The Ten Commandments (1956 film)
|The Ten Commandments|
Original theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Cecil B. DeMille|
|Produced by||Cecil B. DeMille
|Screenplay by||Æneas MacKenzie
Jesse L. Lasky, Jr.
Fredric M. Frank
|Based on||Prince of Egypt
by Dorothy Clarke Wilson
Pillar of Fire
by J.H. Ingraham
On Eagle's Wings
by A.E. Southon
The Holy Scriptures
|Narrated by||Cecil B. DeMille|
Edward G. Robinson
Yvonne De Carlo
|Music by||Elmer Bernstein|
|Cinematography||Loyal Griggs, A.S.C.|
|Editing by||Anne Bauchens|
|Studio||Motion Picture Associates|
|Distributed by||Paramount Pictures|
|Running time||220 minutes|
|Box office||$122.7 million
The Ten Commandments is a 1956 American religious historical epic film produced and directed by Cecil B. DeMille, shot in VistaVision (color by Technicolor), and released by Paramount Pictures. It dramatizes the biblical story of the life of Moses, an adopted Egyptian prince who becomes the deliverer of his real brethren, the enslaved Hebrews, and therefore leads the Exodus to Mount Sinai, where he receives, from God, the Ten Commandments. It stars Charlton Heston in the lead role, Yul Brynner as Rameses, Anne Baxter as Nefretiri, Edward G. Robinson as Dathan, Yvonne De Carlo as Sephora, Debra Paget as Lilia, and John Derek as Joshua; and features Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Sethi, Nina Foch as Bithiah, Martha Scott as Yochabel, Judith Anderson as Memnet, and Vincent Price as Baka, among others.
Filmed on location in Egypt, Mount Sinai, and the Sinai Peninsula, the film is DeMille's last and most successful work. It is a partial remake of his 1923 silent film of the same title, and features one of the largest sets ever created for a film. At the time of its release on November 8, 1956, it was the most expensive film made up to that point.
In 1957, the film was nominated for seven Academy Awards including Best Picture, winning the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects (John P. Fulton). Charlton Heston was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture (Drama) for his role as Moses. Yul Brynner won the National Board of Review Award for Best Actor for his role as Rameses and his other roles in Anastasia and The King and I. It is also one of the most financially successful films ever made, grossing approximately $122.7 million at the box office during its initial release; it was the most successful film of 1956 and the second-highest grossing film of the decade. According to Guinness World Records, in terms of theatrical exhibition it is the seventh most successful film of all-time when the box office gross is adjusted for inflation.
In 1999, the film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant." In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed its "Ten Top Ten"—the best ten films in ten American film genres—after polling over 1,500 people from the creative community. The film was listed as the tenth best film in the epic genre.
Pharaoh Rameses I of Egypt has ordered the death of all firstborn Hebrew males, but a Hebrew woman named Yochabel sets her infant son adrift on the Nile in order to save him. The infant is rescued from the Nile by Bithiah, the Pharaoh's daughter, who decides to adopt the boy even though her servant Memnet recognizes that the child is Hebrew and protests.
As a young man, Prince Moses becomes a successful general, claiming victory in a war with Ethiopia and then entering Egypt into an alliance with them. Moses loves Nefretiri (she loves him), who is the throne princess and must marry the next Pharaoh. An incident occurs when an elderly woman, who is greasing the ground for the pillar of stone to move easier, is almost crushed to death when her scarf gets caught under the slab of stone, prompting Moses to scold overseer Baka. Moses frees the elderly woman from her dangerous chore, not realizing that the elderly woman was his natural mother Yochabel. While working on the building of a treasure city for Pharaoh Sethi's jubilee, Moses meets the stonecutter Joshua, who tells him of the Hebrew God.
Moses institutes numerous reforms concerning the treatment of the slaves on the project, and eventually Prince Rameses II charges Moses with planning an insurrection, pointing out that the slaves are calling Moses the "Deliverer" of prophecy. Moses defends himself against the charges, arguing that he is simply making his workers more productive by making them stronger and happier and proves his point with the impressive progress he is making. During this time, Rameses has been charged by Sethi, his father, with finding out whether there really is a Hebrew fitting the description of the Deliverer.
Nefretiri learns from the servant Memnet that Moses is the son of Hebrew slaves. Nefretiri kills Memnet and reveals the story to Moses, who goes to Bithiah to learn the truth. Bithiah evades his questions, but Moses follows her to the home of Yochabel and thus learns the truth.
Moses spends time working amongst the slaves to learn more of their lives. During this time the master builder Baka steals Lilia, who is engaged to the stonecutter Joshua. Joshua rescues Lilia but is captured himself; Moses frees Joshua but strangles Baka. Moses confesses to Joshua that he too is Hebrew; the confession is witnessed by the ambitious Hebrew overseer Dathan. Dathan uses the information to bargain with Rameses for Baka's house, a post as Governor of Goshen, and the ownership of the slave Lilia.
Based on Dathan's information, Moses is arrested and brought before Sethi. Moses tells Sethi that he is not the Deliverer, but would free the slaves if he could. Bithiah tells her brother Sethi the truth about Moses, and Sethi orders his name stricken from all records and monuments. Moses is banished to the desert, but not before, he receives the word that Yochabel had died before she delivered the piece of Levite cloth, and Rameses is declared the next Pharaoh.
Moses makes his way across the desert, nearly dying of hunger and thirst before he comes to a well in the land of Midian. At the well, he defends seven sisters from Amalekites who try to push them away from the water. Moses finds a home in Midian with the girls' father Jethro, a Bedouin sheik, who reveals that he is a follower of "He who has no name," whom Moses recognizes as the God of Abraham. Moses impresses Jethro and the other sheiks with his wise and just trading, and marries Jethro's eldest daughter Sephora (the Greek form of Zipporah used in the film).
While herding sheep in the desert Moses finds Joshua, who has escaped from the copper mines of Ezion-Geber that he was sent to after the death of Baka. Moses sees the burning bush on the summit of Mount Sinai and hears the voice of God. God charges Moses to return to Egypt and free His chosen people. In Egypt, Sethi dies and Rameses succeeds him as Pharaoh.
At Pharaoh's court, Moses comes before Rameses to win the slaves' freedom, turning his staff into a cobra to show Rameses the power of God. Rameses decrees that the Hebrews be given no straw to make their bricks, but to make the same tally as before on pain of death. As the Hebrews prepare to stone Moses in anger, Nefretiri's retinue rescues him; however when she attempts to resume their relationship he spurns her, reminding her that not only is he on a mission, but that he is also married.
As Moses continues to challenge Pharaoh's hold over his people, Egypt is beset by divine plagues. Moses warns him that the next plague to fall upon Egypt will be summoned by Pharaoh himself. Enraged at the plagues and Moses' continuous demands, as well as his generals and advisers telling him to give in, Rameses orders all first-born Hebrews to die. Nefretiri warns Sephora to escape with her son Gershom on a passing caravan to Midian, and Moses tells the Queen that it is her own son who will die. In an eerily quiet scene, the Angel of Death creeps into Egyptian streets in a glowing green cloud, killing all the firstborn of Egypt, including the adult son of Pharaoh's top general, and Pharaoh's own child. The Hebrews who have marked their doorposts and lintels with lamb's blood are eating a hasty meal and preparing to depart. Broken and despondent, Pharaoh orders Moses to take his people, and cattle, and go. In the following day, the Pharaoh's soldiers force the Hebrews to gather up their possessions and leave their homes. Among the expellees is Dathan, who is denounced for his incompetence and forced out like all the others. The Hebrews, now homeless and uprooted, begin their exodus from Egypt.
Nefretiri goads Pharaoh into a rage so that he arms himself and pursues the former slaves to the shore of the Red Sea. Held back by a pillar of fire, the Egyptian forces watch as Moses parts the waters. As the Hebrews race over the seabed, the pillar of fire dies down and the army rides in hot pursuit. The Hebrews make it to the far shore as the waters close on the Egyptian army, drowning every man and horse. Rameses looks on in despair. All he can do is return to Nefretiri, confessing to her, "His god is God."
The former slaves camp at the foot of Sinai and wait as Moses again ascends the mountain. During his absence, the Hebrews lose faith and, urged on by the evil Dathan, build a golden calf as an idol to bear before them back to Egypt, hoping to win Rameses' forgiveness. They force Aaron to help fashion the gold plating. The people indulge their most wanton desires in an orgy of sinfulness.
High atop the mountain, Moses witnesses God's creation of the stone tablets containing the Ten Commandments. When he finally climbs down, Moses beholds his people's iniquity and hurls the tablets at the idol in a rage. The idol explodes, and Dathan and his followers are killed. After God forces them to endure forty years' exile in the desert wandering lost, to kill off the rebellious generation, the Hebrews are about to arrive in the land of Canaan. An elderly Moses, who is not allowed to enter the promised land, because of his disobedience, appoints Joshua to succeed him as leader, says a final good bye to Sephora, and goes forth to his destiny.
- Charlton Heston as Moses
- Yul Brynner as Rameses II
- Anne Baxter as Nefretiri
- Edward G. Robinson as Dathan
- Yvonne De Carlo as Sephora
- Debra Paget as Lilia
- John Derek as Joshua
- Sir Cedric Hardwicke as Sethi
- Nina Foch as Bithiah
- Martha Scott as Yochabel
- Judith Anderson as Memnet
- Vincent Price as Baka
- John Carradine as Aaron
- Olive Deering as Miriam
- Douglass Dumbrille as Jannes
- Frank de Kova as Abiram
- Henry Wilcoxon as Pentaur
- Eduard Franz as Jethro
- Donald Curtis as Mered
- Lawrence Dobkin as Hur Ben Caleb
- H. B. Warner as Amminadab
- Julia Faye as Elisheba
- Lisa Mitchell as Jethro's daughter (Lulua)
- Noelle Williams as Jethro's daughter
- Joanna Merlin as Jethro's daughter
- Pat Richard as Jethro's daughter
- Joyce Vanderveen as Jethro's daughter
- Diane Hall as Jethro's daughter
- Abbas El Boughdadly as Rameses's Charioteer
- Fraser Heston as The Infant Moses
- John Miljan as The Blind One
- Francis J. McDonald as Simon
- Ian Keith as Rameses I
- Paul De Rolf as Eleazar
- Woodrow Strode as King of Ethiopia
- Tommy Duran as Gershom
- Eugene Mazzola as Rameses' Son
- Ramsay Hill as Korah
- Joan Woodbury as Korah's Wife
- Esther Brown as Princess Tharbis
The final shooting script was written by Æneas MacKenzie, Jesse L. Lasky, Jr., Jack Gariss, and Fredric M. Frank. It also contained material from the books Prince of Egypt by Dorothy Clarke Wilson, Pillar of Fire by Joseph Holt Ingraham, and On Eagle's Wings by Arthur Eustace Southon. Henry Noerdlinger, the film's researcher, consulted ancient historical texts such as the Midrash Rabbah, the Quran, Philo's Life of Moses, and the writings of Josephus and Eusebius in order to "fill in" the missing years of Moses' life.
The expression "the son of your body" for a biological offspring is based on inscriptions found in Mehu's tomb.
Other well-known talent in the film's "cast of thousands" included Herb Alpert as a Hebrew drummer, Carl "Alfalfa" Switzer as a slave, Michael Ansara as an Egyptian taskmaster, Mike Connors as an Amalekite herder, Robert Vaughn as a spearman and a Hebrew, Clint Walker as a Sardinian captain, Mary Lou Cotterman as Ishara, one of Jethro's daughters, and DeMille himself as the film's narrator, all uncredited. For the original theatrical release, DeMille filmed an onscreen introduction, which was included in home video editions of the film but not the telecasts. In some of his earlier films, DeMille had provided narration, especially at the beginning of the film. This was the first of only two times he was seen as well as heard (the other was in the 1958 remake of The Buccaneer, in which he also provided an onscreen introduction). He also narrated portions of The Ten Commandments, to provide continuity between scenes, as he had in North West Mounted Police, Reap the Wild Wind, The Story of Dr. Wassell, Samson and Delilah, and The Greatest Show on Earth.
Heston, who previously worked for DeMille on The Greatest Show on Earth, won the part after he impressed DeMille (at an audition) with his knowledge of ancient Egypt. Interestingly enough, though Moses lived sometime in the New Kingdom, it was Old Kingdom Egyptian facts Heston spouted off at his audition that won him his legendary role.
Heston's newborn son, Fraser, appeared as the infant Moses. According to DVD commentary by Katherine Orrison (a protege and biographer of Henry Wilcoxon, who played Pentaur in the film and served as associate producer), DeMille deliberately timed the filming of his scenes for when Fraser Heston was about three months old. This, and other stories about the making of the film, were related to Orrison by Wilcoxon and his wife, Joan Woodbury. Orrison later wrote the book Written in Stone: Making Cecil B. DeMille's Epic, The Ten Commandments.
DeMille did not want to cast anyone who had appeared in the 1954 Michael Curtiz film The Egyptian, but did eventually hire Michael Ansara (who played the Hittite Commander), Mimi Gibson (who played Ankhsenpaaten), John Carradine (who had a cameo as a tomb robber), and Peter Coe (who played an Egyptian soldier in both films).
Commentary for the film's DVD edition chronicles the historical research done by DeMille and associates. Katherine Orrison says that many details of Moses' life left out of the Bible are present in the Qur'an, which was sometimes used as a source. She also presents some coincidences in production. The man who designed Moses' distinctive rust-white-and-black-striped robe used those colors because they looked impressive, and only later discovered that these are the actual colors of the Tribe of Levi. Arnold Friberg would later state that he was the one who designed Moses' costume. As a gift, after the production, DeMille gave Moses' robe to Friberg, who had it in his possession until his death in 2010. Moses' robe as worn by Charlton Heston was hand-woven by Dorothea Hulse, one of the world's finest weavers. She also created costumes for The Robe, as well as textiles and costume fabrics for Samson and Delilah, David and Bathsheba, and others.
Jesse Lasky Jr., a co-writer on The Ten Commandments, described how DeMille would customarily spread out prints of paintings by Lawrence Alma-Tadema to inform his set designers on the look he wanted to achieve. Arnold Friberg, in addition to designing sets and costumes, also contributed the manner in which Moses ordained Joshua to his mission at the end of the film: by the laying on of hands, placing his hands on Joshua's head. Friberg, a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, demonstrated the LDS manner of performing such ordinations, and DeMille liked it.
Pharaoh is usually shown wearing the red-and-white crown of Upper and Lower Egypt or the nemes royal headdress. For his pursuit of the Israelites, he wears the blue Khepresh helmet-crown, which the Pharaohs wore for battle.
Sets, costumes and props from the film The Egyptian were bought and re-used for "The Ten Commandments". As the events in The Egyptian take place 70 years before the reign of Rameses II, an unintentional sense of continuity was created.
An Egyptian wall painting was also the source for the lively dance performed by a circle of young women at Seti's birthday gala. Their movements and costumes are based on art from the Tomb of the Sixth Dynasty Grand Vizier Mehu.
Katherine Orrison, who gives the audio commentary for the film's DVD edition, states that all blue-eyed actors had to wear brown contact lenses to achieve the Middle-eastern look appropriate for Egyptians and Israelites. Some of the film's cast such as Anne Baxter, Debra Paget, John Derek, and Nina Foch wore contact lenses to hide their blue eyes, although they complained about the inability to see while wearing them. When Yvonne De Carlo was cast as Sephora, she was worried about having to wear these contact lenses; she also believed that her "gray-hued" blue-eyes were her best feature. She asked DeMille to make an exception for her. He agreed, expressing the idea that De Carlo's role was special, and that Moses was to fall in love with her. De Carlo was "tremendously relieved," as Orrison stated.
The Ten Commandments premiered at New York City's Criterion Theatre on November 8, 1956. Among those who attended the premiere were Cecil B. DeMille and his daughter Cecilia DeMille Harper, Charlton Heston and his wife Lydia Clarke, Yul Brynner, Anne Baxter, Edward G. Robinson, Yvonne De Carlo and her husband Bob Morgan, Martha Scott and her husband and son, John Wayne and his wife Pilar Pallete, Tony Curtis, Janet Leigh, and Barney Balaban. It played on a roadshow basis with reserved seating until mid-1958, when it finally entered general release. It was re-released in 1966 and 1972, and one more time in 1990 with a restored print.
The Ten Commandments was the highest-grossing film of 1956 and the second most successful film of the decade. By April 1957, the film had earned an unprecedented $10 million from engagements at just eighty theaters, averaging about $1 million per week, with more than seven million people paying to watch it. During its initial release, it earned theater rentals (the distributor's share of the box office gross) of $31.3 million in North America and $23.9 from the foreign markets, for a total of $55.2 million (equating to approximately $122.7 million in ticket sales). It was hugely profitable for its era, earning a net profit of $18,500,000, against a production budget of $13.27 million (the most a film had cost up to that point).
By the time of its withdrawal from distribution at the end of 1960, The Ten Commandments had overtaken Gone with the Wind at the box office in the North American territory, and mounted a serious challenge in the global market—the worldwide takings for Gone with the Wind were reported to stand at $59 million at the time. Gone with the Wind would be re-released the following year as part of the American Civil War Centennial, and reasserted its supremacy at the box office by reclaiming the US record. Also at this time, Ben-Hur—another biblical epic starring Charlton Heston released at the end of 1959—would go on to eclipse The Ten Commandments at the box office. A 1966 reissue earned $6,000,000, and further re-releases brought the total American theater rentals to $43 million, equivalent to gross ticket sales of $89 million at the box office. Globally, it ultimately collected $90,066,230 in revenues up to 1979.
It remains one of the most popular films ever made. Adjusted for inflation, it has earned a box office gross equivalent to $2 billion at 2011 prices, according to Guinness World Records; only Gone with the Wind (1939), Avatar (2009), Star Wars (1977), Titanic (1997), The Sound of Music (1965) and E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (1982) have generated higher grosses in constant dollars.
The Ten Commandments received generally positive reviews after its release, although some reviewers noted its divergence from the biblical text. Bosley Crowther for the The New York Times was among those who lauded DeMille's work, acknowledging that "in its remarkable settings and décor, including an overwhelming facade of the Egyptian city from which the Exodus begins, and in the glowing Technicolor in which the picture is filmed—Mr. DeMille has worked photographic wonders." Variety described the "scenes of the greatness that was Egypt, and Hebrews by the thousands under the whip of the taskmasters" as "striking," and believed that the film "hits the peak of beauty with a sequence that is unelaborate, this being the Passover supper wherein Moses is shown with his family while the shadow of death falls on Egyptian first-borns."
The film's cast was also complimented. Variety called Charlton Heston an "adaptable performer" who, as Moses, reveals "inner glow as he is called by God to remove the chains of slavery that hold his people." It considered Yul Brynner "expert" as Rameses, too. Anne Baxter's performance as Nefretiri was criticized by Variety as leaning "close to old-school siren histrionics," but Crowther believed that it, along with Brynner's, is "unquestionably apt and complementary to a lusty and melodramatic romance." The performances of Yvonne De Carlo and John Derek were acclaimed by Crowther as "notably good." He also commended the film's "large cast of characters" as "very good, from Sir Cedric Hardwicke as a droll and urbane Pharaoh to Edward G. Robinson as a treacherous overlord."
Rotten Tomatoes retrospectively collected 32 reviews and gave the film a rating of 91%, with the site's consensus stating: "Bombastic and occasionally silly but extravagantly entertaining, Cecil B. DeMille's all-star spectacular is a muscular retelling of the great Bible story."
The film won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects. DeMille was reluctant to discuss technical details of how the film was made, especially the optical tricks used in the parting of the Red Sea. It was eventually revealed that footage of the Red Sea was spliced with film footage (run in reverse) of water pouring from large U-shaped trip-tanks set up in the studio back lot.
|Academy Awards||Art Direction (Color)||Art direction: Hal Pereira, Walter H. Tyler, Albert Nozaki Set decoration: Sam Comer, Ray Moyer||Nominated|
|Cinematography (Color)||Loyal Griggs||Nominated|
|Costume Design (Color)||Edith Head, Ralph Jester, John Jensen, Dorothy Jeakins, Arnold Friberg||Nominated|
|Film Editing||Anne Bauchens||Nominated|
|Best Motion Picture||Cecil B. DeMille (producer)||Nominated|
|Sound Recording||Paramount Studio Sound Department, Loren L. Ryder (sound director)||Nominated|
|Special Effects||John P. Fulton||Won|
|Boxoffice Magazine||Blue Ribbon Award for the Best Picture of the Month
|Cecil B. DeMille||Won|
|The Christian Herald||Reader's Award for the 1957 Picture of the Year||Cecil B. DeMille||Won|
|The Film Daily Magazine||Ten Best Pictures of 1956||Paramount Pictures||Won|
|Fotograma de Plata Awards||Best Foreign Performer (Mejor intérprete de cine extranjero)||Charlton Heston||Won|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Performance by an Actor in a Motion Picture - Drama||Charlton Heston||Nominated|
|Laurel Awards||Top Producer-Director||Cecil B. DeMille||Won|
|Los Angeles Examiner||Los Angeles Examiner Award||Cecil B. DeMille||Won|
|National Board of Review of Motion Pictures||Best Actor||Yul Brynner (also for Anastasia and The King and I)||Won|
|National Film Preservation Board||National Film Registry||Won|
|Photoplay Magazine||The Photoplay Achievement Award||Cecil B. DeMille||Won|
Critics have argued that considerable liberties were taken with the biblical story of Exodus, compromising the film's claim to authenticity, but neither this nor its nearly four-hour length has had any effect on its popularity. In fact, many of the supposed "inaccuracies" were actually adopted by DeMille from extra-biblical ancient sources, such as Josephus, the Sepher ha-Yashar, and the Chronicle of Moses. Moses's career in Ethiopia, for instance, is based on ancient midrashim. For decades, a showing of The Ten Commandments was a popular fundraiser among revivalist Christian Churches, while the film was equally treasured by film buffs for DeMille's "cast of thousands" approach and the heroic but antiquated early-talkie-type acting.
The Ten Commandments has been released on DVD in the United States on four occasions: The First Edition was released on March 30, 1999 as a two disc set, the Second Edition was released on March 9, 2004 as a two disc set (Special Collector's Edition) with commentary by Katherine Orrison, the Third Edition was released on March 21, 2006 as a three disc set (50th Anniversary Collection). The film was released on DVD again in a two-disc set on March 29, 2011 and for the first time on Blu-ray in a two-disc set and a six-disc gift set with the 1923 version and DVD copies.
The film has been broadcast annually on the ABC network since 1973, traditionally during the Easter holiday, as well as Passover. Like the commercial network telecasts of Ben-Hur, the lengthy film is always shown in one evening instead of being split up into two, making it pre-empt the entire network schedule between 7:00 pm and midnight/ET-PT on the nights that it is shown, although local affiliates have the right to tape delay the showing an hour ahead to 8 pm ET/PT to keep their schedules in line for early evening. The film is shown the Saturday before Easter as part of the ABC Saturday Night Movie lineup. In 2010, the film was broadcast in HDTV for the first time, which allowed the television audience to see it in its original VistaVision aspect ratio.
- Ratings by year (between 2007 and 2013)
|2007||April 7, 2007||TBA||TBA||TBA||7.87||TBA||TBA|
|2008||March 22, 2008||4.7||9||2.3/7||7.91||1||1|
|2009||April 11, 2009||4.2||8||1.7/6||6.81||1||1|
|2010||April 3, 2010||TBA||TBA||1.4/5||5.88||2||3|
|2011||April 23, 2011||TBA||TBA||1.6/5||7.05||1||1|
|2012||April 7, 2012||TBA||TBA||1.6/5||6.90||TBA||TBA|
|2013||March 30, 2013||TBA||TBA||1.2/4||5.90||2||2|
- Reported budgets:
- Block & Wilson 2010, p. 327.
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- Orrison 1999, p. 36.
- Eyman 2010, p. 440.
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- Steinberg, Cobbett (1980). Film Facts. New York: Facts on File, Inc. p. 23. ISBN 0-87196-313-2.
- Hall & Neale 2010, pp. 160–161.
- Oviatt, Ray (April 16, 1961). "The Memory Isn't Gone With The Wind". Toledo Blade. p. 67–68.
- Block & Wilson 2010, p. 324.
- Holston, Kim R. (2012). Movie Roadshows: A History and Filmography of Reserved-Seat Limited Showings, 1911-1973. McFarland. ISBN 0786460628.
- Stempel, Tom (2001). American Audiences on Movies and Moviegoing. University Press of Kentucky. p. 24. ISBN 9780813121833.
- Birchard 2004, ch. 70. The Ten Commandments.
- Glenday, Craig, ed. (2011). Гиннесс. Мировые рекорды 2012 [Guinness World Records 2012] (in Russian, translated by Andrianov, P.I. & Palova, I.V.). Moscow: Astrel. p. 211. ISBN 978-5-271-36423-5.
- Crowther, Bosley. New York Times Film Reviews: Best Picture Picks from the 1950s. The New York Times Company. ISBN 1625395590.
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- Maltin, Leonard (2009). Leonard Maltin's 2010 Movie Guide. Penguin. ISBN 1101108762.
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- Den of Geek. "Top 50 Movie Special Effects Shots". Retrieved January 2, 2009.
- PBS. "NOVA Online/Special Effects/All About Special Effects/Trivia Quiz (Answers)". Retrieved January 2, 2009.
- "The Parting Of The Red Sea". The Art & Science of Movie Special Effects. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
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- "Boxoffice Magazine - February 16, 1957, pg. 26.". Boxoffice. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
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- L. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, Philadelphia 1967; A. Shinan, "Moses and the Ethiopian Woman: Sources of a Story in The Chronicle of Moses", Scripta Hierosolymitana 27 (1978).
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- DeMille, Cecil B. (1959). The Autobiography of Cecil B. DeMille. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0824057570.
- Eyman, Scott (2010). Empire of Dreams: The Epic Life of Cecil B. DeMille. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 1439180415.
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- Louvish, Simon (2008). Cecil B. DeMille: A Life in Art. Macmillan. ISBN 0312377339.
- Noerdlinger, Henry (1956). Moses and Egypt. University of Southern California Press. ISBN 1258130270.
- Orrison, Katherine (1999). Written in Stone: Making Cecil B. DeMille's The Ten Commandments. Vestal Press. ISBN 1461734819.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Ten Commandments (film).|
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: The Ten Commandments|
- Official website
- The Ten Commandments at the Internet Movie Database
- The Ten Commandments at the TCM Movie Database
- The Ten Commandments at allmovie
- The Ten Commandments at Box Office Mojo
- The Ten Commandments at Rotten Tomatoes