The Wiggles

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This article is about the children's musical group. For their self-titled debut album, see The Wiggles (album).
The Wiggles
63423main wiggles wave.jpg
The four original Wiggles in 2004 (from left to right: Greg Page, Jeff Fatt, Murray Cook, and Anthony Field)
Background information
Origin Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Genres Children's music
Years active 1991–present
Labels EMI (1990s),
ABC For Kids (Australia),
Razor & Tie and NCircle Entertainment (USA)
Past members

The Wiggles are an Australian children's music group formed in Sydney, New South Wales in 1991. The current members of the group are Anthony Field, Lachlan Gillespie, Simon Pryce and Emma Watkins.[1] The original members were Field, Phillip Wilcher, Murray Cook, Greg Page, and Jeff Fatt.[2] Wilcher left the group after their first album. Page retired in 2006 due to ill health and was replaced by understudy Sam Moran, but returned in 2012, replacing Moran. At the end of 2012, Page, Cook and Fatt retired, although Cook and Fatt retained their shareholding in the group and all three continued to have input into the creative and production aspects of the group.

Field and Fatt were members of the Australian pop band The Cockroaches in the 1980s, and Cook was a member of several bands before meeting Field and Page at Macquarie University, where they were studying to become pre-school teachers. A school project led to the recording of their first album and tour in 1991. As a result of their background, the group combines music and theories of child development in their videos, television programs, and live shows. Since their inception, other regular characters (Captain Feathersword, Dorothy the Dinosaur, Henry the Octopus, and Wags the Dog) and a troupe called "The Wiggly dancers" have toured with them and appeared in their CDs, DVDs, and television programs.

The group has franchised their concepts to other countries, developed Wiggles sections in amusement parks in Australia and the US, and won several recording industry awards. The Wiggles have been called "the world's biggest preschool band" and "your child's first rock band".[3] The group has achieved worldwide success with their children's albums, videos, television series, and concert appearances. The Wiggles were named Business Review Weekly's top-earning Australian entertainers for four years in a row and earned A$45 million in 2009.[4] In 2011, the worldwide recession hit The Wiggles, as it had done for many Australian entertainers; they earned $28 million, but they still appeared second on the BRW's list that year. They have earned 17 gold, 12 platinum, three double-platinum, and ten multi-platinum awards for sales of over 17 million DVDs and four million CDs.[5] By 2002, The Wiggles had become the Australian Broadcasting Corporation's (ABC) most successful pre-school television program.



Anthony Field and Jeff Fatt were members of The Cockroaches, a Sydney pop band known for their "good-time R&B material"[6] and several singles recorded by independent labels during the 1980s.[7] In 1988, Field's infant niece, who was the daughter of Cockroaches founder and band member Paul Field, died of SIDS, and the group disbanded.[8] Anthony Field enrolled at Macquarie University in Sydney to complete his degree in early childhood education,[2] and later stated that his niece's death "ultimately led to the formation of [The] Wiggles".[8] Murray Cook, also "a mature-aged student",[9] was the guitarist in the rock and pub band Bang Shang a Lang before enrolling at Macquarie.[9][10] Greg Page, who had been a roadie for and sang with The Cockroaches during their final years, had enrolled in Macquarie to study early childhood education on Field's recommendation.[9][11] Field, Cook, and Page were among approximately 10 men in a program with 200 students.[12][note 1]

Cover art for The Wiggles' debut album (1991), with original member Phillip Wilcher

In 1991, while still a student, Field became motivated to use concepts in the field of early childhood education and record an album of music for children.[2][13] The album was dedicated to Field's niece.[8] A song he wrote for The Cockroaches, "Get Ready to Wiggle", inspired the band's name because they thought that wiggling described the way children dance.[2][11] Like a university assignment, they produced a folder of essays that explained the educational value of each song on the album.[13] They needed a keyboardist "to bolster the rock'n'roll feel of the project",[9] so Field asked his old band mate Fatt for his assistance in what they thought would be a temporary project.[14][note 2]

The group received songwriting help from John Field, Anthony's brother and former band mate, and from Phillip Wilcher, who was working with the early childhood music program at Macquarie.[15][note 3] After contributing to their first album, hosting the group's first recording sessions in his Sydney home, and appearing in a couple of the group's first videos, Wilcher chose to leave the group to pursue a career in classical music.[15][16][note 4] The group reworked a few Cockroaches tunes to better fit the genre of children's music; for example, The Cockroaches song "Hot Tamale", written by John Field, was changed to "Hot Potato".[17] Anthony Field gave copies of their album to his young students to test out the effect of the group's music on children; one child's mother returned it the next day because her child would not stop listening to it.[18]

First recorded in 1991 on The Wiggles' first album, this was originally a Cockroaches tune changed slightly to fit the genre of children's music.

"Do the Monkey", recorded by The Cockroaches in 1989. With very little changes, it is almost the same as The Wiggles' version, showing how The Wiggles revamped many songs in The Cockroaches' library.

Originally a Cockroaches tune, one of the many songs in The Cockroaches' library that was changed from Australian pop to children's music

Problems playing these files? See media help.

At first, The Wiggles filmed two music videos with the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) to promote their first album; they also decided to create a self-produced, forty-minute-long video version of their album. Finances were limited, so there was no post-production editing of the video project. They used Field's nieces and nephews as additional cast, and hired the band's girlfriends to perform in character costumes. Cook's wife made their first costumes.[11] They used two cameras and visually checked the performance of each song; that way, according to Paul Field, it took them less time to complete a forty-minute video than it took other production companies to complete a three-minute music video.[13]

Early career[edit]

The Cockroaches' former manager, Jeremy Fabinyl, became the group's first manager. Using their previous connections, he negotiated with the ABC to air their TV show and to help them promote their first recording.[19] The album cost approximately A$4,000 to produce and it sold 100,000 copies in 1991. Field and Cook got teaching jobs, while Page finished his degree, so they could only perform during school holidays; finding time to do so was, as Field reported, "challenging".[2][11] Fabinyi advised them to tour in unusual settings throughout Sydney and New South Wales.[2][14] The Wiggles' debut performance was at a friend's daycare facility in Randwick, for about a dozen children.[20] They played for crowds at shopping centres like Westfield in Sydney and at small preschool events and parties, and busked at Circular Quay, then moved on to regional tours and shows for playgroup associations, averaging about 300 people in the audience.[9][11][14] They were promoted by local playgroups or nursing mothers' associations with whom they split their proceeds.[21] They performed at pre-schools with other ABC children's performers;[11] when five hundred people attended these concerts just to see The Wiggles, they started doing their own shows, and according to Field, "Suddenly people started rolling up to performances in astonishing numbers".[19]

In 1993, Field, Cook, and Page decided to give up teaching for a year to focus on performing full-time, along with Fatt, to see if they could make a living out of it.[11][22] As Fatt reported, "it was very much a cottage industry".[21] They used many of the business techniques developed by The Cockroaches, choosing to remain as independent and self-contained as possible.[23] John Field, Mike Conway, who later became The Wiggles' general manager, trumpeter Dominic Lindsay, and Cockroaches saxophonist Daniel Fallon performed with them.[21][24][note 5] Anthony Field, with input from the other members, did most of the production of their music, DVDs, and live shows.[25] Their act was later augmented with supporting characters: the "friendly pirate" Captain Feathersword and the animal characters Dorothy the Dinosaur, Henry the Octopus, and Wags the Dog. These characters were initially performed by the band members themselves: Field played Captain Feathersword and Wags; Cook played Dorothy; and Fatt played Henry.[26]

After the production of their second album, The Wiggles, who were called by their first names when they performed, began to wear costumes on stage as Fabinyi suggested and as The Cockroaches had done, and adopted colour-coded shirts: Greg in yellow, Murray in red, Jeff in purple, and Anthony in blue. As Field reported, the decision to emphasise colour was "a no-brainer, considering our preschool-age audience".[19] Cook and Fatt already owned shirts in their colours, but Field and Page "met in a Sydney department store and literally raced to see who got the blue shirt".[19]

Success at home and abroad[edit]

Through the rest of the 1990s, The Wiggles maintained a busy recording and touring schedule, becoming as Field reported and despite his strong dislike of touring, "the hardest-working touring act in the country".[23] They released multiple albums and home videos and, depending upon the word of mouth of their audience, performed to increasingly large audiences in Australia and New Zealand despite having to re-introduce themselves to a new audience of children every three years.[11][27] They produced a new album and video each year and toured to promote them. By late 1993, they "grew bigger than anyone had thought", and hundreds attended their concerts, and by 1995 they had set records for music and video sales.[28][29] In 1997, Twentieth Century Fox produced a feature-length film, The Wiggles Movie, which became the fifth-highest grossing Australian film of 1998, earning over a million-and-a-half dollars.[30]

In spite of their early success in Australia, Paul Field reported that the band was unable to produce a television program on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, where they felt they would receive the most exposure to the pre-school market.[29] "Around 1996—1997",[11] they filmed a television pilot for the ABC, but as The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) reported in 2002, "the project never got off the ground due to irreconcilable artistic differences".[18] As a result, The Wiggles financed a TV program of 13 episodes themselves and sold it to the Disney Channel in Australia and to Channel Seven, where it became a hit.[2][29] By 1998, The Wiggles were ready to move on to international markets, despite its members' health issues, especially Field's. The reaction of producers in the UK was less positive than the group would have liked, although they were eventually able to make inroads there, but their real success came in the US.[31] Disney arranged for them to perform at Disneyland in California, where they were discovered by Lyrick Studios, the producers of Barney & Friends. Both Anthony and Paul Field reported that Lyrick, despite their initial misgivings about whether American audiences would accept the band's Australian accents, came to understand The Wiggles and their goals, and after successful tests with American children, enthusiastically promoted them.[29][32]

The Wiggles used many of the same promotion techniques in the US that they had used in Australia, and chose to keep their concerts simple and maintain the same values that were successful in Australia.[33] The Wiggles performed during the intermission of Barney Live stage shows, which The New York Times likened to "getting the warm-up slot for the Stones" in the pre-school entertainment world.[2][29][note 6] In 2000, when video sales took off in the US, Lyrick began to distribute Wiggles videos and advertised them by including Wiggles shorts as trailers in their Barney videos, which, as Anthony Field stated, "pushed us over the edge".[34] At first, the group's videos were distributed in boutique stores such as FAO Schwarz and Zany Brainy, and on-line. According to Paul Field, they entered the mass media market when their videos became top-sellers at, and their first two videos, Yummy Yummy and Wiggle Time, landed in the top ten at[35] Stores such as Wal-Mart began to take notice, and began to sell Wiggles videos. The band released nine DVDs in the next three years to keep up with the demand.[2]

As they had done in Australia, The Wiggles chose to tour, but start off small, with simple props and sets instead of hiring a touring company.[35] Some of their first appearances in America were at Blockbuster Video parking lots to small audiences—as Fatt said, "a dozen people".[11] They performed at small venues such as church halls and 500-seat theatres in Brooklyn and New Jersey, and upgraded to larger venues as ticket sales increased.[35] Anthony Field reported that one week they would perform to 8,000 in Sydney and to 20 people the following week at a parking lot in a small town in the US. One time, they performed for a dozen people at the Mall of America in Minnesota, but half of the audience were hired by Lyrick. Eventually, they moved to larger arenas such as the Beacon Theatre and Madison Square Garden.[35][36] Their audiences began to increase, and they toured Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the US, and the UK.[34]

The Wiggles' popularity in the US increased "in the shell-shocked weeks after the terrorist attacks on New York City in 2001",[21] when the group performed there, even when other acts cancelled their tours, a decision that earned them loyalty and respect.[21] According to Cook, the press proclaimed that they were braver than many Australian sports teams that had cancelled their appearances.[11] Paul Field stated, "New York has really embraced them. It was a kind of watershed."[21] [note 7] Strong sales of The Wiggles videos eventually caught the attention of the Disney Channel in the US, who was impressed by their "strong pro-social message".[37] In January 2002, Disney began showing Wiggles video clips between their programs. By June of that year, the popularity of the clips prompted the Disney Channel to add both seasons of "The Wiggles" series to their schedule and showed full episodes multiple times per day.[21][38] Field reported that despite their "modest production values",[39] the shows were popular with preschoolers.

Beginning in 2002, The Wiggles filmed four seasons worth of shows exclusively with the ABC. The network called them "the most successful property that the ABC has represented in the pre-school genre".[18] By the end of 2002, according to Field, "we knew we were involved in something extraordinary in the US".[40] Their concert schedule in North America doubled, seemingly overnight; they began performing up to 520 shows per year all over the world.[27][39][note 8] They also began to produce other stage shows in places The Wiggles themselves were unable to visit, in Australia, the UK, and US, that featured their characters, a host, and a few dancers.[41][note 9] The Age called this time period (about the mid-2000s) the group's "high point"; they earned A$45 million a year in revenues, and had several licensing deals and an international distribution agreement with Disney.[42]

Despite their success, founding member Anthony Field almost left the group in 2004, shortly after his marriage and the birth of his first child, due to his serious medical issues, which were worsened by The Wiggles' demanding tour schedule. After meeting chiropractor James Stoxen in Chicago, Field improved his health to the point that he was able to continue. He began to hire teams of chiropractors for himself, his fellow bandmembers, and castmembers in every city they performed, which he credited with making it possible for them to fulfill their touring requirements.[43]

Page's retirement[edit]

In December 2005, lead singer and founding member Page, at age 33, underwent a double hernia operation. He withdrew from The Wiggles' US tour in June 2006, after suffering fainting spells, lethargy, nausea, and loss of balance. He returned to Australia, where doctors diagnosed his condition as orthostatic intolerance, a chronic but not life-threatening condition.[44][note 10] Page's final performance with The Wiggles was in Kingston, Rhode Island.[45]

Sam Moran and wife Lyn at Australia Day 2009 Celebrations in Wagga Wagga.

On 30 November 2006, the Wiggles announced Page's retirement from the group. "I'll miss being a part of The Wiggles very much, but this is the right decision because it will allow me to focus on managing my health", Page said in a video message, which The Sydney Morning Herald called "unsettling",[46] posted on the group's web page.[44] Page was replaced by Sam Moran, who had served as an understudy for The Wiggles for five years and had already stood in for Page for 150 shows. Initially, The Wiggles struggled over their decision to replace Page, but after their audience's positive response to Moran, they decided to continue as a group because they thought that was what their young audience would want.[45] According to Fatt, who called it "a huge decision" and "a teachable moment" for them,[47] they chose to be honest with their young audience as they made the transition from Page to Moran. As part owner of The Wiggles, Page received a payout of about $20 million.[46]

Moran era[edit]

The Wiggles' line up in 2007, riding in the Big Red Car during a concert.

Although Moran's transition as The Wiggles' lead singer was "smooth" for the young children of their audience, it was more difficult for their parents.[47] Moran said that "most children understood".[11] Field reported that by the group's 20th anniversary in 2011, due to the ever-changing nature of their audience, most of their young fans were unfamiliar with Page.[27] Cook stated that Moran's transition was challenging for the group because since he replaced their lead singer, it changed their sound.[3] The Wiggles never publicly disclosed how much Moran was paid, but it was reported that he earned $200,000 per year.[48] Moran was featured in his first DVD and CD as a member of the group in early 2008, and a sixth season of The Wiggles' television series featuring Moran was filmed and began airing in Australia.[49]

At the end of 2007, The Wiggles donated their complete back catalogue of 27 master tapes to Australia's National Film and Sound Archive.[50] Their business ventures during these years included opening up "Wiggles World" sections in theme parks in North America and the Arab World,[51][52] internet offerings,[53] the creation of new television shows,[11] and a five-year-long partnership with the digital cable channel Sprout in 2009.[54]

In early July 2011, founding member Fatt developed arrhythmia and underwent "urgent but routine"[55] heart surgery, when he was fitted with a pacemaker after feeling unwell for several weeks and blacking out. He missed the group's US tour as a result, after not missing a show in twenty years.[56] Also in mid 2011, The Wiggles celebrated their 20th anniversary with circus-themed shows and performances throughout Australia and the outback in a circus tent,[27] as well as a "physically grueling"[57] birthday-themed tour of 90 shows throughout Australia, which Paul Field called "one of the biggest of their careers".[57]

Reunion with Page[edit]

In January 2012, and amidst a great deal of controversy, The Wiggles announced that Page had regained his health and was returning to The Wiggles. He returned as an employee "exactly on the same level as Sam", rather than a co-owner, having relinquished his business interest in the group after he left in 2006.[46] According to The Sydney Morning Herald, interest in Page's return was sparked when they met during the group's induction in the ARIA Hall of Fame in November 2011.[48] Business Review Weekly reported that the group's handling of their reunion had been mishandled and had potentially damaged their brand image. Paul Field agreed, stating that they "could have handled the communication and management of the transition better".[58] Cook later admitted that they were shocked by the backlash in the press and among the parents of their audience.[42]

As part of his severance package, Moran continued to collect song royalties and was granted use of The Wiggles' studios.[46][48]

Departure of Page, Cook and Fatt[edit]

In mid-2012, The Wiggles announced that year would be the final year of touring for Page, Fatt, and Cook. Field continued to perform and tour with the group; Emma Watkins, the first female member of The Wiggles, replaced Page, Lachlan Gillespie replaced Fatt, and Simon Pryce replaced Cook.[1] Anthony Field remained in the group because he wanted to continue to educate children and as Paul Field stated, "to placate American, British and Canadian business partners",[25] and to continue The Wiggles' brand.[59] Page, Fatt, and Cook remained involved with the creative and production aspects of the group.[42] The decision was made in February 2012, during a recording session, in a meeting between the group's founding members, Paul Field, and Conway. Fatt came up with the idea because of his health issues, and Cook agreed because he wanted to spend more time with his family; Page was reluctant because he had just returned, but as Cook said, "Once he realised the two of us had decided, he felt it was best if the three of us went together".[59]

The group, for their farewell tour, visited eight countries and 141 cities, for a total of almost 250 shows in over 200 days for 640,000 people.[60] In the concerts, Watkins, Gillespie and Pryce performed in "In Training" T-shirts, and debuted the song "Do the Propeller!"[61] The final televised performance of the original band members, along with the new members, was on 22 December 2012, during the annual Carols in the Domain in Sydney.[62] Their final performance was on 23 December at the Sydney Entertainment Centre.[63]

Also by 2012, The Wiggles performed to audiences whose parents attended their shows in their early years, and they were hiring people to perform their costumed characters who were part of their audience as young children.[64][note 11] The Wiggles began airing a show on Sirius XM satellite radio in late 2012, featuring the original members and their replacements, and stories and games for young listeners.[65]

"New Wiggles" era[edit]

The Wiggles, with Field and its new members, began touring in early 2013. Cook became the group's road manager in mid-2013. After a seven-year absence from Australian television, they filmed a new show, called Ready, Steady, Wiggle, that was to premiere in September on ABC. The series was filmed in their spare time, at their studio in Sydney between tours and on the road. Watkins, who had a film-making degree, played an important role in its production.[66]

Musical style[edit]

The Wiggles have written new music each year since their inception; they have tended to sequester themselves for a month each summer and write three albums' worth of original children's music based on simple concepts familiar to young children, and upon several genres of music and types of instruments. Most of their songs were short and started with the chorus because the group believed that it was necessary to provide young children with the topic of each song in its first few lines.[2] They wrote songs individually at first, but eventually wrote them as a group, often with John Field, trumpet player Dominic Lindsay, and Paddick.[67] John Fogerty of Creedence Clearwater Revival, who appeared in a Wiggles video in 2002, was "very impressed" with their songwriting, especially with their drum sound.[2]

According to Field, the transition from writing music for an adult rock band to writing children's music was not a big one for The Wiggles. "The Wiggles music isn't all that far removed from what we did in The Cockroaches, just a different subject matter" Field stated. "The Cockroaches sing about girls and love and stuff like that; The Wiggles sing about hot potatoes and cold spaghetti."[68] For example, they approached a topic like eating as they would in a pre-school setting, including encouraging children to eat healthy foods.[69] Field also reported that because both The Wiggles and The Cockroaches were inspired by 60s pop music, the main difference between the groups was "just the lyrics".[70] The Wiggles' songs were influenced by nursery rhymes, folk music, and rock music that both children and their parents could enjoy.[71] Moran stated that The Wiggles wrote songs they liked and would listen to, and then made them "child-appropriate".[71]

Page reported, "First and foremost, we're entertainers".[68] The Wiggles captured the interest of children by first entertaining them, and then by presenting them with educational messages.[68] The group decided to write and perform children's music that was different from what had been done in the genre previously.[2] They were not tied to one style or genre of music and often experimented in the studio; while some of their recordings were orchestral, others had a more live feel. The group was aware that their songs were often children's first exposure to music.[3] Cook was conscious that he was probably the first guitarist children would see, and said, "I always think that if it inspires kids to play guitar later on that would be great. I think it would be really nice if in 15 years I read that somebody got into guitar playing because of [The] Wiggles".[67]

Educational theory[edit]

"Where was the fun? Where were the references to the simple things that are so dominant in a child's life? Favourite books, colours, dancing, playing, nap time. And what's wrong with kids getting up and grooving; squealing, screaming, and laughing through a performance? I wanted to explore alternate ways to write and perform for young children, to ensure the music was for them, not just the musician. Nothing complicated, snide, or condescending."

—Anthony Field, speaking about the state of children's music in the early 1990s, 2012[72]

The Wiggles' songwriting and simple choreography in their stage shows, videos, and television programs were influenced by the concepts of early childhood development and how young children learn.[2] Anthony Field reported, as he studied music for young children at university, being " the non-inclusive way music for children was usually performed".[72] According to Field, children had to sit silently as musicians played "traditional songs often featuring negative or outdated lyrics and dealing with subject matter of no interest to small children".[72] These songs were often made up of messages with adult themes children did not care about or understand.

The group's "golden rule", according to Field, was to make the content of their songs and shows "developmentally appropriate and fun".[73] Their music, stage shows, and television and DVD productions were developed, as The New York Times reported, "from the premise that a young child has a short attention span, is curious about a limited number of objects and activities, loves having a job to do and is thrilled by mastering basic movements".[2] They also respected their audience's intelligence and insight about entertainment, information, and honesty. As Field said, "Young children identify with relevant concepts, and enjoy being entertained and being part of the entertainment. They are willing to commit to interacting if you are direct, inclusive, and positive".[32] The group understood that challenging young children to engage in difficult tasks is more effective than simply telling them to do it.[69] They believed that young children were egocentric, so they stared continually into the camera in their videos and TV shows, and explained every action because they believed that young children needed to be told what to expect in order to feel safe.[2]

"We have a license to be silly, and a lot of what we do is about joy."

—Murray Cook, 2010[11]

The Wiggles' stage shows were full of action and audience participation. They believed in empowering children by practices such as greeting their audience members with "Hello, everyone", instead of "Hello, boys and girls" because as Paul Field has explained, the second greeting "unnecessarily separates children and has undertones of condescension".[69] Kathleen Warren, the group's former professor at Macquarie University, believed that the group empowered children by asking their audience to "Wake up Jeff" when Fatt pretended to fall asleep.[21][note 12] Warren stated that asking children to interrupt Fatt's slumber helped them build confidence and to feel more in control of their lives. Fatt was the only original member of The Wiggles without a background in early childhood education; he explained that was the reason falling asleep was chosen as his gimmick, "because it was a way of getting me involved in the shows without actually having to do anything".[18] Paul Field reported that children in The Wiggles' audience felt "great excitement" and were disappointed if not given the opportunity to help Jeff in this way.[69] Anthony Field, who called it "a simple audience participation and interaction gag we've done since the start of the group",[74] claimed that it endeared Fatt to their audiences. The group's members took turns falling asleep in the early days of the group, but it became Fatt's gimmick because "it was a perfect fit".[74]

Simple movements were developed by choreographer Leeanne Ashley to accompany each song.[2] One of these simple movements, their signature finger-wagging move, was created by Cook after seeing professional bowlers do it on television.[14] It became the group's policy to use this pose when being photographed with children. They insisted that touching children, no matter how innocently, was inappropriate. The use of the pose protected them from possible litigation; as Paul Paddick has explained, "There is no doubting where their hands are".[26] The group incorporated more dancing into their performances after the birth of Field's oldest daughter in 2004. "So [The] Wiggles have kind of become a bit more, dare I say, girly. Dorothy (the Dinosaur) does ballet now and we dance as well a lot more than we did", Field reported.[75] The group's performances were very energetic, and they intentionally made mistakes in their dance moves in order to identify more with their young audience.[3] In later years, corresponding with Field's developing interests in acrobatics and gymnastics, they added these elements to their stage shows. They included, as Field reported, several world-class athletes such as former trampoline champion Karl Shore in their cast.[76]

Between 1999 and 2003, to test the group's appeal across cultures, Warren used one of The Wiggles' CDs as an educational tool in a village near Madang, on the north coast of Papua New Guinea. She found that the Madangese children were able to relate to the group's songs, and that they were able to sing along and participate in their simple choreography.[21] Although The Wiggles' recorded and performed songs, dances, and musical styles from different cultures and languages,[69] The Wiggles did not find that adapting their music to non-Australian cultures was necessary to reach children in other countries.[37] As Cook and Field stated, "...Toddlers don't have the same hang ups as adults".[34] The Wiggles recognised that as long as they spoke at the same level as their audience, their Australian accents would not matter, and that young children were able to adapt to a variety of contexts and to different pronunciations of common words, no matter where they resided.

Brand and finances[edit]

Main article: The Wiggles Pty Ltd

Despite Field's expressed dislike of the term, preferring to refer to it as "preserving the good name of The Wiggles",[77] the group has stressed the importance and were protective of their brand. They remained as independent as possible, and retained full creative control and ownership of every aspect of their business. As Field stated, The Wiggles Pty Ltd was "not your regular 'corporate culture'".[78] They made decisions by consensus and made business decisions based upon their experience as performers and their knowledge of early childhood education. They did not tour with a large troupe of dancers, cast, and crew until the late 1990s, and had high expectations regarding the behaviour and attitude of everyone associated with the group. They made careful decisions regarding their endorsements of toys and other products, and avoided over-extending their brand by only licensing products that correlated with their image.

Anthony Field (in 2012). Field was instrumental in developing The Wiggles' business model.

The Wiggles became formally consolidated in 2005. The group's board of directors consisted of the original three members, Paul Field, who has been general manager of operations since the group was formed and their manager since the mid-1990s, and Mike Conway, who had worked for Ernst & Young in England and become their general manager in 2001.[11][21][79] The group was named Australia's richest entertainers by Business Review Weekly (BRW) for four years in a row (2004–2008). They earned A$45 million in 2009, when they were third on BRW's annual list.[4] In 2011, the worldwide recession hit The Wiggles, as it had done for many Australian entertainers; they earned $28 million, but they still appeared second on the BRW's list that year.[80] By 2012, founding members Anthony Field, Cook, and Fatt retained 30% ownership of their brand, and Paul Field and Conway each owned 5%.[42] It was reported that as part owner of The Wiggles, Page was given a $20 million payout when he left the group in 2006.[46] Other ventures of The Wiggles Pty Ltd included franchising their concept to South America, Taiwan, and other countries, opening "Wiggles World" sections in theme parks, and online offerings.


The Wiggles enjoyed "almost universal approval" throughout their history.[42] Their songs were sung and played in pre-schools all around the world, which according to Paul Field, was the "equivalent of having the Stones cover one of your songs".[69] By 2008, The Wiggles had earned seventeen gold, twelve platinum, three double-platinum, and ten multi-platinum awards for sales of over 17 million DVDs and four million CDs.[5] They performed for over 1.5 million children in the US between 2005 and 2008.[47] They have earned ADSDA's award for Highest Selling Children's Album four times.[5] In 2007, the group won two APRA awards: the International Achievement Award and the Most Performed Screen Composer - Overseas award.[81] They have been nominated for ARIA's Best Children's Album award nineteen times, and won the award twelve times.[note 13] In 2003, they received ARIA's Outstanding Achievement Award "for their significant achievements in the industry from their early days as The Cockroaches to their current global success in children's entertainment".[82] As part of the 2011 ARIA Music Awards, The Wiggles were inducted into the ARIA Hall of Fame, along with Kylie Minogue.[83]

In 2003, when the group performed at Madison Square Garden, front-row tickets were sold for US$500,[37] in spite of The Wiggles' efforts to reduce scalping by limiting the number of seats sold per transaction.[84] In 2008, the group found themselves in the midst of what The Daily Telegraph called a "ticketing scandal";[84] scalpers tried to sell a A$19 ticket on eBay for almost A$2,000 and a set of three tickets for A$315 for concerts in Melbourne, and a group of three tickets to a Wiggles UNICEF charity concert in Sydney had a price tag of A$510. The tickets were taken off eBay and voided.[84]

In what Paul Field called "one of the highlights of their 15 years of being together",[85] The Wiggles were awarded an honorary doctorate degree from Australian Catholic University in 2006. Cook gave the commencement speech for the graduates.[85] They were awarded another honorary doctoral degree in 2009 from their alma mater, Macquarie University.[86]

The group was named UNICEF goodwill ambassadors in early 2008.[87] In 2010, the four original members of The Wiggles were appointed Members in the Order of Australia for their service to the arts in Australia, especially children's entertainment, and for their contributions and support of several charities. They called the honour their "biggest recognition yet".[88] The group has always invited children with special needs and their families to pre-concert "meet and greet" sessions.[51] According to Fatt, many parents of these children have reported that The Wiggles' music has enhanced their lives, and that children with autism "respond to [The] Wiggles and nothing else".[47] Since 1995, The Wiggles have visited and performed for patients at the Sydney Children's Hospital every Christmas morning.[89]

In 2011, ABC Music released an album titled "Rewiggled - A Tribute To The Wiggles" to celebrate the 20th birthday of the group. The album features covers of many favourite Wiggles songs performed by notable Australian music artists.[90]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Field admitted that one of the things that drew him to teaching was that women outnumbered the men at Macquarie's program.[12]
  2. ^ According to Field, the four original members of The Wiggles, with Page's "mellifluous voice" and "perfect children's music instrument", Cook's knowledge of child development, Fatt's "incredible musicianship and gentle persona" that appealed to children, and Field's energy, balanced each other.[91]
  3. ^ Field called Wilcher "a talented musician and composer".[9]
  4. ^ In 2003, Wilcher claimed that his involvement with The Wiggles had been "virtually erased"; in the late 1990s, they re-recorded their first CD, renamed it, and removed all of Wilcher's compositions.[15]
  5. ^ According to Anthony Field, his brother John enjoyed the group's busking performances, but found their preschool gigs "weird", choosing to contribute by writing and changing The Cockroaches' songs to children's songs.[17]
  6. ^ According to Anthony Field, The Wiggles had to leave their own dinosaur character Dorothy behind, stating tongue in cheek, "Too many dinosaurs on stage can be distracting".[34]
  7. ^ The group performed 12 sold-out shows at Madison Square Garden in 2003, and have appeared in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, the first time in 2001. 1 November 2003 was declared "Wiggles Day" in New York City.[37]
  8. ^ By 2011, the group's 20th anniversary, they were performing 350—400 shows a year.[27]
  9. ^ Future members Sam Moran hosted and Lachlan Gillespie performed in these productions.[92][93]
  10. ^ The New York Times stated that Page's retirement was similar to John Lennon or Paul McCartney quitting The Beatles.[45]
  11. ^ This includes Emma Watkins who mentioned in a Ten News interview that she and her sister were shown in the concert audience for the 1997 Wiggledance! video. - Wiggle reaction (YOUTUBE). Ten News. 18 May 2012. Event occurs at 0:54-1:03. 
  12. ^ Warren has been a consultant for The Wiggles since Field, Cook, and Page were her students at Macquarie University.
  13. ^ They won in 1995 for Big Red Car, in 1996 for Wake Up Jeff!, in 1998 for Toot Toot!, in 2005 for Live Hot Potatoes, in 2006 for Racing to the Rainbow, in 2007 for Pop Go The Wiggles, in 2008 for You Make Me Feel Like Dancing, in 2009 for Go Bananas!, in 2010 for Lets Eat!, in 2011 for Ukelele Baby, and in 2012 for Surfer Jeff. [1]


  1. ^ a b Cuneo, Clementine; Duck, Siobhan (May 18, 2012). "The great skivvy handover - Emma Watkins will be the first female Wiggle". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved March 20, 2015. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Scott, Paul (April 2, 2006). "Kid Rock". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d Wright, Anders (March 25, 2008). "Baby's first rock band". San Diego Citybeat. Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  4. ^ a b "AC/DC tops BRW entertainment rich list, ahead of Kylie Minogue and the Wiggles". Herald Sun. 4 November 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c Field, Paul. "About Us ~ Corporate Profile". The Wiggles Pty Ltd. Archived from the original on 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  6. ^ McFarlane, p. 128
  7. ^ McFarlane, p. 129
  8. ^ a b c Stapleton, John (7 June 2008). "Death of little girl gave birth to the Wiggles". The Australian. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f A. Field. p. 28
  10. ^ Mulligan, Mark. "A Brief History of Nearly Everything BSL (Bang Shang a Lang Website)" (DOC). Retrieved April 2, 2015. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Eng, Dinah (January 23, 2010). "How The Wiggles became an empire". Retrieved April 2, 2015. 
  12. ^ a b A. Field, p. 21
  13. ^ a b c P. Field, p. 2
  14. ^ a b c d Denton, Andrew (June 23, 2003). "Enough Rope with Andrew Denton". Retrieved May 2, 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c "A life less Wiggly". Sydney Morning Herald. 24 February 2003. Retrieved 2013-10-04. 
  16. ^ Sams, Christine (1 August 2005). "The Fifth Wiggle speaks out". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2007-01-22. 
  17. ^ a b A. Field, p. 29
  18. ^ a b c d Tabakoff, Jenny (October 1, 2002). "Wake up, Aunty!". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 3, 2015. 
  19. ^ a b c d A. Field, p. 32
  20. ^ A. Field, p. 93
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Munro, Catharine (May 22, 2005). "The Wiggly way". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  22. ^ Chamberlain, Adrian (April 17, 2008). "The Wiggles: Rock star status with screaming crowds of tots". Canwest News Service. Retrieved March 5, 2015. 
  23. ^ a b A. Field, p. 31
  24. ^ Fallon, Daniel (June 3, 2014). "My life as a Cockroach (not a Wiggle)". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 11, 2014. 
  25. ^ a b Sams, Christine (May 19, 2012). "I'm no dictator, says Blue Wiggle". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  26. ^ a b Meacham, Steve (December 3, 2005). "The master of sword play". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  27. ^ a b c d e Brandle, Lars (February 11, 2011). "The Hot Seat: Anthony Field from The Wiggles". Lars Retrieved July 23, 2011. 
  28. ^ A Field, p. 33
  29. ^ a b c d e P. Field, p. 4
  30. ^ "Australian Content Box Office: 1998". Australian Film Commission. Retrieved May 12, 2015. 
  31. ^ A. Field, p. 58
  32. ^ a b Field 2012, p. 56
  33. ^ A. Field, p. 42
  34. ^ a b c d Field 2012, p. 59
  35. ^ a b c d P. Field, p. 5
  36. ^ A. Field, pp. 56—57
  37. ^ a b c d "They're off to see the Wiggles, the wonderful Wiggles of Oz". The Sydney Morning Herald. November 3, 2003. Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  38. ^ "The Wiggles Join Playhouse Disney Monday, June 17" (Press release). Disney Channel. June 12, 2002. Retrieved May 13, 2012. 
  39. ^ a b Field 2012, p. 75
  40. ^ A. Field, p. 74
  41. ^ A. Field, p. 224—225
  42. ^ a b c d e Quinn, Karl (May 19, 2012). "Wiggle room: the brand played on". The Age. Retrieved May 27, 2015. 
  43. ^ A. Field, pp. 81—82
  44. ^ a b "The Wiggles' lead vocalist to stop performing". MSNBC. Associated Press. 30 November 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  45. ^ a b c Steinberg, Jacques (4 December 2006). "Hush, Mama, Don't You Cry, a New Yellow Wiggle Will Sing". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  46. ^ a b c d e Washington, Stuart; Erik Jensen; Glenda Kwek (21 January 2012). "Yellow sub: Greg resurfaces". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  47. ^ a b c d Markstrom, Serena (March 21, 2008). "Fab Four of Kid Rock Comes to Town". The Register-Guard (Eugene, Oregon). Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  48. ^ a b c Kwek, Glenda (January 19, 2012). "How 'salaried' Sam lost his Wiggle". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 18, 2015. 
  49. ^ Williams, David E (October 10, 2006). "Wiggling on without Greg". CNN. Retrieved May 22, 2015. 
  50. ^ "Wiggles Donate Early Tapes to Archive". Herald Sun. December 19, 2007. 
  51. ^ a b Zuel, Bernard (December 15, 2007). "Welcome to Wiggles World". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  52. ^ Perry, Byron (March 4, 2008). "Six Flags to build in Arab world". Variety. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  53. ^ Murphy, Damien (April 27, 2009). "Wake up Wiggles: fans see red over website". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  54. ^ Gibbons, Kent (May 20, 2009). "The Wiggles Move To Sprout From Disney". Multichannel News. Retrieved May 23, 201.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  55. ^ "Wiggle Jeff Fatt has a tricky ticker". The Daily Telegraph. 20 September 2009. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  56. ^ "Purple Wiggle Jeff Fatt undergoes surgery to fix broken heart". Herald Sun. July 2, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  57. ^ a b "Exhausted Wiggles quit Carols". ABC News. December 12, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2015. 
  58. ^ Bleby, Michael (June 7, 2012). "Have The Wiggles killed their brand?". Business Review Weekly. Retrieved May 19, 2015. 
  59. ^ a b Shedden, Iain (2012-05-19). "The Wiggles: Split the band, save the brand". The Australian. Retrieved 2013-04-27. 
  60. ^ Lindhe, Jane (12 December 2012). "The 50 biggest earners in show business". Business Review Weekly. Retrieved 2013-03-01
  61. ^ Fisher, Ella (5 December 2012). "Wiggles prove their appeal with farewell concert". The Canberra News. Retrieved 2013-12-02. 
  62. ^ "Wiggles woo Carols crowd". The Sydney Morning Herald (Australian AP). 23 December 2012. Retrieved 2012-12-26. 
  63. ^ Blake, Jason (24 December 2012). "Wiggles finale upsetting only for the big kids". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-12-26. 
  64. ^ Field 2012, p. 90
  65. ^ Lee, Felicia R (18 November 2012). "The Wiggles Come to Satellite Radio". The New York Times. Retrieved 2012-12-20. 
  66. ^ McCabe, Kathy (26 August 2013). "The Wiggles dream of playing Glastonbury as they return to Aussie TV and arenas". Retrieved 25 August 2013. 
  67. ^ a b Bourgeau, Michel. "Play your guitar with Murray" (DOC). Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  68. ^ a b c Sachs, Rob (18 May 2006). "The Wiggles Rock! (Just Ask Your Kids)". NPR. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  69. ^ a b c d e f Field, Paul (8 November 2006). "It's a Wiggly Wiggly World" (PDF). Currency House. Retrieved 2009-03-18. 
  70. ^ Scott McNulty (25 August 2009). The Wiggles: An interview (YouTube clip). Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  71. ^ a b Durden, Douglas (5 August 2007). "A new face". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  72. ^ a b c Field 2012, p. 27
  73. ^ Field 2012, p. 89
  74. ^ a b Field, p. 49
  75. ^ "Offspring put the wiggle in the Wiggles". The Canadian Press. 8 March 2008. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  76. ^ Field 2012, p. 212
  77. ^ Field 2012, p. 45
  78. ^ Field 2012, p. 43
  79. ^ Elliott, Tim (13 January 2007). "It's a wiggly, wiggly world". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  80. ^ Haynes, Rhys (14 December 2011). "Australia's top 50 entertainers include The Wiggles Global Creatures Naomi Watts and Nicole Kidman". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2012-01-19. 
  81. ^ "Winners - 2007". Australasian Performing Right Association-Australasian Mechanical Copyright Owners Society (APRA/AMCOS). Retrieved 2010-05-18. 
  82. ^ "ARIA Awards 2003 : History: Winners by Year: 2003: 17th Annual ARIA Awards". Australian Recording Industry Association (ARIA). Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2010-05-27. 
  83. ^ Quinn, Karl (31 October 2011). "Wiggles, Kylie to be inducted into ARIA's Hall of Fame". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2012-04-25. 
  84. ^ a b c "Hot potato for Wiggles tickets". The Daily Telegraph. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  85. ^ a b Sams, Christine (6 April 2006). "Wiggles four degrees hotter". Newsday. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  86. ^ Fraser, Jane E. (20 September 2009). "The Wiggles go to the top of the class". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  87. ^ "Wiggles concert raises funds for UNICEF". Australian Associated Press. 25 May 2008. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  88. ^ "Wiggles 'floored' by Australia Day Honours". ABC News. 26 January 2010. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  89. ^ "Wiggles make Christmas hospital visit". Nine News (Australian AP). 27 December 2007. Archived from the original on 2012-10-05. Retrieved 2012-05-20. 
  90. ^ "Rewiggled - A Tribute To The Wiggles". ABC Music. Retrieved 2011-12-16. 
  91. ^ A. Field, p. 44.
  92. ^ Meacham, Steve (December 15, 2006). "First Dorothy, then another yellow road". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  93. ^ Roland, David (September 1, 2014). "The Wiggles' Show is 'Packed with High Energy Dancing and Singing'". Broward-Palm Beach New Times (Hollywood, Florida). Retrieved May 13, 2015. 
  • Field, Paul (November 8, 2006). "It’s a Wiggly Wiggly World" (PDF), pp. 1–7. Currency House. Retrieved May 1, 2015.
  • McFarlane, Ian. The Encyclopedia of Australian Rock and Pop. "The Cockroaches", pp. 128–129.

External links[edit]