The Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance
The Vatican Decrees in their Bearing on Civil Allegiance is an anti-Catholic pamphlet written by British politician William Ewart Gladstone in November 1874.
Gladstone's writings 
Outrage about papal infallibility 
Church and State 
Gladstone claimed that this decree had placed British Catholics in a dilemma over their loyalty to the Crown and their loyalty to the Pope. He urged British Catholics to reject papal infallibility as they had opposed the Spanish Armada of 1588.
Rule of law against despotism 
He described the Catholic Church as "an Asian monarchy: nothing but one giddy height of despotism, and one dead level of religious subservience". He further claimed that the Pope wanted to destroy the rule of law and replace it with arbitrary tyranny, and then to hide these "crimes against liberty beneath a suffocating cloud of incense".
Later pamphlet in 1875 
In February 1875, Gladstone published a second anti-catholic pamphlet which was a defence of his earlier pamphlet and a reply to his critics, entitled Vaticanism: an Answer to Reproofs and Replies.
Responses from Catholics 
Letter to the Duke of Norfolk 
Immortale Dei 
Immortale Dei is an 1885 encyclical of Pope Leo XIII on Church-State relations, and specifically on the topic of civil allegiance, which is defined as a duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen.
- Philip Magnus, Gladstone: A Biography (London: John Murray, 1963), pp. 235–6.
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