The Wrecking Crew (music)
|"The Wrecking Crew"|
|Also known as||The Phil Spector Wall of Sound Orchestra, "The Clique"|
|Origin||Los Angeles, California|
|Years active||1960s–1970 s|
|Past members||See below|
"The Wrecking Crew" was a nickname coined by drummer Hal Blaine for a group of studio and session musicians that played anonymously on many records in Los Angeles, California during the 1960s. The crew backed dozens of popular singers, and were one of the most successful groups of studio musicians in music history. They were occasionally featured on productions by Phil Spector under the name The Phil Spector Wall of Sound Orchestra.
The Wrecking Crew's members were musically versatile but typically had formal backgrounds in jazz or classical music. The talents of this group of "first call" players were used on almost every style of recording including television theme songs, film scores, advertising jingles and almost every genre of American popular music, from The Monkees to Bing Crosby. Notable artists employing the Wrecking Crew's talents included Nancy Sinatra, Bobby Vee, The Partridge Family (group), David Cassidy (solo), The Mamas & the Papas, The 5th Dimension, The Association, The Carpenters, Glen Campbell, Cher, John Denver, The Beach Boys, Simon & Garfunkel, The Grass Roots and Nat King Cole.
The record producers most often associated with the Wrecking Crew are: Phil Spector, who used the Crew to create his trademark "Wall of Sound"; and Beach Boys member and songwriter Brian Wilson, who used the Crew's talents on many of his mid-1960s productions including the songs "Good Vibrations", "California Girls", Pet Sounds, and the original recordings for Smile. Members of the Wrecking Crew played on the first Byrds single recording, "Mr. Tambourine Man", because Columbia Records did not trust the skills of Byrd musicians except for Roger McGuinn. Spector used the Wrecking Crew on Leonard Cohen's fifth album, Death of a Ladies' Man.
Two of their members, drummers Hal Blaine and Earl Palmer, were among the inaugural "Sidemen" inductees to the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2000, while the entire Wrecking Crew was inducted into the Musicians Hall of Fame in 2007.
According to Blaine, the name "The Wrecking Crew" was derived from the impression that he and the younger studio musicians made on the business's older generation, who felt that they were going to wreck the music industry. Prior to that, in the late 1950s the small group headed by Ray Pohlman was often referred to as "The First Call Gang," since they were the musicians many record producers would call first. With home base being Hollywood's "General Service Studios", this early group consisted of talented musicians such as Earl Palmer, Mel Pollen, Bill Aken, Barney Kessel, and Al Casey. Many historians consider this small group to be the actual origin of "The Wrecking Crew", or "The Clique" as they were sometimes called. In reference to accusations from Carol Kaye that Blaine invented the moniker "the Wrecking Crew" to sell his 1990 book, Blaine commented on the matter: "She's an elderly person [Kaye] who claims The Wrecking Crew was known as 'the clique'. No one, except her, has ever heard of that name."
Members of 'The Wrecking Crew' included:
- bass: Max Bennett, Chuck Berghofer, Jimmy Bond, Red Callender, Carol Kaye, Larry Knechtel, Joe Osborn, Bill Pitman, Ray Pohlman, Lyle Ritz
- conductor/arranger: Jack Nitzsche
- drums: John Clauder, Hal Blaine, Jim Gordon, Jim Keltner, Earl Palmer, Joe Porcaro
- guitar: Bill Aken, Doug Bartenfeld, James Burton, Glen Campbell, Al Casey, Jerry Cole, Mike Deasy, John Goldthwaite, Rene Hall, Carol Kaye, Barney Kessel, Don Peake, Bill Pitman, Ray Pohlman, Howard Roberts, Irv Rubins, Louie Shelton, Billy Strange, Tommy Tedesco, Al Vescovo, P.F. Sloan
- harmonica: Tommy Morgan
- keyboards: Al De Lory, Larry Knechtel, Mike Melvoin, Don Randi, Mac Rebennack (aka Dr. John), Mike (Michel) Rubini, Leon Russell
- percussion: Frank Capp, Gary L. Coleman, Julius Wechter, Joe Porcaro
- saxophone: Gene Cipriano, Steve Douglas, Jim Horn, Plas Johnson, Jay Migliori, Nino Tempo
- trombone: Dick Nash, Richard "Slyde" Hyde, Lew McCreary
- trumpet: Bud Brisbois, Roy Caton, Chuck Findley, Ollie Mitchell, Tony Terran
- vocals: Ron Hicklin Singers often performed backup vocals on many of the same songs on which The Wrecking Crew had played instrumental tracks. Though not an official member, Sonny Bono did hang out and contribute to sessions recorded by the Crew.
Glen Campbell later achieved solo fame as a singer-guitarist in the 1960s and 1970s, and Leon Russell and Mac Rebennack (as Dr. John) both went on to be successful songwriters and had hit singles and albums. Also, Nino Tempo with his sister Carol (under her stage name April Stevens) had a U.S. #1 hit song in 1963, "Deep Purple". Otherwise, the best-known 'members' of this unofficial group are bassist/guitarist Carol Kaye, one of the few female instrumentalists to achieve success in the recording industry at the time; and drummer Hal Blaine, who has played on tens of thousands of recording sessions, including Sinatra's, and is believed by some to be the most recorded drummer in history. Among his vast list of recordings, Blaine is credited with having played on at least forty U.S. #1 hits and more than 150 Top Ten records.
Al Casey worked for many years as a session musician. Jim Gordon also drummed on many well known recording sessions and was the drummer in the group Derek and the Dominos. Gordon also toured with Frank Zappa on the Grand Wazoo tour with Jay Migliori. Ray Pohlman doubled on both bass and guitar, and started heading sessions in the 1950s with a regular group of musicians including, Mel Pollen, Earl Palmer, Bill Aken (aka Zane Ashton), Al Casey, and others. Pohlman would also become the musical director for the TV show Shindig!, while Aken became musical director on "Shock Theatre," both shows being nationally televised. Aken was the musical director on the critically acclaimed syndicated radio show "The Country Call Line" in the mid-1980s and also conceived, arranged, and produced the music for the very first 'Farm-Aid' radio special in collaboration with Willie Nelson and LeRoy Van Dyke.
Jim Keltner would go on to a successful career as a session drummer for much of the 1970s, '80s, and '90s, playing with Ringo Starr's All-Starr band, and playing drums on both albums by the supergroup Traveling Wilburys, (where he is credited as "Buster Sidebury.")
The Wrecking Crew worked long hours and 15-hour days were not unusual, although the rewards were great — Carol Kaye has commented that during her peak as a session musician, she earned more per year than the President.
The Wrecking Crew, or at least part of it, was the house band for 1964's The T.A.M.I. Show. During shots of the right side of the stage, one can often spot musical director Jack Nitzsche, drummer Hal Blaine, electric bassist Jimmy Bond, guitarists Tommy Tedesco, Bill Aken, and Glen Campbell, upright bassist Lyle Ritz, pianist Leon Russell, saxophonist Plas Johnson, and others.
The Wrecking Crew
The Wrecking Crew were featured in the 2008 documentary film The Wrecking Crew directed by Tommy Tedesco's son, Denny Tedesco.
- Inducted in 2007 to the Musicians Hall of Fame
- The Funk Brothers
- Booker T and the M.G.'s
- Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section
- The Salsoul Orchestra
- The J.B.'s
- Abnuceals Emuukha Electric Symphony Orchestra
- The Memphis Boys
- Tower of Power Horn Section
- Hartman, Kent (February–March 2007). "The Wrecking Crew". American Heritage (American Heritage) 58 (1). Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Hartman (2012)
- "Phil Spector Presents The Philles Album Collection - Featuring The Crystals, The Ronettes, Darlene Love, and More - Arrives as 7-CD Box Set". Sony. August 4, 2011. Archived from the original on July 3, 2013.
- "The Grassroots official website". The-grassroots.com. Retrieved 2015-01-19.
- Einarson, John (2005). Mr. Tambourine Man: The Life and Legacy of The Byrds' Gene Clark. Backbeat Books. pp. 56–57. ISBN 0-87930-793-5.
- "The 2000 Induction Ceremony". Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. 2000-03-06. Retrieved 2014-09-11.
- Gilbert, Calvin (27 November 2007). "Unsung Heroes Honored at Musicians Hall of Fame Induction". Country Music Television. Viacom.
- "The Wrecking Crew". Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum. November 2007. Retrieved 2014-09-11.
- Pinnock, Tom (June 8, 2012). "The Making of Good Vibrations". Uncut.
- Blaine, Hal; Goggin, David (2010). Hal Blaine and The Wrecking Crew (3rd ed.). Rebeats Press. ISBN 978-1888408126.
- Hartman, Kent (2012). The Wrecking Crew: The Inside Story of Rock and Roll's Best-Kept Secret (1st ed.). Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0312619749.
- Aken, Bill (2014). Carry Your Own Guitar: From Abandoned Child To Legendary Musician (1st ed.). Xlibris. ISBN 978-1493164295.
- Denny Tedesco Film "The Wrecking Crew" website
- The Wrecking Crew on Facebook
- Interview with Carol Kaye disputing the documentary, and the name "The Wrecking Crew" in favor of "The Clique"