|The Spanish City|
Photographed in September 2010 by Adam G. Bell
|Alternative names||Whitley Bay Pleasure Gardens|
|Status||Grade II listed building (the dome)|
|Address||Watts Road, Whitley Bay, Tyne and Wear, England|
|Opening||7 May 1910|
|Client||Whitley Bay Pleasure Gardens Ltd|
|Owner||North Tyneside Council (June 2011)|
|Diameter||180 ft long, 275 ft deep |
|Design and construction|
|Architecture firm||Cackett and Burns Dick|
|Structural engineer||L.G. Mouchel|
|Main contractor||Davidson and Miller|
|Renovating firm||Robertson, Gateshead|
|Spanish City, ADP Architects|
The Spanish City was a permanent funfair in Whitley Bay, a seaside town in North Tyneside, Tyne & Wear, England. Erected as a smaller version of Blackpool's Pleasure Beach, it opened in 1910 as a concert hall, restaurant, roof garden and tearoom. A ballroom was added in 1920, and later the funfair.
Just yards from the seafront, the Spanish City has a 180 ft-long (54.8 m) Renaissance-style frontage and became known for its distinctive dome, now a Grade II listed building. There are towers on either side of the entrance, each of which carries a half-life-size female bacchanalian figure in lead, one holding cymbals, the other a tambourine. The building's architects were Robert Burns Dick, Charles T. Marshall, and James Cackett.
The band Dire Straits immortalized the Spanish City in their 1980 hit single, "Tunnel of Love," which from then on was played every morning when the park opened. By the late 1990s the building had fallen into disrepair and was closed to the public in the early 2000s. A regeneration project was announced in 2011.
The Spanish City faces the sea, with a 180 ft-long front and a depth of 275 ft. The dome rises to 75 ft above the foundation and has a diameter of 50 ft, supported on 46-ft-high concrete columns. It is made of a reinforced-concrete shell, five inches thick, which is supported by 12 (10 in x 18 in) internal ribs.
The architects were Robert Burns Dick, Charles T. Marshall, and James Cackett) of Cackett and Burns Dick. J. Coulson was a design consultant and L. G. Mouchel were structural consultants. Davidson and Miller were the contractors.
The resort located in the area before the building was erected became known informally as the Spanish City in 1904, when Charles Elderton, who ran Hebburn's Theatre Royal, brought his Toreadors concert party troupe to perform there.
The new pleasure palace was formally opened by Robert Mason, chair of the local council, on the evening of Saturday, 7 May 1910, and was called The Spanish City and Whitley Bay Pleasure Gardens. The Union Jack was flown at half mast because King Edward VII had died the previous day. The new building housed the 1400-capacity Empress theatre with a seating capacity of 1,400 on the floor and 400 on the balcony. There were also shops, cafes and roof gardens. The Empress Ballroom was added in 1920, and the Rotunda in 1921. In 1979 the Rotunda was converted into the starlight rooms for live entertainment.
The funfair was extremely popular, with fairground rides and amusements, including a "corkscrew" roller coaster – which was at Flamingoland in Yorkshire from 1983 to 2011, then at Luna Park in France – ghost train and waltzers, the House that Jack Built, and the Fun House. The Dome also housed an amusement arcade and later a Laser Quest Laser Tag arena. It was used as a classroom for pupils of Whitley Bay High School during a caretakers' strike in the 1980s, and later became a live music venue playing host to several bands, including an appearance by Ash in 2001.
In June 2011 ADP Architects won a commission to regenerate the Spanish City with a plan that included a 50-bed, four-star boutique hotel, 20 apartments, a 1950s diner and a pleasure garden. The completion date was announced as 2014, but work was halted in 2013 because of a lack of funds. The project received a grant of £3.7m from the Heritage Lottery Fund in November 2013.
In popular culture
Dire Straits refer to the Spanish City in their 1980 song "Tunnel of Love," which became the fairground's unofficial theme song, played every morning when it opened. Dire Straits songwriter Mark Knopfler, who was born in Glasgow but grew up in Blyth, Northumberland, about seven miles from the Spanish City, said it was the first place he had ever heard really loud rock 'n' roll.
"Tunnel of Love" refers to several permanent funfairs: Steeplechase Park in Coney Island, New York, open from 1897 to 1964; Palisades Amusement Park in Bergen County, New Jersey, open from 1898 to 1971; and Rockaways' Playland in Rockaway Beach, Queens, New York, open from 1902 to 1982. The town Cullercoats in the song is a stop on the train along the coast from Whitley Bay.
The Spanish City features in the video that accompanied Tina Cousins's song "Pray" (1998). It makes a brief appearance in the film The Likely Lads (1976), and features in the film The Cullercoats Fishlass (2013) by local film company ACT 2 CAM. In the film, Charles Elderton tries to persuade the Spanish City owners to let his troupe perform there, in spite of the Sunday licencing laws.
- Robert William Rennison, Civil Engineering Heritage: Northern England, Thomas Telford, 1996, p. 41, citing J. T. Cackett and B. Dick, "Spanish City, Whitley Bay," Ferro Concrete: A Monthly Review, 1911, 2, pp. 168–175.
- Michael Stratton, "New Materials for a New Age: Steel and concrete construction in the north of England, 1860–1939," Industrial Archaeology Review, 21, 1999 (pp. 5–24), p. 20ff.
For Grade II listed, Jeanette Hedley, "Duncan's amusements demolished", North Tyneside Council, 12 May 2006.
- Paul Usherwood, Jeremy Beach, Catherine Morris, Public sculpture of North-East England, Liverpool University Press, 2000, pp. 218, 319.
- Jonathan Glancey, "Constructive criticism: the week in architecture", The Guardian, 10 June 2011.
- "Exhibition marks Whitley Bay's Spanish City centenary", BBC News, 9 September 2010.
- "A History of the Spanish City", local history project, YouTube, accessed 1 July 2011.
- Sonia Sharma, "Bay on display," Evening Chronicle (Newcastle), 20 April 2010.
- "Empress ballroom", North Tyneside Libraries, accessed 2 July 2011.
- Dan Warburton, "Whitley Bay's Spanish City saved with £3.7m cash injection", ChronicleLive, 26 November 2013.
- Sting, Broken Music, Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 91.
- Tina Cousins, "Pray", YouTube.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Spanish City, Whitley Bay.|