries), starring Raimund Harmstorf and Edward Meeks;
- Il Lupo dei Mari (Italy, 1975, The Legend of the Sea Wolf), starring Chuck Connors and Giuseppe Pambieri;
- Morskoj volk (USSR, 1990, TV), starring Liubomiras Lauciavicius and Andrei Rudensky;
- The Sea Wolf (1993, TV), starring Christopher Reeve and Charles Bronson;
- The Sea Wolf (1997), starring Stacy Keach;
- The Sea Wolf (ProSieben, Germany, 2008), starring Thomas Kretschmann;
- Sea Wolf (ZDF, Canada/Germany, 2009), starring Sebastian Koch, Stephen Campbell Moore, Neve Campbell and Tim Roth; Produced by TeleMünchen;
- The Cambridge History of American Literature, Volume 2: Prose Writing 1820-1865. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995
- Letter to George Sterling, Feb. 18 1905, A much misunderstood man, Selected Letters of Ambrose Bierce, ed. S. T. Joshi, Tryambak Sunand Joshi, David E. Schultz, Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 2003
- "Washington University Press on Alex MacLean". Washington.edu. August 16, 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
- MacGillivray, Don. "http://www.ubcpress.ca/books/pdf/chapters/2008/CaptainAlexMacLean.pdf". Alex MacLean. UBC Press. p. 15. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- MacGillivray, Don. "http://www.ubcpress.ca/books/pdf/chapters/2008/CaptainAlexMacLean.pdf". Alex MacLean. UBC Press. p. 11. Retrieved 2009-07-08.
- MacNeil, Neil, The Highland Heart of Nova Scotia, Breton Books (1998)
- "Jack London's Wolf House". Retrieved 2009-07-22.
- Jack London, Letter to Mary Austin, Nov 5 1919, cited in No Mentor But Myself, Jack London, Dale Walker, Jeanne Reesman, Second Edition, 1999
- "Alex Catalogue of Electronic Texts". Infomotions.com. Retrieved 2011-08-25.
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- "Shooting on The Sea Wolf to start in Halifax". CBC News. April 7, 2008.
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