The Woodlands (Philadelphia)
|Location||4000 Woodland Avenue, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA|
|Area||53 acres (210,000 m2)|
|Built||1770; rebuilt 1786-92|
|Architectural style||Neoclassical; Robert Adam Style|
|Governing body||Woodlands Cemetery Company of Philadelphia|
|NRHP Reference #||67000022|
|Added to NRHP||1967|
The Woodlands is a National Historic Landmark District on the west bank of the Schuylkill River in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It includes a magnificent Federal-style mansion, a matching carriage house and stable, and a garden landscape that in 1840 was transformed into a Victorian rural cemetery with an arboretum of over 1,000 trees.
Hamilton estate (1735-1840)
The land that would become The Woodlands was originally a 250-acre (1.0 km2) tract in Blockley Township on the west bank of the Schuylkill River. It was purchased in 1735 by the famous Philadelphia lawyer Andrew Hamilton.
When Hamilton died in 1741, he willed his lands to his son, also named Andrew. The son survived his father by only six years, but in that time built up his landholdings enough to leave a 300-acre (1.2 km2) estate to his own son, William Hamilton (1745–1813), who acquired it at the age of twenty-one. William built a Georgian-style mansion with a grand, two-storied portico overlooking the river above Gray's Ferry. Following a trip to England after the American Revolution, Hamilton doubled the size of the dwelling, creating a 16-room manor with kitchens and service rooms in a windowed ground floor. The rebuilt Woodlands mansion became one of the greatest domestic American architectural achievements of the 18th century, recognized as a leading example of English taste and presaging architectural trends in the following century.
Hamilton was an active botanist, and his estate and greenhouses grew to contain more than 10,000 species of plants, including the first specimens introduced into America of the Ginkgo biloba, Paper Mulberry, Sycamore Maple, Ailanthus, Caucasian Zelkova, and Lombardy Poplar as well as plants grown from seeds harvested during Lewis and Clark’s expeditions, especially the Osage Orange (Maclura pomifera). Hamilton also collected and exchanged numerous native plants with his friends and neighbors, the Bartram family of botanists from nearby Bartram's Garden.
At one time, the estate covered 600 acres (2.4 km2) and stretched from the Schuylkill River to what is now Market Street on the north and 42nd Street on the west and incorporated Hamilton Village.
After Hamilton died in 1813, his heirs sold off much of the Woodlands estate for institutional and residential development. By the first quarter of the 19th century, the West Philadelphia district was becoming a fashionable suburb. In order to save the core of Hamilton's estate, in 1840, The Woodlands Cemetery Company of Philadelphia purchased the last 92 acres (370,000 m2), which included the mansion, carriage house, greenhouse and hot houses, as well as extensive plantings. The founders concluded that The Woodlands' isolated location, its array of exotic trees and its commanding view of the Schuylkill River provided an ideal site for a rural cemetery. During this period, the "Garden" or rural cemetery was becoming a popular alternative to crowded and unhygienic urban burial grounds. Rural cemeteries were usually non-sectarian and were distinguished by their diverse and elaborate landscaping and architecture. An early advertisement touted their wholesome atmosphere where "... the decaying bodies of the dead may securely moulder into kindred dust, with an abundant vegetation and free winds to absorb and dissipate all noxious effluvia."
As with its rival to the north, Laurel Hill Cemetery, trustees of the Woodlands spurred the cemetery's early growth by interring the remains of a celebrity: Commodore David Porter. His remains, originally buried at the Philadelphia Naval Asylum cemetery, were reburied at Woodlands in 1845. By mid-century, The Woodlands was thriving and attracted many of Philadelphia's renowned industrialists, medical professionals, artists, writers, and veterans.
In 1853, the land along the river was sold to the West Chester and Philadelphia Railroad, which built a rail line along it. Over the next century, other railroads, particularly the Pennsylvania Railroad, added tracks. (Today, eight tracks run along former Woodlands land, serving Amtrak passenger trains, Conrail freight, and the SEPTA Airport and Media commuter lines.)
Modern use (1960-)
Today, The Woodlands Cemetery Company of Philadelphia exists as a non-profit cemetery corporation that promotes both traditional and current burial practices on its 54 acres (220,000 m2) of land in University City. The company is supported by The Woodlands Trust for Historic Preservation, a non-profit corporation, dedicated to the preservation and promotion of the cemetery, mansion, and arboretum as a cultural landscape between the University of Pennsylvania and the University of the Sciences in Philadelphia.
The pathways and avenues of the cemetery and mansion make up the Woodlands Heritage National Recreation Trail, part of the National Recreation Trail program. The cemetery includes a looped road system emanating from a central paved circle  with infrequent motor vehicle traffic, making the grounds a safe and quiet place for biking, running and walking. There is also an unpaved path that encircles the perimeter of the grounds that is a popular circuit for University City dog-walkers and runners. Leashed dogs are permitted on the grounds, which are free and open to the public from dawn to dusk. The cemetery also hosts a community garden and apiary.
- Mill Creek (Philadelphia)
- National Park Service (June 2010). "National Historic Landmarks Program: List of National Historic Landmarks by State" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-07-16.
- Keels, Thomas H., Philadelphia Graveyards and Cemeteries (Portsmouth, NH: Arcadia Press, 2003)
- Rosenthal, James W. (2003). "VIEW OF THE RAILROAD TRACKS AND SCHUYLKILL RIVER,". Print and Photographs Online Catalog. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 26, 2012.
- see map
- "Cemetery map". University City Historical Society. Retrieved 2009-03-24.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to The Woodlands Cemetery.|
- The Woodlands - official site
- The Woodlands at Find-A-Grave
- Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) documentation:
- Historic American Landscapes Survey (HALS) No. PA-5, "Woodlands Cemetery"
- The mansion's listing and images at Philadelphia Architects and Buildings
- The cemetery's listing and images at Philadelphia Architects and Buildings
- The cemetery gate and drive's listing and images at Philadelphia Architects and Buildings
- The Woodlands Mansion in the Kennedy Collection at the Historical Society of Philadelphia.
- "The River As It Was, The River As It Is, The River As It Should Be" By John Frederick Lewis of the City Parks Association, Philadelphia, 1924.
- The Woodlands Cemetery Company papers, documenting the growth and activities of the cemetery since its founding, are available for research use at the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.