University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
|The University of Texas
MD Anderson Cancer Center
|Location||Houston, Texas, United States|
|Affiliated university||University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Baylor College of Medicine|
|Emergency department||Oncologic emergency center|
|Lists||Hospitals in the United States|
The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center (colloquially MD Anderson Cancer Center) is one of the original three comprehensive cancer centers in the United States established by the National Cancer Act of 1971. It is both a degree-granting academic institution and a cancer treatment and research center located at the Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas, United States. It is one of the few hospitals in the United States affiliated with two major research based medical schools: The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, which is a part of the larger University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, and Baylor College of Medicine. For ten of the past 12 years, including 2013, MD Anderson has ranked No. 1 in cancer care in the "Best Hospitals" survey published in U.S. News & World Report. MD Anderson is widely regarded as the best cancer hospital in the United States. 
MD Anderson was created by an act of the Texas Legislature in 1941, making it a part of The University of Texas System. Today it is one of 41 Comprehensive Cancer Centers designated by the National Cancer Institute. The cancer center provided care for about 115,000 patients in Fiscal Year 2012 and employs more than 19,000 people.
The cancer center is named after Monroe Dunaway Anderson, a banker and cotton trader from Jackson, Tennessee. He was a member of a business partnership with his brother-in-law Will Clayton. Their company became the largest cotton company in the world. Anderson feared that in the event of one of the partners' deaths, the company would lose a large amount of money to estate tax and be forced to dissolve. To avoid this, Anderson created the MD Anderson Foundation with an initial sum of $300,000. In 1939 after Anderson's death, the foundation received $19 million.
In 1941 the Texas Legislature had appropriated $500,000 to build a cancer hospital and research center. The Anderson Foundation agreed to match funds with the state if the hospital were located in Houston in the Texas Medical Center (another project of the Anderson Foundation) and named after Anderson.
Using surplus World War II Army barracks, the hospital operated for 10 years from a converted residence and 46 beds leased in a Houston hospital before moving to its current location in 1954.
The institution became the subject of controversy in 2005, when it leased the use of its name to private investors who intended to promote a particular therapeutic approach, proton therapy. An article in the Houston Chronicle suggested that the arrangement between the Center and the investors might skew incentives, providing M.D. Anderson with non-medical reasons to "send as many patients as possible into the program."
In 2011 the Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Foundation gave $150 million to MD Anderson. The new Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Institute for Personalized Cancer Therapy is an international center of clinical excellence focusing on using the latest advances in genetic information to develop safe, more effective treatments for patients on a case-by-case basis.
MD Anderson is focused on research on causes, treatments, and prevention of cancer, with the stated mission of "Making Cancer History." (Of note, the current logo is stylized as MD Anderson Cancer Center for this reason, with "Cancer" being lined thru to signify this commitment.) In FY 2012, about 8,500 patients participated in therapeutic clinical research exploring novel treatments, making it the largest program of its kind in the United States.
Being part of The University of Texas System, MD Anderson Cancer Center is managed under a nonprofit structure; however, for-profit agreements (see the award winning article "M.D. Anderson private venture raises questions") have caused some to question the motives of the center.  
MD Anderson enjoys university status by providing fellowship, internship and residency opportunities to Ph.D.s and medical professionals. The institution offers master's degrees and Ph.D.s to students enrolled in The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, which it operates with UT Health Science Center at Houston. Areas of study include: immunology, cancer biology, genes and development, molecular carcinogenesis, medical physics, biomathematics and biostatistics, experimental therapeutics, and virology and gene therapy.
Through its School of Health Professions, the cancer center also offers bachelor's degrees in eight allied health fields, including clinical laboratory science, cytogenetic technology, cytotechnology, diagnostic imaging, histotechnology, medical dosimetry, molecular genetic technology and radiation therapy. The school is launching a master of science in diagnostic genetics program in 2013.
In addition to its No. 1 ranking in cancer care by U.S. News & World Report, the cancer center ranks first in the number of National Cancer Institute grants and invested more than $647 million in research in FY 2012. The cancer center also has received Magnet Nursing recognition from the American Nurses Credentialing Center.
MD Anderson has had only four full-time presidents in its history:
- R. Lee Clark, M.D. (1946–1978)
- Charles LeMaistre, M.D. (1978–1996)
- John Mendelsohn, M.D. (1996–2011)
- Ronald DePinho, M.D. (2011-present)
Mendelsohn stepped down from his position on Sept. 1, 2011, when Ronald A. DePinho, M.D., became president.  Mendelsohn remains on the faculty as co-director of the new Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan Institute for Personalized Cancer Therapy.
The provost and executive vice president is Ethan Dmitrovsky, M.D.
The executive vice president and physician-in-chief is Thomas Burke, M.D.
The executive vice president and chief business officer is Leon Leach, Ph.D.
The cancer center continues to grow, increasing in size by 50% in the past 10 years. The complex now includes more than 600 inpatient beds, several research buildings and outpatient clinic buildings, two faculty office buildings, and a patient-family hotel in addition to other off-site facilities for clinical and research use.
Recently completed construction projects include two new research buildings on MD Anderson's South Campus and the addition of nine floors that can accommodate more than 300 new inpatient beds in Alkek Hospital on the North Campus. MD Anderson's first facility on its Mid Campus, a 25-story building to support current office space and future growth needs, opened in 2011.
In 2000 MD Anderson officials inaugurated MD Anderson International-España, its first international affiliation and Spain's first multidisciplinary full-service cancer center. Located in Madrid, the center offers access to many of the clinical trials offered at MD Anderson.
MD Anderson Cancer Center Madrid is a venture between MDA Holding Spain, S.A., a Spanish investment consortium, and the MD Anderson Outreach Corporation, a health care organization created in 1989 to open and expand access to MD Anderson's internationally recognized standard of cancer care. Funding was provided by participants in Madrid.
In return for assisting with the development and operation of the Madrid facility, MD Anderson Outreach Corporation has a small equity and share in profits. Neither MD Anderson Cancer Center nor MD Anderson Outreach Corporation has invested any actual dollars in the project.
MD Anderson Outreach Corporation has two seats on the 11-member board of directors of MDA Holding Company. The two board seats have significant "reserve powers," which mandate that both representatives approve certain decisions such as those related to quality assurance.
Texas Medical Center
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The North Campus includes the Main Building, which comprises Alkek Hospital, Bates-Freeman Building, Clark Clinic, Gimbel Building, Jones Research Building, LeMaistre Clinic, Love Clinic and Lutheran Hospital Pavilion. Other facilities on this campus are the Dan L. Duncan Building, Clinical Research Building, Faculty Center, Mays Clinic, Mitchell Basic Sciences Research Building, Pickens Academic Tower, Radiology Outpatient Center and Rotary House International.
The South Campus is home to the McCombs Institute for the Early Detection and Treatment of Cancer, which includes seven translational research centers focused on genomics, proteomics, screening, diagnostic imaging and drug development.
Development is under way on the Mid Campus, with the opening on an administrative office building in June 2011.
The T. Boone Pickens Academic Tower, a 21-story, 730,000-square-foot (68,000 m2) building, which opened in 2008, is named after T. Boone Pickens, who donated to the cancer center. It houses classrooms, conference facilities, and executive and faculty offices.
- Nassau Bay: Regional Care Center in the Bay Area - On the campus of the Christus St. John Hospital
- Sugar Land: Regional Care Center in Sugar Land - On the campus of St. Luke's Sugar Land Hospital
- unincorporated Harris County: Regional Care Center in Katy - On the campus of the Christus St. Catherine Hospital
- unincorporated Montgomery County: Regional Care Center in The Woodlands - On the campus of St. Luke's The Woodlands Hospital
MD Anderson also has operations outside of Texas. The MD Anderson Radiation Treatment Center at Presbyterian Kaseman Hospital is located in the Presbyterian Kaseman Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Banner MD Anderson Cancer Center in Gilbert, a city in the Greater Phoenix area of Arizona, opened in September 2011.
MD Anderson has formed sister institution relationships with more than 25 organizations in Asia, Europe, Central America and South America through its Global Academic Programs department. Collaborations focus on research, prevention, education and patient care.
MD Anderson Services Corporation
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MD Anderson Services Corporation (formerly MD Anderson Cancer Center Outreach Corporation) was established in 1989 as a not-for-profit corporation to enhance revenues of The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center by establishing joint ventures in selected markets, providing additional referrals to the institution, contracting for delivery of inpatient and out-patient management, using existing UT MD Anderson Cancer Center reference laboratory services, and fostering additional philanthropy in distant areas. MD Anderson Services Corporation is managed by a board of directors. Three of the directors, one of whom shall be a regent and two of whom shall be administrative officers of The University of Texas System, may be appointed by the Board of Regents. (Note that the MD Anderson Outreach Corporation entered in a for-profit agreement with MD Anderson International-España.)
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