Theanine

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To be distinguished from theine, a seldom used name for caffeine.
Theanine
Stereo, skeletal formula of theanine (S)
Identifiers
CAS number 3081-61-6 S YesY
PubChem 228398, 9964226 R, 439378 S
ChemSpider 198778 YesY, 8139819 R YesY, 388498 S YesY
UNII 8021PR16QO YesY
EC number 3081-61-6
MeSH theanine
ChEBI CHEBI:17394 YesY
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C7H14N2O3
Molar mass 174.20 g mol−1
Related compounds
Related alkanoic acids
Related compounds Panthenol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Theanine /ˈθənn/, also gamma-glutamylethylamide or 5-N-ethyl-glutamine, is an amino acid and a glutamic acid analog primarily found in tea (Camellia sinensis),[2] and also in the basidiomycete mushroom Boletus badius and in guayusa.[3] The L-enantiomer is the form which is found in tea and used as a supplement by humans.

L-Theanine was discovered as a constituent of green tea in 1949 and was approved in Japan in 1964 for unlimited use in all foods, including chocolates, soft drinks, and herb teas, except infant foods. It also provides a unique umami (brothy or savory) taste and flavor to green tea infusion.[4]

In 1950, the tea laboratory of Kyoto successfully separated theanine from gyokuro leaf, which has high theanine content.[citation needed] Theanine is an analog to glutamine and glutamate, and can cross the blood–brain barrier.[5] It is sold in the US as a dietary supplement, and is classified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) ingredient.[6] However, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR; an agency of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture) has objected to the addition of isolated theanine to beverages.[7]

Research[edit]

Early studies of theanine involved much larger doses than those found in an everyday cup of tea. Researchers wonder whether drinking tea might have the same effects found in those studies.[8] However, one recent study funded by Unilever found that smaller doses typical of those found in a cup of tea did induce changes in alpha waves as shown by EEG.[9]

Effects on the brain[edit]

Able to cross the blood–brain barrier, theanine has psychoactive properties.[10] Theanine has been studied for its potential ability to reduce mental and physical stress,[11] improve cognition,[12] and boost mood and cognitive performance in a synergistic manner with caffeine.[13][14][15][16][17][18]

Theanine promotes alpha wave production in the brain.[10] It is structurally similar to the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, however has only weak affinity for the glutamate receptors on postsynaptic cells.[19] While it only has a low affinity for the ionotropic glutamate receptors - AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptors - it does however increase brain dopamine levels.[20] Its effect on serotonin is still a matter of debate in the scientific community, with studies showing increases and decreases in brain serotonin levels using similar experimental protocols.[5][21] It has also been found that injecting spontaneously hypertensive mice with theanine significantly lowered levels of 5-hydroxyindoles in the brain.[22] Researchers also speculate it may inhibit glutamate excitotoxicity thereby increasing glutamate.[20]

Studies on test rats have shown even repeated, extremely high doses of theanine cause little to no harmful psychological or physical effects.[23] Theanine showed neuroprotective effects in one rat study.[24]

A placebo-controlled trial has shown adding theanine to ongoing antipsychotic medication is helpful in reducing some symptoms of schizophrenia.[7][25]

Several beverage manufacturers are selling drinks containing theanine and are marketing them as drinks to help people focus and concentrate,[8] while other manufacturers claim relaxing and tranquillizing properties.[7]

As a supplement[edit]

In 2003, the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung (de), BfR) objected to the addition of isolated theanine to beverages. The institute stated the amount of theanine consumed by regular drinkers of tea or coffee is virtually impossible to determine. While it was estimated the quantity of green tea consumed by the average Japanese tea drinker per day contains about 20 mg of the substance, there are no studies measuring the amount of theanine being extracted by typical preparation methods, or the percentage lost by discarding the first infusion. Therefore, with the Japanese being exposed to possibly much less than 20 mg per day, and Europeans presumably even less, pharmacological reactions to drinks typically containing 50 mg of theanine per 500 millilitres cannot be excluded, in the opinion of the BfR. Such reactions could include impairment of psychomotor skills and amplification of the sedating effects of alcohol and hypnotics.[7]

In 2006, a study found no consistent, statistically significant treatment-related adverse effects on behavior, morbidity, mortality, body weight, food consumption and efficiency, clinical chemistry, hematology, or urinalysis in rats fed high doses of theanine for 13 weeks.[23] Large studies in humans have not been undertaken, however several smaller-scale studies (less than 100 participants) have shown increased alpha wave generation and lowered anxiety, along with benefits to sleep quality in patients with ADHD.[11][26][26][27][28]

The combination of L-theanine and caffeine has been shown to promote faster simple reaction time, faster numeric working memory reaction time and improved sentence verification accuracy.[13][15][29][30]

L-Theanine may help the body's immune response to infection by boosting the disease-fighting capacity of gamma delta T cells. The study, published in 2003, included a four-week trial with 11 coffee drinkers and 10 tea drinkers, who consumed 600 milliliters of coffee or black tea daily. Blood sample analysis found the production of antibacterial proteins was up to five times higher in the tea drinkers, an indicator of a stronger immune response.[31] L-Theanine may contain mast cell-stabilizing properties in an animal model.[32]

Research has also shown that theanine can raise the levels of brain serotonin, dopamine, and GABA, along with facilitating improvements in memory and learning.[33]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Orihara, Yutaka; Furuya, Tsutomu (1990). "Production of theanine and other γ-glutamyl derivatives by Camellia sinensis cultured cells". Plant Cell Reports 9 (2): 65–8. doi:10.1007/BF00231550. PMID 24226431. 
  2. ^ Keenan, Emma K.; Finnie, Mike D.A.; Jones, Paul S.; Rogers, Peter J.; Priestley, Caroline M. (2011). "How much theanine in a cup of tea? Effects of tea type and method of preparation". Food Chemistry 125 (2): 588–94. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2010.08.071. 
  3. ^ Casimir, J.; Jadot, J.; Renard, M. (1960). "Séparation et caractérisation de la N-éthyl-γ-glutamine à partir de Xerocomus badius" [Separation and characterization of N-ethyl-gamma-glutamine from Xerocomus badius]. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (in French) 39 (3): 462–8. doi:10.1016/0006-3002(60)90199-2. PMID 13808157. 
  4. ^ "L-theanine". Retrieved 2013-01-01. 
  5. ^ a b Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Kobayashi, Miki; Mochizuki, Mikiko; Terashima, Takehiko (1998). "Effect of theanine, r-glutamylethylamide, on brain monoamines and striatal dopamine release in conscious rats". Neurochemical Research 23 (5): 667–73. doi:10.1023/A:1022490806093. PMID 9566605. 
  6. ^ "FDA confirms GRAS status of Suntheanine". NutraIngredients-USA.com. March 22, 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c d Ritsner, Michael S.; Miodownik, Chanoch; Ratner, Yael; Shleifer, Tatyana; Mar, Maria; Pintov, Leonid; Lerner, Vladimir (2011). "L-Theanine Relieves Positive, Activation, and Anxiety Symptoms in Patients with Schizophrenia and Schizoaffective Disorder". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 72 (1): 34–42. doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05324gre. PMID 21208586. 
  8. ^ a b Roan, Shari (May 17, 2009). "L-theanine: New drinks promise focus, but more research attention needed". Chicago Tribune. 
  9. ^ Nobre, AC; Rao, A; Owen, GN (2008). "L-theanine, a natural constituent in tea, and its effect on mental state". Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 17 Suppl 1: 167–8. PMID 18296328. 
  10. ^ a b Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Higgins, Beth A.; Rycroft, Jane A.; Owen, Gail N.; Mahoney, Jeannette; Shpaner, Marina; Foxe, John J. (2007). "The Deployment of Intersensory Selective Attention". Clinical Neuropharmacology 30 (1): 25–38. doi:10.1097/01.WNF.0000240940.13876.17. PMID 17272967. 
  11. ^ a b Kimura, Kenta; Ozeki, Makoto; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Ohira, Hideki (2007). "L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses". Biological Psychology 74 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006. PMID 16930802. 
  12. ^ Park, Sang-Ki; Jung, In-Chul; Lee, Won Kyung; Lee, Young Sun; Park, Hyoung Kook; Go, Hyo Jin; Kim, Kiseong; Lim, Nam Kyoo et al. (2011). "A Combination of Green Tea Extract andl-Theanine Improves Memory and Attention in Subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study". Journal of Medicinal Food 14 (4): 334–43. doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1374. PMID 21303262. 
  13. ^ a b Haskell, Crystal F.; Kennedy, David O.; Milne, Anthea L.; Wesnes, Keith A.; Scholey, Andrew B. (2008). "The effects of l-theanine, caffeine and their combination on cognition and mood". Biological Psychology 77 (2): 113–22. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2007.09.008. PMID 18006208. 
  14. ^ Raloff, Janet (September 29, 2007). "Distracted? Tea might help your focus". Science News 172 (13): 206. doi:10.1002/scin.2007.5591721319. "John J. Foxe of the Nathan S. Kline Institute for Psychiatric Research in Orangeburg, N.Y., and his colleagues recruited 16 people for tests of attentiveness on four days. Before testing, each individual drank a glass of water. On 3 days, the drink was spiked with 100 milligrams of theanine, 60 mg of caffeine, or both. The theanine dose was equivalent to that in 4 to 5 cups of tea, and the caffeine translated to about 2.5 cups of tea. In the difficult tests, participants watched a computer screen and pressed a button when a designated shape appeared on the side of a busy visual field to which an arrow had previously pointed. Participants' accuracy differed little between days when they got water alone or with only one additive. Accuracy improved dramatically, however, on the day that they got the theanine-caffeine combination. The attention benefit lasted throughout the 3 hours of testing." 
  15. ^ a b Owen, Gail N.; Parnell, Holly; De Bruin, Eveline A.; Rycroft, Jane A. (2008). "The combined effects of L-theanine and caffeine on cognitive performance and mood". Nutritional Neuroscience 11 (4): 193–8. doi:10.1179/147683008X301513. PMID 18681988. 
  16. ^ Einöther, Suzanne J.L.; Martens, Vanessa E.G.; Rycroft, Jane A.; De Bruin, Eveline A. (2010). "L-Theanine and caffeine improve task switching but not intersensory attention or subjective alertness". Appetite 54 (2): 406–9. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2010.01.003. PMID 20079786. 
  17. ^ Giesbrecht, T.; Rycroft, J.A.; Rowson, M.J.; De Bruin, E.A. (2010). "The combination of L-theanine and caffeine improves cognitive performance and increases subjective alertness". Nutritional Neuroscience 13 (6): 283–90. doi:10.1179/147683010X12611460764840. PMID 21040626. 
  18. ^ Kelly, Simon P.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Montesi, Jennifer L.; Foxe, John J. (2008). "L-theanine and caffeine in combination affect human cognition as evidenced by oscillatory alpha-band activity and attention task performance". The Journal of Nutrition 138 (8): 1572S–1577S. PMID 18641209. 
  19. ^ Kakuda, Takami; Nozawa, Ayumu; Sugimoto, Akio; Niino, Hitoshi (2002). "Inhibition by Theanine of Binding of [3H]AMPA, [3H]Kainate, and [3H]MDL 105,519 to Glutamate Receptors". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 66 (12): 2683–6. doi:10.1271/bbb.66.2683. PMID 12596867. 
  20. ^ a b Nathan, Pradeep; Lu, Kristy; Gray, M.; Oliver, C. (2006). "The Neuropharmacology of L-Theanine(N-Ethyl-L-Glutamine)". Journal of Herbal Pharmacotherapy 6 (2): 21–30. doi:10.1300/J157v06n02_02. PMID 17182482. 
  21. ^ Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Mochizuki, Mikiko; Saitoh, Kotomi (1998). "Theanine-induced Reduction of Brain Serotonin Concentration in Rats". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 62 (4): 816–7. doi:10.1271/bbb.62.816. PMID 9614715. 
  22. ^ Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Kato, Yukiko; Sagesaka, Yuko M.; Takihara-Matsuura, Takanobu; Kakuda, Takami; Takeuchi, Naokazu (1995). "Reduction Effect of Theanine on Blood Pressure and Brain 5-Hydroxyindoles in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats". Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 59 (4): 615–8. doi:10.1271/bbb.59.615. PMID 7539642. 
  23. ^ a b Borzelleca, J.F.; Peters, D.; Hall, W. (2006). "A 13-week dietary toxicity and toxicokinetic study with l-theanine in rats". Food and Chemical Toxicology 44 (7): 1158–66. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2006.03.014. PMID 16759779. 
  24. ^ Egashira, Nobuaki; Ishigami, Noriko; Pu, Fengling; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Orito, Kensuke; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro (2008). "Theanine prevents memory impairment induced by repeated cerebral ischemia in rats". Phytotherapy Research 22 (1): 65–8. doi:10.1002/ptr.2261. PMID 17705146. 
  25. ^ Di, X.; Yan, J.; Zhao, Y.; Chang, Y.; Zhao, B. (2012). "L-theanine inhibits nicotine-induced dependence via regulation of the nicotine acetylcholine receptor-dopamine reward pathway". Science China Life Sciences 55 (12): 1064–1074. doi:10.1007/s11427-012-4401-0. PMID 23233221.  edit
  26. ^ a b Lyon, Michael R.; Kapoor, Mahendra P.; Juneja, Lekh R. (2011). "The effects of L-theanine (Suntheanine®) on objective sleep quality in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial". Alternative Medicine Review 16 (4): 348–54. PMID 22214254. 
  27. ^ "L-Theanine". 
  28. ^ Kobayashi, Kanari; Nagato, Yukiko; Aoi, Nobuyuki; Juneja, Lekh Raj; Kim, Mujo; Yamamoto, Takehiko; Sugimoto, Sukeo (1998). "L-テアニンのヒトの脳波に及ぼす影響" [Effects of L-Theanine on the Release of α-Brain Waves in Human Volunteers]. Journal of the Agricultural Chemical Society of Japan (in Japanese) 72 (2): 153–7. doi:10.1271/nogeikagaku1924.72.153. 
  29. ^ Bryan, Janet (2008). "Psychological effects of dietary components of tea: Caffeine and L-theanine". Nutrition Reviews 66 (2): 82–90. doi:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2007.00011.x. PMID 18254874. 
  30. ^ Kelly, Simon P.; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Montesi, Jennifer L.; Foxe, John J. (2008). "L-Theanine and Caffeine in Combination Affect Human Cognition as Evidenced by Oscillatory alpha-Band Activity and Attention Task Performance". The Journal of Nutrition 138 (8): 1572S–1577S. PMID 18641209. 
  31. ^ Kamath, Arati B.; Wang, Lisheng; Das, Hiranmoy; Li, Lin; Reinhold, Vernon N.; Bukowski, Jack F. (2003). "Antigens in tea-beverage prime human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells in vitro and in vivo for memory and nonmemory antibacterial cytokine responses". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100 (10): 6009–14. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.6009K. doi:10.1073/pnas.1035603100. JSTOR 3147533. PMC 156317. PMID 12719524. 
  32. ^ Kim, N. H.; Jeong, H. J.; Kim, H. M. (2011). "Theanine is a candidate amino acid for pharmacological stabilization of mast cells". Amino Acids 42 (5): 1609–18. doi:10.1007/s00726-011-0847-9. PMID 21344174. 
  33. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17182482