The Wizard of Oz on television
MGM's 1939 American musical fantasy film The Wizard of Oz was first telecast on television on Saturday, November 3, 1956. It was shown as the last installment of the CBS anthology series Ford Star Jubilee. Since that telecast, it has been shown respectively by CBS, NBC, the WB Network, and several of Ted Turner's national cable channels. From 1959 to 1991 it was an annual tradition on American commercial network television.
After the film was shown on television for the second time, network telecasts of it became a family event in the United States, drawing large audiences annually for many years. Between 1959 and 1980, television was virtually the only means by which families were able to see it, unless they attended the MGM Children's Matinee in 1970.
Until 1999, the film had been telecast in the U.S. only on commercial broadcast television. After the film went to cable that year, TV showings of it became more frequent, and the tradition of televising it only once a year was abandoned, at least in the U.S.
The Wizard of Oz has become perhaps the most famous film to be shown regularly on U.S. television, and one of the most cherished. Of the many family-oriented musical fantasies telecast after the successful 1955 version of the Mary Martin Peter Pan, The Wizard of Oz is the only one which is still shown regularly as of 2013.
Although the film was first telecast in 1956, it was not rebroadcast until 1959. The 1959 to 1962 telecasts occurred later in the year, between Thanksgiving and Christmas. However, beginning in the 1963–64 season the showings would occur in the early months of the year. The movie did not air in 1963.
The film became available on home video in 1980.
- 1 First telecast
- 2 1959-1998
- 2.1 Preemptions during early CBS years
- 2.2 "Wraparound" opening and closing credits
- 2.3 Shown in color
- 2.4 Later hosts
- 2.5 Television ratings
- 2.6 Changes made in running time
- 2.7 March 1991 showing
- 2.8 Move to cable
- 2.9 Differences between network and cable showings
- 2.10 Aspect ratio
- 2.11 Outside the United States
- 3 References
The Wizard of Oz, which had been a critical but only a modest financial success during its theatrical run, was chosen to be the first Hollywood film to be shown uncut in one evening on an entire television network  rather than just a network affiliate. Its first telecast took place November 3, 1956 on Ford Star Jubilee. It was the last program in the CBS anthology series, which had already been canceled. The network paid MGM $225,000 for the rights to televise the film and to re-broadcast it if the telecast was a success.
This 1956 telecast was intended by network executives as a response to the successful color telecast of the Broadway musical Peter Pan with Mary Martin, which had been restaged especially for TV at NBC Studios as part of the anthology series Producers' Showcase. Peter Pan had first been shown live on TV by NBC in 1955, and been repeated (again live) by public demand in 1956. These first two telecasts of Peter Pan were so successful that other live-action adaptations of fantasies, several of them now forgotten, were telecast over the next few years. Among them were:
- A live, non-musical 1955 Hallmark Hall of Fame color telecast on NBC of Lewis Carroll's Alice in Wonderland, in the famous 1932 adaptation originally produced for the Broadway stage by actress Eva LeGallienne. It starred child actress Gillian Barber as Alice, with a cast that included Ms. LeGallienne herself as the White Queen, Elsa Lanchester as the Red Queen, Reginald Gardiner as the White Knight, a very young Tom Bosley as the Knave of Hearts, Karl Swenson as Humpty Dumpty, and Martyn Green as the White Rabbit. Shakespearean actor Maurice Evans narrated.
- A live, very abridged color version in 1955 of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty, starring Margot Fonteyn and Michael Somes, with the Royal Ballet, then known as Sadler's Wells Ballet. This was the first telecast ever of the work, in a production that had originally been given a full-length staging in London in 1946 by choreographer Frederick Ashton, who also danced the role of the evil fairy Carabosse (in drag). It was telecast on NBC's Producers' Showcase, the same anthology series that telecast the 1955 and 1956 versions of Peter Pan.
- A live 1956 musical color version of Jack and the Beanstalk, also telecast as an installment of Producers' Showcase. This version of Jack and the Beanstalk starred Joel Grey in a very early role as Jack, Billy Gilbert as the Giant, and Celeste Holm and Cyril Ritchard in other roles, and it featured songs by Jerry Livingston and Helen Deutsch.
- The original 1956 live (and live-action) version of The Stingiest Man in Town, starring Basil Rathbone as Scrooge, shown in color on the NBC anthology series The Alcoa Hour.
- The live 1957 original version of Rodgers and Hammerstein's musical Cinderella, starring Julie Andrews, telecast by CBS in color.
- The live Wilder and Engvick musicals Pinocchio (1957), with Mickey Rooney, and Hansel and Gretel (1958), with Red Buttons and Barbara Cook. Both programs were telecast on NBC.
- The 1957 musical Pied Piper of Hamelin, with Van Johnson in two roles, and co-starring Claude Rains, Jim Backus, Lori Nelson, and Kay Starr. It boasted a score based on some of Edvard Grieg's classic works such as the Peer Gynt music, with lyrics by Irving Taylor. Unlike the other specials, which were done either live or on videotape, this was an actual Technicolor made-for-TV film, and it was the only film in which Claude Rains sang and danced. First telecast on NBC.
- Cole Porter's Aladdin, telecast live in 1958 as an installment of the famous anthology series DuPont Show of the Month, with Sal Mineo in the title role, also featuring Geoffrey Holder as the Genie, Anna Maria Alberghetti as the Princess, and Basil Rathbone as the Emperor. This was Porter's last musical, and the only one he wrote for television. Telecast on CBS.
- The videotaped television series Shirley Temple's Storybook, which ran in one form or another from 1958 to 1961, and included adaptations of The Land of Oz and Babes in Toyland, as well as other fantasies such as Rumplestiltskin among its episodes.
- The live, first complete telecast of the George Balanchine Nutcracker, as a special 1958 color installment of CBS's Playhouse 90. Balanchine also danced the role of Drosselmeyer. There had been an earlier, heavily abridged telecast of the Tchaikovsky ballet on the program Seven Lively Arts, but the Playhouse 90 one was the first American telecast of it in a ninety-minute version.
- The 1959 shot-on-videotape live-action / marionette musical Art Carney Meets Peter and the Wolf, starring Art Carney and the Bil Baird Marionettes, with a score based on the works of Serge Prokofiev, telecast on ABC.
All of these shows except Peter Pan, The Sleeping Beauty, The Wizard of Oz and The Nutcracker were especially created for television, and led to a sort of temporary trend for this type of entertainment. The Alice in Wonderland, although originally produced onstage, featured an almost entirely new cast in its television adaptation. Only Eva LeGallienne reprised her original stage role. Most of these programs now survive only in kinescoped black-and-white prints, even if they were originally broadcast in color. Exceptions include The Pied Piper of Hamelin and some of the Shirley Temple programs. The first two telecasts of the Mary Martin Peter Pan, which were done live, survive only in black-and-white, while its third telecast, which was staged in 1960 with Mary Martin and most of the 1955 cast, and was recorded on videotape rather than kinescope, survives in color.
For the first telecast of The Wizard of Oz, the normally 90-minute Ford Star Jubilee was expanded to a full two hours to accommodate the entire film, which, in addition to having commercial breaks, was celebrity hosted. The main reason that CBS arranged for a host for the film was that a 101-minute motion picture was at that time not considered long enough to run in the allotted 120-minute time slot without some "padding". This was because, until about 1968, commercial breaks were much shorter on television than they are now, usually lasting no more than two minutes, and there were fewer breaks during a program — perhaps eight in a two-hour span as opposed to about ten or twelve today. This telecast marked the only time that any actor who appeared in the film was selected to host it. Bert Lahr, who had played both the Cowardly Lion and farmhand Zeke in the film, the then ten-year-old Liza Minnelli, and young Oz expert Justin G. Schiller appeared as hosts to introduce the movie. Lorna Luft, Minnelli's half-sister, did not appear on the telecast, as she was only four years old at the time, although she did have her picture taken with Minnelli in a promotional photo. Unlike several of the other Oz telecasts, no stills were taken during the hosting sequences of the 1956 telecast. The practice of a show business celebrity regularly "hosting" The Wizard of Oz lasted from the film's first television showing until 1968, when the film went to NBC after being telecast on CBS nine times.
The film was always telecast uncut in a two-hour time slot between 1956 and 1968, despite having commercials and hosted segments. The Professor Marvel sequence has never been omitted (at least in American telecasts of the film), and the tracking shot of Munchkinland was not edited until the film went to NBC in 1968.
The day after the film's first telecast, newspapers reviewed the presentation ecstatically. Variety magazine prophetically suggested that in the future the film could be telecast annually and at an earlier time, which, of course, is exactly what happened.
The film was not rebroadcast in 1957 or 1958. For telecasts from 1959 (the year of its second telecast) up until 1998, the film was always shown as a stand-alone TV special instead of as part of an anthology or movie series. Between 1959 and 1968, and again in 1990 when Angela Lansbury, star of CBS' Murder She Wrote, hosted the 50th-anniversary telecast, CBS would choose its hosts from its then-current prime time lineup. In 1959, the host was Red Skelton (The Red Skelton Show); in 1960 it was Richard Boone (Have Gun, Will Travel), in 1961 and 1962 it was Dick Van Dyke (The Dick Van Dyke Show), and from 1964 through 1967, it was Danny Kaye (The Danny Kaye Show). Skelton, Boone and Van Dyke brought their then-young children along to appear with them.
During these years, the hosting sequences were not staged in a run-of-the-mill manner, with the host merely standing in a studio set, but in what could be considered imaginative ways. Richard Boone, one of the three dramatic actors (as opposed to comedians) who has hosted the film, was taped on the set of his television series Have Gun, Will Travel, where he was shown in a "living room" with his real son about to watch the film on a TV set. Dick Van Dyke was shown in a living room set where he was seen with his children, Danny Kaye's hosting segment featured him sitting on a prop toadstool against a painted backdrop of the Yellow Brick Road and the Emerald City. The Kaye segment did not include a television set as part of its design.
Often some humor would be incorporated into these segments. Red Skelton was seen as two characters: Before the film began, he was seen in a studio set of an early 20th-century bookstore, in costume as a Victorian-era storyteller who introduced L. Frank Baum's original 1900 novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz to a young girl played by Skelton's real daughter, and at film's end, he appeared in a studio recreation of a modern living room as himself. Danny Kaye would reassure viewers not to panic when the film began in black-and-white rather than in color, and he would encourage young viewers not to be afraid of the roaring MGM lion at the beginning of the film. No directors or writers were credited for the hosting sequences, just as none are credited for those shown prior to the film on Turner Classic Movies.
The Wizard of Oz did not become an annual television tradition immediately — only after the 1959 showing, when, because of the earlier hour at which it was shown (6:00 P.M., E.S.T.), more children tuned into the broadcast, and it gained an even larger television audience than before. The 1959 telecast was especially welcomed by media critic John Crosby, who commented in the New York Herald Tribune, "Television — any television — looks awfully ordinary after The Wizard of Oz". From 1959 until 1991, the film was telecast once every year, the one exception being 1963, when it was not telecast at all.
Preemptions during early CBS years
In 1956, the first telecast of The Wizard of Oz had preempted The Gale Storm Show, the long-forgotten Hey, Jeannie!, and Gunsmoke. Between 1959 and 1966, telecasts of the film, which at that time always took place on Sunday evenings, invariably preempted that week's showings of The Twentieth Century (which ran from 1957 until 1966), and Lassie (which ran from 1955 until 1974). From 1959 through 1962, they also preempted the sitcom Dennis the Menace, and from 1964 through 1966, in addition to Lassie and The Twentieth Century, the sitcom My Favorite Martian, which premiered when Dennis the Menace 's run ended. Only once did they pre-empt the short-lived 1966 caveman sitcom It's About Time, which replaced My Favorite Martian. There were no preemptions in 1963 because the film was not televised that year.
Conversely, then-CBS affiliate WISN-TV in Milwaukee opted not to carry the network's yearly Oz telecast in 1961, the year WISN began its affiliation with CBS, running Green Bay Packers football instead. However, due to viewer outcry, WISN was able to get permission to run the film locally at a later date.
In 1978, after the film had returned to CBS, a computer malfunction at the CBS owned-and-operated WBBM-TV in Chicago accidentally cut off most of the ending to that year's Oz telecast, interrupting the final minute with a commercial block that was not supposed to air until after the movie had ended. Because the break was only 42 seconds long, no attempt was made to override the computer, for fear of making the problem worse. For several hours thereafter, the WBBM switchboards were flooded with angry calls from viewers, while those unable to get through chose to voice their displeasure through the Chicago Tribune and Chicago Sun-Times newspapers.
"Wraparound" opening and closing credits
The film, as telecast on U.S. television between 1959 and 1968, was arguably given a much more elaborate TV presentation than it would receive afterwards. During those years, it would always have special "wraparound" opening and closing credits segments devised by CBS, accompanied by the network's own specially recorded opening and closing music based on the film's score. For the opening "wraparound" credits, the title The Wizard of Oz and the names of its five leading actors, Judy Garland, Frank Morgan, Ray Bolger, Bert Lahr, and Jack Haley, would first be shown in CBS's own format and font, while an anonymous announcer read them off and then followed this with an announcement of the film's sponsor(s): "This portion of The Wizard of Oz is brought to you by...[name of sponsor mentioned]". These specially-devised opening credits would never mention that the film was made by MGM or any other studio. From 1959 to 1964, CBS created different "wraparound" credits for each showing, but because the same hosting segment - the Danny Kaye one - was shown between 1964 and 1968, audiences saw the same "wraparound" credits from 1964 until the film went to NBC.
This special CBS introduction would be followed by the host speaking about the movie for about three minutes or so. His remarks would lead directly into the actual film, beginning with all of its original 1939 opening credits (which are shown against a background of moving clouds), including the MGM Leo the Lion logo, the name of the film, the cast list, and the film's principal technical staff, exactly as MGM had created them, with the film's main title music heard. Unlike today's Turner Classic Movies hosting segments, the host would never announce the film's beginning by saying "And now, from 1939, [here is] The Wizard of Oz."
The host would reappear just before the film's second half began, to say a few more words about it, before the telecast proceeded with the rest of the film, commercials included (the second half of the film always began with the poppy field sequence).
However, at the end of the movie, the film's closing credits, as created by MGM, would not be shown, and the The End title card that directly follows Dorothy's closing line was never seen on television during these early CBS showings. Instead, immediately after Dorothy spoke her last line ("Oh, Auntie Em, there's no place like home!"), and the camera faded out on her, television viewers once again saw CBS's specially made title card The Wizard of Oz, this time accompanied by some of the film's end title music, exactly as heard on the soundtrack, and the announcer's voice saying that the host for that year would return in a moment. After a final commercial, the host would then be seen once again, bid farewell to the TV audience, and CBS would show their own version of the cast list which appears during the film's end credits. At the end, referring to both the film and the hosting segments, the same announcer would declare that "This has been a film and videotape presentation."
CBS used celebrity hosts to introduce their special family film telecasts on two other occasions, first for their 1965 through 1968 American telecasts of a rather obscure German television film of The Nutcracker, which was hosted by Eddie Albert, and again in the first ever network telecast of the 1955 film Oklahoma!, which had as hosts Sebastian Cabot, Anissa Jones, Johnny Whitaker, and Kathy Garver from the sitcom Family Affair. Oklahoma! was first telecast on Thanksgiving night, 1970, preempting Family Affair and several other programs.
Shown in color
From the beginning The Wizard of Oz was telecast in color, although few people owned color television sets in 1956. An exception was in 1961, when CBS said that color telecasts had to be paid for by their sponsors. Those sponsoring The Wizard of Oz declined to do so, and the film was shown in black-and-white that year. Between 1956 and 1965, the Wizard of Oz showings were rare exceptions to the black and white program schedule at CBS, whose competitor NBC was owned by RCA, which by 1960 manufactured 95% of the color sets sold in the U.S. By 1964, it was again being shown in color.
|This section, except for one footnote, needs additional citations for verification. (June 2013)|
Partly because commercial time during programs increased beginning in the late 1960s, the idea of regularly having hosts to introduce the film was dropped when The Wizard of Oz went to NBC in 1968, where no "wraparound" sequence was shown. The presentation consisted only of the film itself, with its original opening and closing credits, and no special NBC-created credits or hosting segments. The famous NBC peacock would be shown immediately prior to the beginning of the film, with announcer Mel Brandt saying that "the first 22 minutes of this program [i.e. the Kansas and tornado sequences] will be shown in black-and-white", a not quite accurate statement, since the final three minutes of the film also took place in Kansas, and were at that time also shown in black-and-white, rather than in the sepia tone in which they originally had been made (the sepia was not restored to the Kansas and tornado scenes until 1989 - the film's 50th anniversary). However, one NBC telecast did feature an on-screen host: the 1970 showing, which opened with veteran actor Gregory Peck paying tribute to the recently deceased Judy Garland (a segment directed by Oz producer Mervyn LeRoy, marking his first TV work), although this segment consisted of only a few brief remarks, while the opening hosting segments on CBS had gone on for about three minutes or so.
The switch in networks resulted because CBS was unwilling to meet MGM's increased price — fostered by the film's ever increasing popularity — for renewal of the rights to telecast it. The film stayed on NBC until 1976. When CBS, realizing its error in allowing it to go to another network, bought back the rights at MGM's asking price, their viewer ratings shot up, and one executive was heard to remark, "That picture is better [for the network] than a gushing oil well".
After its 1976 return to CBS, the film was hosted on that network only once more, in a filmed segment featuring Angela Lansbury in 1990, but the CBS "wraparound" opening and closing credits were not - and have never been - revived, although, during those years, a blue card featuring a painting of a rainbow and the title The Wizard of Oz was shown on the screen while the night's pre-empted programs and the sponsors were being announced, and immediately before and after commercial breaks. Angela Lansbury also narrated a documentary about the making of the film, originally entitled The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: 50 Years of Magic and years later retitled The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: The Making of a Movie Classic. It was first shown immediately after the movie's 1990 telecast, and is included as a supplement on all the DVD releases beginning with the 1999 DVD release. Jack Haley, Jr., the documentary's director, was nominated for an Emmy Award for his work.
In recent years, when shown on Turner Classic Movies, The Wizard of Oz is usually hosted by TCM host Robert Osborne, though, in this case, since TCM is commercial-free, it is obviously not done in order to pad out its running time. When telecast now, the film never has any "wraparound" credits created by a network or a national television station.
On July 27, 2008, the film was shown twice in a row on Turner Network Television without a host, but with commercials, and with "pop-up" animated ads for other TNT programs at the bottom of the screen just before and after commercial breaks.
On March 24 and 25, 2012, the film was hosted on the Cartoon Network by television actor Robert Wu, who provides the voice of Mr. Washee Washee in the Family Guy episode, Tiegs for Two. This presentation had the host making (would-be) comic remarks after every commercial break, and in the hosting sequence he had to contend with the temperamental "floating head" Oz, who insisted that the film was really all about him, and him exclusively. Like the TNT telecasts, the ones on this channel also had pop-up ads running at the bottom of the screen. Because of all of Wu's comic sequences, this telecast of the 101 minute film was padded out to two-and-a-half hours.
On June 10, 2012, which would have been Judy Garland's 90th birthday, the film was telecast on Turner Classic Movies without commercials, and hosted by comedian Bill Hader, again as part of the Essentials, Jr. summer series of family films. Unlike the CBS hosting segments which were a part of the 1960s telecasts of the film, Hader's segment showed clips from the film before it actually began.
The showing in 1983 was the 25th network prime-time showing, a record then for any film or television special. In the first nine showings, all on CBS, The Wizard of Oz gained at least 49% of the television audience. In 1966, it ranked #1 in the ratings for the week that it was shown. Between 1960 and 1968, the film even beat out episodes of ABC-TV's Walt Disney Presents (in 1960) and NBC's Walt Disney's Wonderful World of Color (from 1961 to 1968), which aired opposite the film. When the film moved temporarily from CBS to NBC, it would always preempt the Disney program altogether, except for once, when NBC showed Oz on a Saturday in 1968. When CBS bought the film back from NBC in 1976, it again began to beat episodes of Disney in the ratings. And, on one occasion, it preempted Disney yet again, after the series moved to that network in the early 1980s.
Changes made in running time
From 1968 to 1984, minor cuts were made to the film to make room for added commercial time and in order to have the film "clock in" at two hours. No actual dialogue or singing was removed, only moments such as camera pans and establishing shots, as well as MGM's written foreword to the film.
On a few occasions beginning in 1985, again because of the increased time spent on commercial breaks, the film was time-compressed to fit it into a two-hour running time without cutting it. (In "time compression", the film is run at a slightly faster speed resulting in slightly faster motion and higher pitched voices) However, The Wizard of Oz is now always shown complete and at its regular speed on television, both with and without commercials. When shown with ads, the film now runs about two hours and fifteen minutes, simply because of the increase in commercial time.
March 1991 showing
The March 1991 showing was the first after the film gained protected status from the Library of Congress and the National Film Preservation Board. Networks opted to no longer shorten the film by "microcutting" a few individual moments throughout the movie as had been done from the late 1960s to the early 1980s to make room for commercials and keep it in a two-hour broadcast. This extended the running time of the film from 8 P.M to 10:07 P.M., and sometimes even longer, depending on the amount of time spent on commercials. It was one of the first 50 films selected for this protection.
Move to cable
In 1991, the film was shown twice during the year for the first time. 1991 also marked the first time since 1956 that the film was shown in November. This also happened in 1993, when the film was telecast in both February and November of that year. The film was not shown on television at all in 1992, 1995 and 1997, marking the first time since 1963 that a year was skipped in showings of the film. Turner, which owned most of the pre-May 1986 MGM film and television library at the time (later owned by Warner Bros.), began moving to make its properties exclusive to Turner-owned outlets in the late 1990s; as such, in 1998, The Wizard of Oz made its last appearance on CBS, moving exclusively to Turner-owned properties the next year.
2000 marked the first time that the film was shown on U.S. television during the summer. In 2002, it was shown five times.
On November 6, 2011, TBS became the American television channel on which The Wizard of Oz has been shown most often, when the film had its 32nd showing on that channel, finally breaking CBS' record 31 showings. As of April 29, 2013, Turner Classic Movies has shown the film 23 times.
Differences between network and cable showings
In addition to the frequent cable showings, another difference between showings on NBC, CBS, the WB network, and cable channels is that when the film was shown on CBS and NBC, it was always presented as a special instead of just a televised film. From 1959 until it went to cable, the film was never shown on NBC Saturday Night at the Movies or any other movie anthology series, and telecasts of the film would regularly preempt two hours or more of regular television programming.
Promos for the CBS and NBC showings during the 1960s would begin airing on television as far as two weeks in advance of that year's telecast and were still airing as late as 1989. On the major commercial networks, it was never termed a "CBS Movie Special" or an "NBC Movie Special", as movie specials shown on those networks are frequently termed, but as simply The Wizard of Oz.
Outside the United States
The movie has also been shown on television successfully in Great Britain, Canada and is shown every year in Australia, but it has not become the television phenomenon there that it has in the U.S. In Japan, the film has aired on the Japanese version of The Magical World of Disney, although Disney had nothing to do with its production or release.
- "Television: The Oz Bowl Game". Time. January 15, 1965. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- "Treasures of American History: The Wizard of Oz". National Museum of American History. Retrieved April 1, 2013. "For generations, this 1939 MGM fantasy musical has held a cherished place in American popular culture."
- "Radio: Here Comes Hollywood". Time. November 12, 1956. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
- Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2003). "Ford Star Jubilee". The Complete Directory to Prime Time Cable and Network Shows 1946 - Present. Ballantine Books. p. 425. ISBN 0-345-45542-8. "Last telecast: November 3, 1956 ... The last telecast of Ford Star Jubilee, however, was really something special. It was the first airing of what later became a television tradition — Judy Garland's classic 1939 film The Wizard of Oz, with Judy's 10-year-old daughter Liza Minnelli and Bert Lahr (the cowardly lion from the film) on hand to introduce it."
- Adams, Val (August 14, 1956). "C.B.S. May Lease 750 M-G-M Movies". The New York Times. p. 53. Retrieved April 1, 2013. "The only feature leased so far by M-G-M is 'The Wizard of Oz,' starring Judy Garland, which CBS plans to televise on its network during the Christmas season this year and again in 1957. It also has an option for third and fourth showings. The network will pay M-G-M $225,00 each time it televises 'The Wizard of Oz.'" Abstract; full article requires fee.
- The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, page #?
- Fricke, John, and Jay Scarfone and William Stillman. The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, Warner Books, 1989
- Fricke, John, and Jay Scarfone and William Stillman. The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, Warner Books, 1989, p.215
- Fricke, John, and Jay Scarfone. The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, Warner Books, 1989
- Fricke, John, and Jay Scarfone. The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History, Warner Books, 1989, p. 214.
- Fricke, John, and Jay Scarfone and William Stillman. "The Wizard of Oz: The Official 50th Anniversary Pictorial History", Warner Books, 1989.
- Harmetz, Aljean "'Wizard of Oz': A TV Success Story," New York Times, March 16, 1983. pg. C21. ISSN: 03624331.
- Interesting Texts
- Glenn Collins, "A Full-Length 'Oz' for TV." New York Times. New York, N.Y.: March 19, 1991, p. C16. ISSN 03624331.
- The Wonderful Wizard of Oz Website