The Third Chimpanzee
|The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal|
|Subject(s)||Human evolution, anthropology|
|Followed by||Guns, Germs, and Steel|
The Third Chimpanzee: The Evolution and Future of the Human Animal (1991/2004) is a wide-ranging book by Jared Diamond, professor of geography and physiology at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), which applies insights from biology, anthropology, and linguistics to questions such as why one species of big mammal (humans) came to dominate its closest relatives, such as chimpanzees, and why one group of humans (Eurasians) came to dominate others (Indigenous peoples of the Americas).
It also examines how asymmetry in male and female mating behaviour is resolved through differing social structures across cultures, and how first contact between unequal civilizations almost always results in genocide. The book ends by noting that technological progress may cause environmental degradation on a scale leading to extinction.
The original title (1991) was The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee: How Our Animal Heritage Affects the Way We Live (ISBN 978-0-09-174268-3), the current title was adopted with the third edition in 2006. In between, the second edition of 2004 was titled The Rise and Fall of the Third Chimpanzee: Evolution and Human Life.
Diamond has expanded on these themes in subsequent books:
- Guns, Germs and Steel (1997): why Eurasians came to dominate the Americans, part four of the book, (Pulitzer Prize 1998),
- Why Is Sex Fun? (1997): sexual selection, penis size, longevity, (parts 1 and 2)
- Collapse (2005): how civilizations over-exploit the environment and become extinct (part 5)
Organization and summary 
Despite the broad canvas, the book manages to link together a coherent argument, much of which was novel at the time of publication. Borrowing insights from fields ranging from the humanities (history, linguistics, anthropology), to evolutionary biology, The Third Chimpanzee compiles a portrait of humanity's success and also its potential for disaster.
The book is divided into five parts. Part one deals with the similarity between humans and chimpanzees.
The chimpanzee's closest relatives (part one) 
The title of the book refers to how similar taxonomically chimps and humans are, as their genes differ by just 1.6%, whereas chimps and gorillas differ by 2.3% (p. 19). Thus the chimp's closest relatives are not the other apes with which it is classed, but the human (see Homininae). In fact, the chimpanzee-human difference is smaller than some within-species distances: e.g. even closely related birds such as the red-eyed and white-eyed vireos differ by 2.9%. Going by genetic differences, humans should be treated as a third species of chimpanzee (after the common chimpanzee and the bonobo). Or possibly the chimpanzee's scientific name should be Homo troglodytes instead of Pan troglodytes. As Diamond observes in his book, this would provide food for thought to people passing this side of the bars of a cage with the label Homo.
A later study found greater differences in genes between chimpanzees and humans.
Sexual selection (parts two and three) 
Part two considers sexual dimorphism in mammals, and particularly humans, and the mechanics of sexual selection. It considers how across species, females are more careful in selecting their mates than males (they invest far more energy into each offspring). This determines much of human behaviour: how we pick our mates, and how we organize society and child nurturing systems, leading to differing social structures in cultures such as Papua New Guinea, Kerala, and the Christian West. It also considers questions of longevity – the previous generation dies because its biological clock shuts down metabolism and repair as to divert investment from the parent individual to that of the offspring.
Part three extends the effects of sexual selection into language, art, hunting and agriculture, through the idea of honest signaling - sexual signals that also cost the signer. This is extrapolated to explain the appeal of drugs. Finally, the possibility of contact with extraterrestrial intelligence (Diamond thinks that would be a disaster).
World conquest: (part four) 
Part four considers conquest. Why is it that the Eurasians came to dominate other cultures? Diamond's answer is that, in part, this was due to the East-West layout of the Eurasian continent, due to which successful agricultural and animal domestication packages (combinations of certain domesticated plants and animals) could easily be adopted in regions farther east or west. On the other hand, extension of domestication packages along the North-South axis - as required in the case of the American and African continents - was much more difficult owing to severe imbalances of climate. Also, longlasting contact with domesticated animals of agricultural populations permits greater resistance to disease, which is another reason why contact among geographically separated cultures - mostly agricultural versus hunter-gatherer-societies - often leads to extinction of the latter through devastating infections.
The process of first contact between differing civilizations is examined through the descriptions of Papua New Guinea highlanders, who were first visited half a century back. Historically, Diamond argues such contacts between widely differing populations have very frequently culminated in the extinction of the disadvantaged groups like many native American tribes, the Tasmanians, etc. There is a long list of genocides in history.
Environmental impact and extinction (part five) 
Here the argument is that civilizations sometimes get caught up in internal superiority contests, and deplete the environment to such an extent that they may never recover. Examples include Easter Island and the ruins of Petra, both of which were the result of deforestation resulting in desertification.
A New York Times book review said, "The book's provocative style forces one to reflect thoroughly on the puzzle of human evolution....Written with great wit and a pleasure to read." Edward O. Wilson of Harvard University said, "The Third Chimpanzee will endure." Paul R. Ehrlich author of The Population Bomb said, "Brilliant book. It helps us understand what it means to be human."
- "Separating the men from the apes" New York Times review of 'The Third Chimpanzee by Frans de Waal
- Minkel JR (2006-12-19). "Humans and Chimps: Close But Not That Close". Scientific American.
- Book excerptise: extended excerpts and genocide tables.
- Royal Society Prizes for Science Books, previous winners and shortlists
- Los Angeles Times Festival of Books, Science and Technology previous winners