The Whistleblower

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The Whistleblower
The Whistleblower Poster.jpg
Promotional poster
Directed by Larysa Kondracki
Produced by Christina Piovesan
Amy Kaufman
Celine Rattray
Benito Mueller
Wolfgang Mueller
Written by Larysa Kondracki
Eilis Kirwan
Starring Rachel Weisz
David Strathairn
Nikolaj Lie Kaas
Anna Anissimova
Monica Bellucci
Vanessa Redgrave
Cinematography Kieran McGuigan
Editing by Julian Clarke
Distributed by Samuel Goldwyn Films
Release dates
  • September 13, 2010 (2010-09-13) (Toronto)
  • August 12, 2011 (2011-08-12) (Canada and United States)
Running time 112 minutes
Country Canada
Germany
Language English
Box office $1,124,966[1]

The Whistleblower is a 2010 thriller film directed by Larysa Kondracki, written by Kondracki and Eilis Kirwan and starring Rachel Weisz. The film was inspired by the story of Kathryn Bolkovac, a Nebraska police officer who was recruited as a peacekeeper for DynCorp International in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1999. While there, she discovered a sex trafficking ring serving (and facilitated by) DynCorp employees. Bolkovac was fired and forced out of the country after attempting to report (and shut down) the ring. She took the story to BBC News in England, and won a wrongful-dismissal lawsuit against DynCorp.

Kondracki wanted her debut film to concern human trafficking, and encountered Bolkovac's story in college. She and Kirwan struggled to obtain financial support for the project. Eight years after Kondracki decided to produce the film, she secured funding and production began when Weisz agreed to play the lead role. Filming took place in Romania from October to December 2009. Advertised as a fictionalization of events occurring during the late 1990s, Kondracki said that the facts are broadly accurate but some details were omitted for the film; for example, a three-week "breaking-in" period for trafficking victims was not shown.

The Whistleblower premiered at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival, and was released theatrically in the United States by Samuel Goldwyn Films in August 2011. The film received mixed reviews. The performances by Weisz and her co-stars were praised but the intense violence depicted in several scenes was debated by critics, with some calling it exploitive. Kondracki and Weisz responded that what happened in Bosnia had been toned down for the film. The Whistleblower received several awards and nominations, including the 2012 Genie Awards.

Plot[edit]

Kathryn Bolkovac (Rachel Weisz) is a police officer from Lincoln, Nebraska, who accepts an offer to work with the United Nations International Police in post-war Bosnia-Herzegovina for a UK company, Democra Security (a pseudonym for DynCorp International).[2] After successfully advocating for a Muslim woman who experienced domestic abuse, Kathryn is appointed head of the department of gender affairs.

Raya (Roxana Condurache), a young Ukrainian woman, and her friend Luba (Paula Schramm) are sold to a Bosnian sex-trafficking ring by a relative. Raya escapes with Irka (Rayisa Kondracki), another girl forced into prostitution, and they are sent to a women's shelter for victims of human trafficking. While investigating their case, Kathryn uncovers a large-scale sexual slavery ring utilized by international personnel (including Americans). She persuades Raya and Irka to testify against their traffickers in court, guaranteeing their safety; however, an indifferent UN official drops Irka at the border between Bosnia and Serbia when she cannot produce a passport. A corrupt peacekeeper tips off the traffickers, and Raya is recaptured and tortured. Although Kathryn rescues Irka from the woods, the latter is too afraid to proceed with the trial.

When she brings the scandal to the attention of the UN, Kathryn discovers that it has been covered up to protect lucrative defense and security contracts. However, she finds allies in her investigation: Madeleine Rees (Vanessa Redgrave), head of the Human Rights Commission, and internal-affairs specialist Peter Ward (David Strathairn). When Raya is found dead, Kathryn sends an email (entitled "Do not read this if you have a weak stomach or a guilty conscience") to 50 senior mission personnel detailing her findings; she is then fired from her job. She and Ward acquire evidence of an official admitting the scandal before she is forced to leave the country, and she brings it to the BBC. The final credits note that after Kathryn's departure a number of peacekeepers were sent home (although none faced criminal charges because of immunity laws), and the U.S. continues doing business with private contractors such as Democra Security (including billion-dollar contracts in Iraq and Afghanistan).

Cast[edit]

Production[edit]

Writing[edit]

There were so many people in the same situation as her. They saw what was going on, and they didn't respond in the way that she did.

Rachel Weisz, on Kathryn Bolkovac[3]

The Whistleblower is based on the experiences of Kathryn Bolkovac, an American police officer who in 1999 was assigned to serve as a peacekeeper with the United Nations in post-war Bosnia. While there, she reportedly discovered a sex-trafficking ring which served (and was protected by) other peacekeepers. Bolkovac was fired after trying to investigate the ring, but later won a wrongful-dismissal lawsuit.[3]

Larysa Kondracki decided to make The Whistleblower after hearing Bolkovac's account of sex trafficking in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

Director Larysa Kondracki and co-screenwriter Eilis Kirwan learned of Bolkovac's story while attending Columbia University, eight years before the film's production. Kondracki subsequently devoted significant time to research on human trafficking and the sex trade. After Bolkovac sold her the film rights for $100[4] she resolved to adapt the story for the screen; however, "I love documentaries, but I wouldn't even know how to make one."[3] Financing for the project was initially difficult to secure, although the situation improved after Rachel Weisz signed to play Bolkovac. "I was young and naïve," Kondracki said of her initial attempts to secure funding. "I thought: 'Of course they're going to make my film. It's brilliant!'"[3]

The Whistleblower was described as a "fictionalized dramatic presentation" of a late-1990s scandal. The producers based it on Bolkovac's experiences, rather than on her memoir.[2] Vanessa Redgrave played Madeleine Rees, a UN human-rights official ("one of the film's few heroic characters") who helps Bolkovac uncover the sex trade. Raya (Roxana Condurache) and Luba (Paula Schramm), two Ukrainian young women who are trafficked into Bosnia, are the primary representations of the trafficking victims encountered by Bolkovac. Neither is based on a particular person; they are composites of young women forced to work in Bosnian brothels. Kondracki's younger sister, Rayisa, also played a trafficking victim.[5] For legal reasons the pseudonym "Democra Security" was used for DynCorp International, the organization whose employees reportedly sexually enslaved the women.[2]

Although the producers kept the film factual, how much to include was an issue. Details on the bureaucracy were removed, because "it was too much information and, frankly, people were bored."[3] Another concern was how much violence to display against the sex-trafficking victims in the film. Kondracki chose to bluntly portray the inhumane treatment of the young women, which she described as accurate representations of what happened.[2] This included a graphic scene, in which Raya is raped with a lead pipe after her escape and recapture. Weisz thought the reality had been toned down: "In real life there were girls doing this as young as 8 years old."[3] Kondracki agreed, saying that she had lightened the events depicted out of fear that viewers would "tune it out":[2]

Smiling young woman with short, light-brown hair
Middle-aged woman with short, very-light hair speaking into a microphone
Kathryn Bolkovac (left) and Madeleine Rees (right) testified that DynCorp (Democra Security in the film) employees had participated in the sex trafficking of women in Bosnia.

We show what is just about permissible to show. We couldn't possibly include the three-week desensitisation period, when they burn the girls in particular places. We couldn't really capture the hopelessness of life these women are subjected to.[6]

Kondracki said that her goal for The Whistleblower was "information and exposure" on human trafficking. "No one is putting pressure on governments to stop it, and there is no accountability. It's laziness."[3]

Filming[edit]

The Whistleblower is a Canadian–German co-production (Kondracki is Canadian).[5] Weisz first read the script after receiving it from producer Amy Kaufman two years before she signed for the lead role. Pregnant with her son at the time,[7] she initially turned down the offer; however, Weisz said the story haunted her[8] and later contacted Kaufman to ask if the project was still available.[8] She signed on,[9] and shooting began in October 2009.[10][11]

Bolkovac visited the set in Bucharest, Romania, where most of the movie was filmed;[8] Weisz said that she made a point to spend "every waking moment" with her to accurately portray her.[7] Weisz and Bolkovac are dissimilar in appearance: the former is dark-haired and slight, and the latter is "blond and much more voluptuous" and "much taller". As a result, the actress focused on emulating Bolkovac's accent and determination.[7] Bolkovac later said:

Rachel is an extremely intelligent and talented actress. But more importantly a very caring and kind human being. She was genuine in wanting to portray my character with as much compassion and empathy to the situation as possible. Rachel was a perfect pick for the part, and I am proud that she wanted to tell this story and work on the project."[12]

Aerial photo of mountains, valley and two lakes
The Carpathian Mountains in Romania were used to depict much of the Bosnian landscape.

Filming took around six weeks, relatively short for a thriller; according to Weisz, most take about three months to complete.[13] Producers used hand-held cameras[14] and had a lower budget than usual for the genre.[13] Kondracki said that filming in Eastern Europe was crucial because "in a story such as this, it's more about what you don't see, so you need to create that world".[11] The Carpathian Mountains in Romania substituted for the war-ravaged Sarajevo of the late 1990s.[11] Scenes set in UN buildings were filmed in Toronto.[15] Most outdoor scenes are set at night; daytime shots often appear bleak, gray and overcast. This, coupled with a grainy texture, helped create a documentary feel.[16]

She was so interested in who I was as a person. Not, obviously, to look like me or to behave like me, but to make sure that my character came out and to make sure that she was saying and doing things perhaps the way that I would've wanted them done. And I know that there had to be a lot of liberties taken to make the movie. But I think in general she does do a great job of bringing my character to the film.

Kathryn Bolkovac, on Weisz's portrayal[17]

Wiesz had to separate herself emotionally from the atrocities depicted in the film. "It's something you learn," she said. "It's true between 'action' and 'cut,' and after 'cut' it's just not true anymore."[18] Bolkovac echoed Weisz's sentiments, adding that distancing oneself emotionally is a necessity when working on a police force.[18] However, the producers wanted the audience to be affected by scenes depicting brutal treatment of the women forced into prostitution and the character of Raya was created to give a human face to the victims.[19] Much of the rape scene was cut after its brutality caused a viewer to faint during the film's first screening in Toronto.[18] Weisz responded:

I completely understand. It would be just too harrowing for people to watch. What actually happened was so much worse. I mean the stories I could tell you from the first person who encountered these young women. That was the "light" version if you can believe that. But it isn't a documentary, you don't want to destroy people. You just want to illuminate something that actually happened that was a hundred times worse.[20]

Themes[edit]

Man in black shirt
Victor Malarek's book, The Natashas, inspired Kondracki to produce a film on sex trafficking.

The Whistleblower focuses on sexual slavery, human trafficking and corruption.[21] Kondracki wanted her first project to concern sex trafficking but was unsure how to create a moving, original plot. Her mother was born in Ukraine, and she was aware of what she described as the country's "epidemic" of trafficking.[4] Victor Malarek's book, The Natashas, inspired her to produce a film on the subject;[4] however, "no one wants to watch a film of an enslaved girl being raped for two hours."[6] Bolkovac's experiences gave her a framework for the film, expanding her themes to corruption and wide-scale cover-ups.[4] Film critic Rex Reed said that the abuse of power featured prominently in The Whistleblower, as a number of government officials participate in the sex trade or turn a blind eye to it[21] (including peacekeepers, UN members and mercenaries).[4] Wallace Baine of the Santa Cruz Sentinel wrote that these aspects' portrayal made the movie "slippery and true-to-life", and that "there are clear and vivid monsters in this film, but there are also those existing in the shades-of-gray middle, nice-enough guys tolerating crimes of unspeakable barbarity."[16] Justice, another prominent theme, does not materialize by the end.[5] Raya is killed, and none of the peacekeepers who participated in the trafficking are prosecuted (although several are sent home). According to Baine, viewers are left with the impression that "the worst violence in Bolkovac's story was the violence done to justice".[16]

Bolkovac is imperfect, a "noble but screwed up" individual.[21] In the film (which roughly mirrors her real life), her personal life is in disarray: she has lost custody of her children to her ex-husband, and goes to Bosnia to earn money to move closer to them. While there, she has an affair with a fellow peacekeeper.[16] Kondracki wanted to promote the idea of an average protagonist, who acted against injustice while her peers looked the other way.[4] Her flaws are offset by her determination to fight the sex trade, and reviewers found these aspects instrumental in making her a three-dimensional character.[16][21]

Weisz compared Bolkovac's story of "one lone woman fighting injustice" to that of David and Goliath, her favorite film genre.[8] In the film, as in real life, Bolkovac begins by investigating a case of a kidnapped girl. As the story unfolds, she discovers a wide-ranging web of corruption and faces growing obstacles. The sex trade is facilitated by a large, influential organization;[13] when she tries to report her findings to the UN and local officials, she receives threats and is "shunned by coworkers and thwarted by higher-ups". Weisz explained that she liked the idea of an ordinary person doing something extraordinary. "I love it," she said. "I love that kind of thriller, the ordinary person who, because of their character, it's their character that leads them. As an actor, that's a kind of gift."[8]

Reception[edit]

Release and box office[edit]

Smiling young woman with long dark hair
Rachel Weisz at the film's 2010 Toronto Film Festival premiere

The Whistleblower was given an R rating for "disturbing violent content including a brutal sexual assault, graphic nudity and language".[19] A preview with bonus footage was circulated before its Toronto Film Festival premiere[22] on September 13, 2010,[23] before an audience of 1,500.[4] Screenings were held at film festivals in North America,[24] including the 2011 Human Rights Watch Film Festival in New York.[3] Samuel Goldwyn Films purchased distribution rights for the film in the United States,[25] and released a promotional trailer on June 2, 2011.[26] The Whistleblower premiered August 5 in a six-theatre limited release,[19][27] grossing $1,124,966.[1] It was released on DVD on January 15, 2012.[6] The movie was reportedly more successful on Blu-ray Disc than in theatres, and film critic Lynette Porter said that the subject's serious nature made it better-suited for television.[24]

Reviews[edit]

The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes gave the film a 74% approval rating based on reviews from 115 critics, with an average score of 6.5/10. The website reported the critical consensus as "Rachel Weisz puts on a compelling smoldering act though the film suffers from a literal-minded approach to the material".[28] Metacritic graded the film a 59 out of 100 ("mixed or average reviews").[29]

The Guardian's Ed Vulliamy called The Whistleblower "the most searing drama-documentary of recent years",[6] and The Huffington Post's Marshall Fine said the story was "dark, grim, and harrowing".[30] Doris Toumarkine of Film Journal International called the movie a "well-told but troubling story impressively wrapped for audiences who show up in theatres for do-good cinema of a high order".[15] Leigh Paatsch of News.com.au said, "it is Bolkovac's ferocious will to right so many wrongs (expertly channelled by Weisz) that keeps you glued to the screen".[31] Stephenie Foster of The Huffington Post gave the film a highly-favorable review:

It's a compelling and maddening story, and reflects the complexity of how international institutions function and interact and the difficulty of accountability in a situation where people have immunity for their actions. But, it's also a story of gutsy people in tough and compromising situations making decisions that aren't in their personal best interest.[27]

An equally-positive review appeared in The Balkan Chronicle:

Kondracki shows great promise with her direction. Pacing is tight for the most part, and the film feels well polished...The film is unsatisfying only in its conclusion. This is not the fault of the filmmakers who choose to stay true to Bolkovac's story. No one was ever brought to justice. A few of men were fired and sent home, but everyone had diplomatic immunity so no one ever faced criminal charges. Two million people worldwide are still being trafficked.[32]

Allison Willmore of The A.V. Club gave The Whistleblower a negative review, criticizing the producers for making its antagonists one-dimensional: "There's no hint of the erosion of morality that led to this point."[33] Peter Rainer of The Christian Science Monitor called the film's pace "frustratingly uneven", but commended the actors' performances: Condurache "makes Raya's fears tremblingly palpable".[34] Stephen Holden of The New York Times wrote that the film "tells a story so repellent that it is almost beyond belief. Its conclusion—that in the moral quagmire of war and its aftermath, human trafficking and corruption are collateral damage—is unutterably depressing."[5] He praised Weisz's performance as "the strongest element" of the production.[5]

The actors' performances received overall praise from reviewers. Camerin Courtney of Christianity Today was dismayed that the main character engaged in a sexual relationship with a married man, but Weisz "is wonderful as Bolkovac, a no-nonsense civil servant who is stunned at what she walks into" while "Vanessa Redgrave is a needed touch of strength and warmth as her mentor Madeleine, and David Strathairn is at his government thriller best as Peter Ward, an Internal Affairs agent. Raya is heart-breaking as the young victim."[35] Steve Rea of The Post and Courier praised Redgrave's acting in the supporting role of Madeleine Rees as "forceful, elegant, precise".[13] Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle said, "Weisz gives a psychologically astute performance as a woman who can't leave things alone."[36] Rex Reed of The Observer called her "superb" in the lead role.[21]

Kondracki's graphic depiction of violence was controversial. Bob Mondello of NPR called it "sobering", but felt the scenes detracted from the film and should have been more subtle.[37] Ryan Rojas of Tonight at the Movies described the film as "gritty and merciless", and cautioned that certain scenes might offend some viewers: "While the scenes do work as reinforcing the horror of the events, it really just made it obvious that the way that the director was going to win over fans was to simply shock them into numbness, as scenes showing rape, mutilation, and murder are shown in very disturbing fashion."[38] Christian Hamaker of Crosswalk.com wrote:

The film is almost unremittingly grim, which may seem appropriate for such a horrifying subject, but the effect on the viewer is that of being struck repeatedly with a sledgehammer. Sex trafficking is bad. Really bad! Did you get that, or do you need to watch a few more scenes of physical and sexual brutality? Don't worry: The Whistleblower has those aplenty. It takes brutality into the realm of gratuitousness, all in the name of showing the horrors of the issue it's addressing.[39]

Accolades[edit]

Year Award Category Recipient Result Source
2010 Whistler Film Festival Audience Award – Best Narrative Feature The Whistleblower Won [40]
2010 Whistler Film Festival Phillip Borsos Award – Best Film The Whistleblower Won [41]
2011 Palm Springs International Film Festival Audience Award – Best Narrative Feature The Whistleblower Won [42]
2011 Cinema for Peace Awards Cinema for Peace Award – Justice & Human Rights Larysa Kondracki Nominated [41]
2011 Seattle International Film Festival Golden Space Needle Award – Best Director Larysa Kondracki Won [43]
2011 Seattle International Film Festival Golden Space Needle Award – Best Film The Whistleblower Nominated [40]
2012 Genie Awards Best Picture The Whistleblower Nominated [44]
2012 Genie Awards Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading Role Rachel Weisz Nominated [45]
2012 Genie Awards Best Supporting Actress Roxana Condurache Nominated [44]
2012 Vancouver Film Critics Circle Vancouver Film Critics Circle Award for Best Actress in a Canadian Film Rachel Weisz Nominated [46]

Aftermath[edit]

Bespectacled middle-aged man, speaking into two microphones
In response to controversy caused by the film, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon promised action to prevent sex trafficking by UN workers.

Consistent with Bolkovac's account, The Whistleblower portrays DynCorp International employees as participants in the postwar Bosnian sex trade with the UN turning a blind eye. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon hosted a screening of the film, and promised action would be taken to prevent further instances of human trafficking. Bolkovac responded, "Unfortunately, the widespread horror is already there. This is not going to be simple or a quick fix." She said that in addition to Bosnia, peacekeepers had violated human rights in Nigeria, Kosovo, Burundi, Sierra Leone, the Congo, Liberia, Cambodia, Iraq, Afghanistan, Haiti, Colombia, Guinea and Sudan.[6][11] Kondracki added that while she wanted to be optimistic and hoped that the screening would "lead to genuine discussion and thought about the UN's involvement in sex trafficking and other crimes" but was worried that it might not have the desired lasting impact: "I know we are going to hear a lot about what has been done since the time depicted in this film, but rhetoric only goes so far. The situation has escalated." Following the theatrical release of The Whistleblower, The Guardian reported that other UN officials attempted to downplay the events depicted, and initiatives against trafficking in Bosnia were aborted.[6]

DynCorp International spokesperson Ashley Burke said:

I haven't seen the movie so I can't comment on its content, but I can tell you that, when we contacted the film's distributor to learn more about the movie, we were informed that the film 'is a fictionalized dramatic presentation' that while inspired by Ms. Bolkovac's experiences, is not based on her book. There was no threatened legal action taken to ensure they did not use the company's name in the film.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Whistleblower". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved October 5, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Lynch, Colum (June 29, 2011). "The Whistleblower: The movie the U.N. would prefer you didn't see". Foreign Policy. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Karpel, Ari (July 28, 2011). "Exposing Injustices, the Real-Life Kind". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Griffin, Blake (May 11, 2011). "Exclusive Interview With Larysa Kondracki On The Whistleblower". We Got this Covered. Retrieved October 8, 2013. 
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  8. ^ a b c d e Zakarin, Jordan (October 1, 2011). "Rachel Weisz In 'The Whistleblower': An Ordinary Woman Doing Extraordinary Things". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 5, 2013. 
  9. ^ Siegel, Tatiana (August 20, 2009). "Trio join Weisz for indie 'Whistleblower'". Variety. Retrieved November 29, 2009. 
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  14. ^ Whitman, Howard (February 17, 2012). "Blu-ray Movie Review: The Whistleblower". Technologytell. Retrieved April 2, 2012. 
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  24. ^ a b Porter, Lynette (September 12, 2010). "More than a Movie: 'The Whistleblower's Heartfelt Plea for Greater Humanity". Pop Matters. Retrieved October 7, 2013. 
  25. ^ Kit, Borys (November 4, 2010). "Rachel Weisz's 'The Whistleblower' Picked Up By Samuel Goldwyn Films". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved May 27, 2011. 
  26. ^ Fleming, Mike (June 2, 2011). "Hot Trailer: 'The Whistleblower'". Deadline. Retrieved October 7, 2013. 
  27. ^ a b Foster, Stephenie (August 2, 2011). "The Whistleblower: A Compelling Film About Standing Up for What's Right". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
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  30. ^ Fine, Marshall (August 5, 2011). "HuffPost Review: The Whistleblower". The Huffington Post. Retrieved October 8, 2013. 
  31. ^ Paatsch, Leigh (September 29, 2011). "Film review: The Whistleblower". News.com.au. Retrieved October 6, 2013. 
  32. ^ "The Whistleblower – A film about the true story from Bosnia". The Balkan Chronicle. March 20, 2012. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  33. ^ Willmore, Allison (August 4, 2011). "The Whistleblower". A.V. Club. Retrieved October 5, 2013. 
  34. ^ Rainer, Peter (August 5, 2011). "The Whistleblower: movie review". Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 3, 2013. 
  35. ^ Courtney, Camerin (August 12, 2011). "The Whistleblower". Christianity Today. Retrieved October 7, 2013. 
  36. ^ LaSalle, Mick (August 12, 2011). "'The Whistleblower' review: truth improves it". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved October 8, 2013. 
  37. ^ Mondello, Bob (August 4, 2011). "A 'Whistleblower' Against International Injustice". NPR. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  38. ^ Rojas, Ryan (August 4, 2011). "Movie Review: The Whistleblower – A graphically charged drama about real life human trafficking". Tonight at the Movies. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  39. ^ Hamaker, Christian (August 5, 2011). "Whistleblower Tackles Human Trafficking". Crosswalk.com. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
  40. ^ a b "The Whistleblower, a true tale". Sunday Times. May 26, 2013. Retrieved October 6, 2013. 
  41. ^ a b "Larysa Kondracki". Columbia University. Retrieved October 6, 2013. 
  42. ^ "22nd Annual Palm Springs International Film Festival Announces Festival Winners". Palm Springs International Film Society. January 16, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2013. 
  43. ^ Savage, Sophia (June 29, 2011). "Many Festivals, Many Winners: iW Rounds up June's Major Film Fest Awards". Indie Wire. Retrieved October 6, 2013. 
  44. ^ a b "'Method,' 'Cafe' lead Genie noms". Delhi News Record. January 17, 2012. Retrieved October 12, 2013. 
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  46. ^ "VFCC Announces 12th Annual Award Nominees". Vancouver Film Critics. January 2, 2012. Retrieved October 6, 2013. 

External links[edit]