The Stainless Steel Rat
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|James Bolivar DiGriz|
|Created by||Harry Harrison|
|Aliases||The Stainless Steel Rat|
|Significant other(s)||Angelina DiGriz|
James Bolivar DiGriz, alias "Slippery Jim" and "The Stainless Steel Rat", is the fictional hero of a series of humorous science fiction novels written by Harry Harrison. The character is a quick-witted con man with a strong sense of morality, and was the protagonist of twelve novels.
James Bolivar diGriz
The Stainless Steel Rat is anti-hero James Bolivar diGriz, who goes by many aliases, including "Slippery Jim" and "The Stainless Steel Rat". He is a futuristic con man, thief and all-round rascal. He is charming and quick-witted, a master of disguise and martial arts, an accomplished bank robber, an expert on breaking and entering, and (perhaps most usefully) a skilled liar. Highly intelligent, and a master of self-rationalization, the Rat frequently justifies his crimes by arguing that he is providing society with entertainment; and besides which, he only steals from institutions which have insurance coverage. He displays a strong morality, albeit in a much more restricted sense than is traditional. For example, diGriz will steal without compunction, but deplores killing.
From the original publisher's blurb:
We must be as stealthy as rats in the wainscoting of their society. It was easier in the old days, of course, and society had more rats when the rules were looser, just as old wooden buildings have more rats than concrete buildings. But there are rats in the building now as well. Now that society is all ferrocrete and stainless steel there are fewer gaps in the joints. It takes a very smart rat indeed to find these openings. Only a stainless steel rat can be at home in this environment.
The character was introduced in Harrison's short story, "The Stainless Steel Rat", which was first published in 1957 in Astounding magazine. The story introduces the Rat, who has just carried out a successful larceny operation, and subsequently details a complex bank robbery which the Rat pulls off with ease. However, he is outfoxed by the mysterious "Special Corps" — a crime-fighting organisation staffed with former criminals — and recruited by them in order to fight crime. Harrison used the story, with minor modifications, as the introduction to the series' first full-length novel, also called The Stainless Steel Rat. Like other characters created by Harrison, the Rat is a speaker of Esperanto and advocates atheism.
She is a criminal mastermind much like the Rat, only less ethical and more willing to kill. As the Rat's first case for the Special Corps, he tracks Angelina down and ends up falling in love with her. After her capture, she undergoes psycho surgery (not to be mistaken for "psychic surgery") to lessen her homicidal tendencies and she also joins the Corps; during that time she begins a relationship with the Rat that ends with them marrying in the last trimester of her pregnancy. She later assists on many of the Rat's adventures, often providing advice and solutions that Jim himself is unable to see. While she is no longer a heartless killer, her suppressed homicidal tendencies occasionally come out, especially when she sees another woman in close proximity to her husband.
James and Bolivar diGriz
They are the twin sons of the Rat and Angelina. The Rat missed the first six years of their life because of his adventures in time, but they share their father's attitudes and many of his skills. They end up marrying the same woman, who falls in love with both of them and gets herself duplicated into two identical women sharing one mind.
Harold Peters Inskipp
He is the director of the Special Corps and one of the most powerful men in the Galaxy. He recruits the Rat, but is frequently infuriated by his insubordinate attitude and tendency to "go rogue" and commit independent crimes for sheer enjoyment. Ironically, the Special Corps is composed almost entirely of former criminals—Inskipp himself was a legendary fugitive known as "Inskipp the Uncatchable" before becoming the Corps' commander.
One of the few Special Corp members not taken from the criminal fraternity, he is a boffin who had developed a Time Helix device permitting time travel as well as a portal to alternate realities. He also has a great deal of general scientific knowledge, and sent a copy of his mind with the Rat on his excursion to the 20th century to enable Jim to build a time helix and return to his native time. Coypu is rarely described, apart from having prominent buck teeth - a trait he shares with his namesake, the Coypu, or nutria.
The Bishop was a master criminal on Bit O'Heaven, the Stainless Steel Rat's home planet. He was a lot less physical in his capers than Jim but undertook robberies, always leaving as his calling card a picture of the bishop chess piece. He retired from robbery before Jim was born, focusing instead on computer crime, and Jim only learnt of his existence from a fellow prisoner while briefly in jail. Jim then contacted The Bishop by using his calling card in a robbery, however as a result The Bishop was forced out of retirement when he underestimated the Police's computer security systems after running a check on Jim himself. The Bishop eventually became Jim's mentor and taught him a great deal about their trade, as well as a code of ethics. Eventually Jim and The Bishop had to leave Bit O'Heaven and on their first off-planet adventure The Bishop was killed. As a parting gift he left Jim a note that he signed with his real name, although the name is not revealed to the reader.
Also known as "The Gray Men", they are a human culture who initially prefer domination to coexistence. Their expertise lies in using technology to manipulate sentient minds, and they have manipulated both humans and aliens on a grand scale. Jim has experienced one of their techniques (in which a gray man agent seemingly severs his hands with an axe; this was an illusion). Jim has knowingly opposed them on two separate occasions (The Stainless Steel Rat's Revenge & The Stainless Steel Rat Wants You) however during conversation it is revealed by Kome that prior to The Stainless Steel Rat Wants You Jim has in fact thwarted their plans twice already, making this their third encounter. The text can also be read to say that the second time he thwarted their plans was with the alien invasion so the third encounter also happened during The Stainless Steel Rat Wants You when Jim invaded their home planet. They live on a harsh, icy world; this existence forced them to eliminate all emotion from their culture. This society is also completely patriarchal, with women being treated as nothing more than property. During Jim's interactions with Hanasu - a disgraced Kekkonshiki council leader - he persuades them to reintepret their teachings, and they embark on a more peaceful co-existence with the rest of humanity. (Incidentally "Kekkonshiki" is the romanization of the Japanese word for "Marriage Ceremony" 結婚式.)
There are twelve books in the Stainless Steel Rat series.
- The Stainless Steel Rat (1961)
- At the beginning of this first novel, the Stainless Steel Rat believes he has pulled off a successful bank job, but is out-conned into working for the government. In the Special Corps, the elite law-enforcement and spy agency led by the former greatest crook in the Galaxy, Harold P. Inskipp (a.k.a. Inskipp the Uncatchable), he joins the ranks of an organization that is composed mostly of ex-criminals like himself. In the novel, he has several adventures during which he believes he has escaped from the Corps, and meets his love interest, Angelina - also a criminal genius, but lacking in Jim's relatively high moral codes and strictures against killing. She is attempting to have an illegal space battleship built on an otherwise peaceful planet. It transpires that Angelina was born unattractive and committed crimes to pay for her transformation into a beautiful woman; her psychological traumas are treated when Jim captures her, but she retains her allure and her criminal tendencies and joins in the Special Corps.
- The Stainless Steel Rat's Revenge (1970)
- The Stainless Steel Rat gets married, but rapidly gets involved in something that so far has proven impossible in the galaxy - the planet Cliaand has successfully been invading other worlds. Jim is sent to infiltrate and investigate, and discovers the mysterious gray Men behind Cliaand's success, encounters a world of feisty warrior women, and becomes father of twins (James and Bolivar).
- re-issued in paperback (1986): ISBN 0-441-77912-3
- The Stainless Steel Rat Saves the World (1972)
- A master criminal from the far future, "He", is attempting to extinguish the Special Corps from its timeline. The Stainless Steel Rat travels to Earth, 1975, and then to Napoleonic France, to stop He from destroying the timeline - but discovers that his own actions might have brought He into being! Finally He is trapped in a time loop, saving the Corps.
- This story was first serialised in 1971 in 'If' magazine in three parts. Parts 2 and 3 were titled, respectively, The Cast Iron Rat and The Stainless Steel Rat's Return. (The latter should not be confused with the Return of... board game or ...Rat Returns 2010 novel).
- re-issued in paperback (1989): ISBN 0-441-77913-1
- The Adventures of the Stainless Steel Rat (1978) anthologized the first three books: ISBN 0-425-04378-9
- The Stainless Steel Rat Omnibus (2008) anthologized the first three books: ISBN 978-0-575-08171-0 (Gollancz)
- The Stainless Steel Rat Wants You (1978)
- After freeing his family from various forms of incarceration, the Stainless Steel Rat saves the all-human galaxy from invading aliens. At this point the twins are adults. Additionally, two more Corps are revealed to exist - the Morality Corps whose main concern is that all human actions abide by their code of morality, and the Time Corps, who patrol time itself to prevent any unauthorised tampering with the flow of time. Both new corps outrank the Special Corps, and Inskipp (and Jim) is forced to work around them, rather than with them.
- re-issued in paperback (1985): ISBN 0-553-27611-5
- The Stainless Steel Rat for President (1982)
- The Stainless Steel Rat and Angelina enjoy a belated honeymoon on a planet run by a dictator who rigs elections to get into office, so they set the Rat up as a candidate instead. Very much a satire on banana republic politics and a parody of adventures set in Latin America.
- re-issued in paperback (1987): ISBN 0-553-27612-3
- A Stainless Steel Rat Is Born (1985)
- A novel chronicling the beginning of the Stainless Steel Rat's career. He intentionally gets caught trying to rob a bank so that he will go to jail where he can learn from the masters of crime, only to realize (too late) that the true masters would never get caught.
- paperback (1986): ISBN 0-553-27942-4
- The Stainless Steel Rat Gets Drafted (1987)
- The Stainless Steel Rat, early in his career, hunts the man who killed his mentor, but in the process must save a pacifist planet from an imminent attack.
- The Golden Years of the Stainless Steel Rat (1993)
- This is an original short story which finds The Stainless Steel Rat in Terminal Penitentiary, a prison where over-the-hill crooks are sent. Published in Stainless Steel Visions by Harry Harrison (Tor 0-312-85245-2), a collection of 12 reprinted stories, one original.
- The Stainless Steel Rat Sings the Blues (1994)
- The Stainless Steel Rat (in the same earlier timeline as Is Born and Gets Drafted) goes to a prison colony planet to retrieve an alien artifact, which he must find in thirty days or the slow-acting poison he was administered will take its effect.
- The Stainless Steel Rat Goes to Hell (1996)
- In the later timeline (to which the stories have henceforth returned), the Stainless Steel Rat searches for his wife, who is abducted by a con man who preys on religious believers, swindling them out of their money and then enslaving them in his mining operation.
- The Stainless Steel Rat Joins the Circus (1999)
- The Stainless Steel Rat is hired by a businessman to investigate thefts; the clues lead the Rat to suspect a roaming circus, which he infiltrates.
- The Stainless Steel Rat Returns (2010)
- James Bolivar "Slippery Jim" DiGriz, Special Corps agent, master con man, interstellar criminal (retired), is living high on the hog on the planet of Moolaplenty when a long-lost cousin and a shipful of swine arrive to drain his bank account and send him and his lovely wife, Angelina, wandering the stars on the wildest journey since Gulliver's Travels.
- original hardback: ISBN 0-7653-2441-5
The book series is written only in a semichronological order; it breaks the continuity during part of the series to focus on the Rat's early career, then returns to "modern-day". Here, then, is a list of the books in the order they take place, rather than the order they were written.
- A Stainless Steel Rat Is Born
- The Stainless Steel Rat Gets Drafted
- The Stainless Steel Rat Sings the Blues
- The Stainless Steel Rat
- The Stainless Steel Rat's Revenge
- The Stainless Steel Rat Saves the World
- The Stainless Steel Rat Wants You
- The Stainless Steel Rat for President
- The Stainless Steel Rat Goes to Hell
- The Stainless Steel Rat Joins the Circus
- The Golden Years of the Stainless Steel Rat
- The Stainless Steel Rat Returns
Based on information in The Stainless Steel Rat Saves the World it is possible to work out when the timeline is set: James is sent 32598 years into the past to 1975, making events happen in and around 34573 (in the 346th century) – although Professor Coypu also mentions that they are now using a different calendar to the Gregorian calendar. Specifics of the new calendar are never mentioned.
The Stainless Steel Rat, The Stainless Steel Rat Saves the World and The Stainless Steel Rat for President were adapted into a comic strip form in early issues of 2000 AD, written by Kelvin Gosnell and drawn by Carlos Ezquerra. Ezquerra drew Jim with an appearance modelled on the actor James Coburn. They appeared in the following issues of 2000 AD:
- The Stainless Steel Rat, 12 episodes, 2000 AD progs 140–151 (Nov. 1979 to Feb. 1980).
- The Stainless Steel Rat Saves the World, 12 episodes, 2000 AD progs 166–177 (June to Sep. 1980).
- The Stainless Steel Rat for President, 12 episodes, 2000 AD progs 393–404 (Nov. 1984 to Feb. 1985).
The first appearance of The Stainless Steel Rat in prog 140 was supposed to be preceded with a brief panel of explanation of who Jim was. However, an editorial error meant that the panel actually appeared at the end of the first episode, not the beginning. This prompted a letter to be printed in prog 148 from Harry Harrison himself pointing out the error.
Choose your own adventure
Harrison also produced a book in the style of the Choose Your Own Adventure series, called You Can Be The Stainless Steel Rat (ISBN 0-441-94978-9), the reader being told that their decisions would "determine whether he or she can find Prof. Geisteskrank on the planet Skraldespand  and bring him back before he activates a lethal new weapon". The reader generally cannot fail in this mission, regardless of his or her choices, although it is possible to get caught in an inescapable loop at one point.
The Return of the Stainless Steel Rat, a board game inspired by the character, was published by SPI in their magazine Ares in the late 1970s. Designed by Greg Costikyan, the game involved the Rat infiltrating a space station under hostile control.
In popular culture
The MIT class ring, commonly referred to as "The Brass Rat," when cast in Celestrium (also known as jeweler's steel) is often referred to as "The Stainless Steel Rat" in reference to The Stainless Steel Rat series.
The Chinese activist Liu Di, writing under the screen name "Stainless Steel Rat" (不锈钢老鼠), became a high-profile symbol for democracy and free speech in China since her detention in November 2002. Her screen name is often translated as Stainless Steel Mouse.
- 2000AD Index
- "Skraldespand" being the Danish word for garbage can.
- "Galaxy's 5 Star Shelf", Galaxy Science Fiction, June 1962, p.194
- Stainless Steel Rat Series page on Official website
- The Stainless Steel Rat series listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Series listing at SciFan