The Virtue of Selfishness
Cover of the 1964 Signet Books edition
|Published||1964 (New American Library)|
|ISBN||0-451-16393-1 (Centennial edition)|
The Virtue of Selfishness: A New Concept of Egoism (TVOS) is a 1964 collection of essays and papers by Ayn Rand and Nathaniel Branden. Most of the essays originally appeared in The Objectivist Newsletter, except for "The Objectivist Ethics", which was a paper Rand delivered at the University of Wisconsin during a symposium on "Ethics in Our Time". The book covers ethical issues from the perspective of Rand's Objectivist philosophy. Some of its themes include the identification and validation of egoism as a rational code of ethics, the destructiveness of altruism, and the nature of a proper government. The book is also notable for its original formulation of the non-aggression principle. In an essay called "Man's Rights," Rand wrote: "The precondition of a civilized society is the barring of physical force from social relationships. ... In a civilized society, force may be used only in retaliation and only against those who initiate its use."[not in citation given]
The idea of creating a collection of Rand's essays initially came from Bennett Cerf of Random House, who had published two of Rand's previous books, Atlas Shrugged and For the New Intellectual. Rand proposed a collection of articles to be titled The Fascist New Frontier, after a Ford Hall Forum speech she had given criticizing the views of President John F. Kennedy. Uncomfortable with Rand's comparison of Kennedy to Adolf Hitler, Cerf asked that Rand choose a different title essay. She rejected this request and dropped Random House (as well as ending her friendship with Cerf), choosing New American Library as the publisher for her new book. The Virtue of Selfishness not only bore a different title, it did not even include her piece on Kennedy. He had been assassinated before it was released, making the point of the essay moot.
Use of the term 'selfishness'
Rand's characterization of selfishness as a virtue, including in the title of the book, is one of its most controversial elements. Philosopher Chandran Kukathas said Rand's position on this point "brought notoriety, but kept her out of the intellectual mainstream." Rand acknowledged in the book's introduction that the term 'selfishness' was not typically used to describe virtuous behavior, but insisted that her usage was consistent with a more precise meaning of the term as simply "concern with one's own interests." The equation of selfishness with evil, Rand said, had caused "the arrested moral development of mankind" and needed to be rejected.
Critics have disputed Rand's interpretation of the term. Libertarian feminist writer Sharon Presley described Rand's use of 'selfishness' as "perversely idiosyncratic" and contrary to the dictionary meaning of the term, Rand's claims to the contrary notwithstanding. Presley believes the use of the term has caused Rand's arguments to be frequently mischaracterized. Philosophy professor Max Hocutt dismissed the phrase 'the virtue of selfishness' as "rhetorical excess", saying that "without qualification and explanation, it is too paradoxical to merit serious discussion." In contrast, philosophers Douglas J. Den Uyl and Douglas B. Rasmussen described Rand's response to the question of why she uses the term as "neither antagonistic nor defensive, but rather profound." Philosopher Chris Matthew Sciabarra said it is "debatable" whether Rand accurately described the meaning of the term, but argued that Rand's philosophical position required altering the conventional meanings of some terms in order to express her views without inventing entirely new words. Philosophy professor Stephen Hicks wrote in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy that Rand's "provocative title" was matched by "an equally provocative thesis about ethics."
Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein described the collection of essays as "eclectic" and "appealing to interested nonacademic or nonspecialist readers as well as to the more serious student of Objectivism." Gladstein reported that a number of contemporary reviews compared Rand's views to existentialism.
In a public appearance, socialist writer Christopher Hitchens said, "Though I have some respect for The Virtue of Selfishness, a collection of essays ... I don't think there's any need to have essays advocating selfishness among human beings. I don't know what your impression has been, but some things require no further reinforcement."
- Gladstein 1999, p. 80; Burns 2009, p. 211
- Ayn Rand. "The Nature of Government (December 1963, from The Virtue of Selfishness, 1961, 1964)" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-11-15.
- Burns 2009, pp. 210–211; Heller 2009, pp. 335–337
- Gladstein 1999, p. 81; Burns 2009, p. 212
- Bowden, Tom (June 23, 2014). "50 Years of the Virtue of Selfishness". Ayn Rand Institute. Retrieved July 6, 2014.
- Kukathas 1998, p. 55
- Rand, Ayn. "Introduction". In Rand 1964, pp. vii–ix
- Presley, Sharon. "Ayn Rand's Philosophy of Individualism: A Feminist Psychologist's Perspective". In Gladstein & Sciabarra 1999, pp. 265–266
- Hocutt 2008, p. 440
- Den Uyl, Douglas J. and Rasmussen, Douglas B. "Life, Teleology, and Eudaimonia in the Ethics of Ayn Rand". In Den Uyl & Rasmussen 1986, p. 76
- Sciabarra 1995, p. 252
- Hicks, Stephen R. C. (July 7, 2005). "Ayn Rand (1905–1982)". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved February 17, 2011.
- Gladstein 1999, p. 81
- Gladstein 1999, p. 119
- Ringer, Robert J.. Winning Through Intimidation. Los Angeles Book Publishers. p. vii. ISBN 0-308-10229-0.
- "Atlas Snubbed - Christopher Hitchens destroys the cult of Ayn Rand (mirror)". YouTube. Retrieved February 10, 2014.
- Burns, Jennifer (2009). Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-532487-7. OCLC 313665028.
- Den Uyl, Douglas & Rasmussen, Douglas, eds. (1986) . The Philosophic Thought of Ayn Rand (paperback ed.). Chicago: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-01407-3. OCLC 15669115.
- Gladstein, Mimi Reisel (1999). The New Ayn Rand Companion. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-30321-5. OCLC 40359365.
- Gladstein, Mimi Reisel & Sciabarra, Chris Matthew, eds. (1999). Feminist Interpretations of Ayn Rand. Re-reading the Canon. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01830-5.
- Heller, Anne C. (2009). Ayn Rand and the World She Made. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 978-0-385-51399-9. OCLC 229027437.
- Hocutt, Max (Winter 2008). "In Defense of Herbert Spencer" (PDF). The Independent Review 12 (3): 433–445.
- Kukathas, Chandran (1998). "Rand, Ayn (1905–82)". In Craig, Edward (ed). Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy 8. New York: Routledge. pp. 55–56. ISBN 0-415-07310-3. OCLC 318280731.
- Rand, Ayn (1964). The Virtue of Selfishness. New York: New American Library. ISBN 0-451-16393-1. OCLC 28103453.
- Sciabarra, Chris Matthew (1995). Ayn Rand: The Russian Radical. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-01440-7. OCLC 31133644.