Theme (Byzantine district)

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Map showing the extent of the Byzantine Empire in c. 600 and c. 900, including the themes for the latter date

The themes or themata (Greek: θέματα; singular θέμα, thema) were the main administrative divisions of the middle Byzantine Empire. They were established in the mid-7th century in the aftermath of the Muslim conquests of parts of Byzantine territory, and replaced the earlier provincial system established by Diocletian and Constantine the Great. In their origin, the first themes were created from the areas of encampment of the field armies of the East Roman army, and their names corresponded to the military units that had existed in those areas. The theme system reached its apogee in the 9th and 10th centuries, as older themes were split up and the conquest of territory resulted in the creation of new ones. The original theme system underwent significant changes in the 11th and 12th centuries, but the term remained in use as a provincial and financial circumscription, until the very end of the Empire.

History[edit]

Fighting between Byzantines and Arabs Chronikon of Ioannis Skylitzes, end of 13th century..jpg
This article is part of the series on the military of the Byzantine Empire, 330–1453 AD
Structural history
Byzantine army (Generals): East Roman army, Middle Byzantine army (themes • tagmata • Hetaireia), Komnenian Byzantine army (pronoia), Palaiologan Byzantine army (allagia) • Varangian Guard
Byzantine navy (Admirals):Greek fire • Dromon
Campaign history
Lists of wars and revolts and civil wars
Strategy and tactics
Tactics • Siege warfare • Military manuals • Fortifications (Walls of Constantinople)

Background[edit]

During the late 6th and early 7th centuries, the Eastern Roman Empire was under frequent attack from all sides. The Sassanid Empire was pressing from the east on Syria, Egypt, and Anatolia. Slavs and Avars raided Greece and settled in the Balkans. The Lombards occupied northern Italy, largely unopposed. In order to face the mounting pressure, in the more distant provinces of the West, recently regained by Justinian I (r. 527–565), Emperor Maurice (r. 582–602) combined supreme civil and military authority in the person of an exarch, forming the exarchates of Ravenna and Africa.[1] These developments overturned the strict division of civil and military offices, which had been one of the cornerstones of the reforms of Diocletian (r. 284–305). In essence however they merely recognized and formalized the greater prominence of the local general, or magister militum, over the respective civilian praetorian prefect as a result of the provinces' precarious security situation.[2]

This trend had already featured in some of the administrative reforms of Justinian I in the 530s. Justinian had given military authority to the governors of individual provinces plagued by brigandage in Asia Minor, but more importantly, he had also created the exceptional combined military-civilian circumscription of the quaestura exercitus and abolished the civilian Diocese of Egypt, putting a dux with combined authority at the head of each of its old provinces.[3] However, in most of the Empire, the old system continued to function until the 640s, when the eastern part of the Empire collapsed under the onslaught of the Muslim Caliphate. The rapid Muslim conquest of Syria and Egypt and consequent Byzantine losses in manpower and territory meant that the Empire found itself struggling for survival.

In order to respond to this unprecedented crisis, the Empire was drastically reorganized. The remaining imperial territory in Asia Minor was divided into four large themes, and although some elements of the earlier civil administration survived, they were subordinated to the governing general or stratēgos.[4]

Origins[edit]

The origin and early nature of the themes has been heavily disputed amongst scholars. The very name thema is of uncertain etymology, but most scholars follow Constantine Porphyrogennetos, who records that it originates from Greek thesis ("placement").[5][6] The date of their creation is also uncertain. For most of the 20th century, the establishment of the themes was attributed to the Emperor Heraclius (r. 610–641), during the last of the Byzantine–Sassanid Wars.[7] Most notable amongst the supporters of this thesis was George Ostrogorsky who based this opinion on an extract from the chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor mentioning the arrival of Heraclius "in the lands of the themes" for the year 622. According to Ostrogorsky, this "shows that the process of establishing troops (themes) in specific areas of Asia Minor has already begun at this time."[8] This view has been objected to by other historians however, and more recent scholarship dates their creation later, to the period from the 640s to the 660s, under Constans II (r. 641–668).[9] It has further been shown that, contrary to Ostrogorsky's conception of the themata being established from the outset as distinct, well-defined regions where a stratēgos held joint military and civil authority, the term thema originally seems to have referred exclusively to the armies themselves, and only in the later 7th or early 8th centuries did it come to be transferred to the districts where these armies were encamped as well.[10]

Tied to the question of chronology is also the issue of a corresponding social and military transformation. The traditional view, championed by Ostrogorsky, holds that the establishment of the themes also meant the creation of a new type of army. In his view, instead of the old force, heavily reliant on foreign mercenaries, the new Byzantine army was based on native farmer-soldiers living on state-leased military estates.[5][11] More recent scholars however have posited that the formation of the themes did not constitute a radical break with the past, but rather a logical extension of pre-existing, 6th-century trends, and that its direct social impact was minimal.[5]

First themes: 640s–770s[edit]

Byzantine themata in Anatolia, c. 650.
The Byzantine themes in Asia Minor as they existed in c. 780, following the creation of the Bucellarian and Optimatoi themes out of the original theme of the Opsikion.

What is clear is that at some point in the mid-7th century, probably in the late 630s and 640s, the Empire's field armies were withdrawn to Anatolia, the last major contiguous territory remaining to the Empire, and assigned to the districts that became known as the themes. Territorially, each of the new themes encompassed several of the older provinces, and with a few exceptions, seems to have followed the old provincial boundaries.[12] The first four themes were those of the Armeniacs, Anatolics and Thracesians, and the Opsician theme. The Armeniac Theme (Θέμα Άρμενιάκων, Thema Armeniakōn), first mentioned in 667, was the successor of the Army of Armenia. It occupied the old areas of the Pontus, Armenia Minor and northern Cappadocia, with its capital at Amasea.[13][14] The Anatolic Theme (Θέμα Άνατολικῶν, Thema Anatolikōn), first mentioned in 669, was the successor of the Army of the East (Άνατολῆ, Anatolē). It covered southern central Asia Minor, and its capital was Amorium.[15][16] Together, these two themes formed the first tier of defence of Byzantine Anatolia, bordering Muslim Armenia and Syria respectively. The Thracesian Theme (Θέμα Θρᾳκησίων, Thema Thrakēsiōn), first mentioned clearly as late as c. 740, was the successor of the Army of Thrace, and covered the central western coast of Asia Minor (Ionia, Lydia and Caria), with its capital most likely at Chonae.[17] The Opsician Theme (Θέμα Ὀψικίου, Thema Opsikiou), first mentioned in 680, was constituted from the imperial retinue (in Latin Obsequium). It covered northwestern Asia Minor (Bithynia, Paphlagonia and parts of Galatia), and was based at Nicaea. Uniquely, its commander retained his title of komēs ("count").[18]

In addition, the great naval division of the Carabisians or Karabisianoi (Kαραβισιάνοι, "people of the κάραβοι [ships]"), first mentioned in 680, was probably formed of the remains of the Army of the Illyricum or, more likely, the old quaestura exercitus. It never formed a theme proper, but occupied parts of the southern coast of Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands, with its stratēgos seat most likely at Samos. It provided the bulk of the Byzantine navy facing the new Arab fleets, which after the Battle of the Masts contested control of the Mediterranean with the Empire.[19] In the event, the Carabisians would prove unsatisfactory in that role, and by 720 they had been disbanded in favour of a fully-fledged naval theme, that of the Cibyrrhaeots (Θέμα Κιβυρραιωτῶν, Thema Kibyrrhaiotōn), which encompassed the southern coasts of Asia Minor and the Aegean islands.[20][21]

The part of the region of Thrace under Byzantine control was probably constituted as a theme at about 680, as a response to the Bulgar threat, although for a time the command over Thrace appears to have been exercised by the Count of the Opsikion.[22][23][24] Successive campaigns by the emperors of the Heraclian dynasty in Greece also led to the recovery of control of Central Greece from Slavic invaders, and to the establishment of the theme of Hellas there between 687 and 695.[25] Sicily too was formed as a theme by the end of the 7th century, but the imperial possessions in mainland Italy remained under the exarch of Ravenna or the local doukes, as did Byzantine Africa until the fall of Carthage in 698. At the same time, Crete and the imperial exclave of Cherson in the Crimea formed independent archontiai.[23][26]

Thus, by the turning of the century, the themes had become the dominant feature of imperial administration. Their large size and power however made their generals prone to revolt, as had been evidenced in the turbulent period 695–715, and would again during the great revolt of Artabasdos in 741–742.[27] The suppression of Artabasdos' revolt heralded the first significant changes in the Anatolian themes: the over-mighty Opsikion was broken up with the creation of two new themes, the Bucellarian Theme and the Optimates, while the role of imperial guard was assumed by a new type of professional force, the imperial tagmata.[28]

Height of the theme system, 780s–950s[edit]

Byzantine themata in Anatolia, c. 950.

Despite the prominence of the themes, it was some time before they became the basic unit of the imperial administrative system. Although they had become associated with specific regions by the early 8th century, it took until the end of the 8th century for the civil fiscal administration to begin being organized around them, instead of following the old provincial system.[29] This process, resulting in unified control over both military and civil affairs of each theme by its strategos, was complete by the mid-9th century,[30] and is the "classical" thematic model mentioned in such works as the Klētorologion and the De Administrando Imperio.

At the same time, the need to protect the Anatolian heartland of Byzantium from the Arab raids led to the creation, in the later 8th and early 9th centuries, of a series of small frontier districts, the kleisourai or kleisourarchiai ("defiles, enclosures"). The term was previously used to signify strategically important, fortified mountain passages, and was now expanded to entire districts which formed separate commands under a kleisourarchēs, tasked with guerrilla warfare and locally countering small to mid-scale incursions and raids. Gradually, most of these were elevated to full themes.[31][32]

Transformation and decline of the theme system, 960s–1070s[edit]

With the beginning of the Byzantine offensives in the East and the Balkans in the 10th century, especially under the warrior-emperors Nikephoros II (r. 963–969), John I Tzimiskes (r. 969–976) and Basil II (r. 976–1025), newly gained territories were also incorporated into themes, although these were generally smaller than the original themes established in the 7th and 8th centuries.[33]

The themata of the Byzantine Empire, at the death of Basil II in 1025.

At this time, a new class of themes, the so-called "minor" (μικρὰ θέματα) or "Armenian" themes (ἀρμενικὰ θέματα) appear, which Byzantine sources clearly differentiate from the traditional "great" or "Roman" themes (ῥωμαϊκά θέματα). Most consisted merely of a fortress and its surrounding territory, with a junior stratēgos (called zirwar by the Arabs and zoravar by the Armenians) as a commander and about 1,000 men, chiefly infantry as their garrison. As their name reveals, they were mostly populated by Armenians, either indigenous or settled there by the Byzantine authorities. One of their peculiarities was the extremely large number of officers (the theme of Charpezikion alone counted 22 senior and 47 junior tourmarchai).[30][34][35]

While well suited for defence, the "Armenian" themes were incapable of responding to major invasions or undertake sustained offensive campaigns on their own. Thus, from the 960s, more and more professional regiments, both from the old tagmata and newly raised formations, were stationed along the border. To command them as well as coordinate the forces of the small frontier themes, a number of large regional commands ("ducates" or "catepanates"), under a doux or katepano, were set up. In the East, the three original such commands, set up by John Tzimiskes, were those of the doukes of Antioch, Chaldia and Mesopotamia. As Byzantium expanded into Greater Armenia in the early 11th century, these were complemented or replaced by the commands of Iberia, Vaspurakan, Edessa and Ani.[36][37] In the same vein, the "Armenian" themes seem to have been placed under a single strategos in the mid-11th century.[35]

The series of soldier-emperors culminating in Basil II led to a situation where by 1025 Byzantium was more powerful than any of its enemies. At the same time, the mobile, professional forces of the tagmata gained in importance over the old thematic armies (and fleets) of the interior, which soon began to be neglected. Indeed, from the early 11th century military service was increasingly commuted to cash payments. While the frontier ducates were able to meet most local threats, the dissolution of the old theme-based defensive system deprived the Byzantine defensive system of any strategic depth. Coupled with increasing reliance on foreign mercenaries and the forces of allied and vassal states, as well as the revolts and civil wars resulting from the widening rift between the civilian bureaucracy in Constantinople and the land-holding military elites (the dynatoi), by the time of the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, the Byzantine army was already undergoing a severe crisis and collapsed completely in the battle's aftermath.[38]

Change and decline: 11th–12th centuries[edit]

Late Byzantine themata[edit]

Organization[edit]

The term thema was ambiguous, referring both to a form of military tenure and to an administrative division. A theme was an arrangement of plots of land given for farming to the soldiers. The soldiers were still technically a military unit, under the command of a strategos, and they did not own the land they worked as it was still controlled by the state. Therefore, for its use the soldiers' pay was reduced. By accepting this proposition, the participants agreed that their descendants would also serve in the military and work in a theme, thus simultaneously reducing the need for unpopular conscription as well as cheaply maintaining the military. It also allowed for the settling of conquered lands, as there was always a substantial addition made to public lands during a conquest.

The commander of a theme, however, did not only command his soldiers. He united the civil and military jurisdictions in the territorial area in question. Thus the division set up by Diocletian between civil governors (praesides etc.) and military commanders (duces etc.) was abolished, and the Empire returned to a system much more similar to that of the Republic or the Principate, where provincial governors had also commanded the armies in their area.

The following table illustrates the thematic structure as found in the Thracesian Theme, c. 902-936:

Structure of the Thema Thrakēsiōn
Name Number of personnel Number of subordinate units Officer in command
Thema 9,600 4 Tourmai Strategos
Tourma 2,400 6 Droungoi Tourmarches
Droungos 400 2 Banda Droungarios
Bandon 200 2 Kentarchiai Count
Kentarchia 100 10 Kontoubernia Kentarches/Hekatontarches
50 5 Kontoubernia Pentekontarches
Kontoubernion 10 1 "Vanguard" + 1 "Rear Guard" Dekarchos
"Vanguard" 5 n/a Pentarches
"Rear Guard" 4 n/a Tetrarches

List of the themes between c. 660 and 930[edit]

This list includes the large "traditional" themes established in the period from the inception of the theme system in c. 660 to the beginning of the great conquests in c. 930 and the creation of the new, smaller themes.[39]

Theme (name in Greek) Date Established from Later divisions Capital Original territory Other cities
Aegean Sea
(thema Aigaiou Pelàgous, Θέμα του Αιγαίου Πελάγους)
by 842/843 Cibyrrhaeots, raised from independent droungariate possibly Mytilene or Methymna Lesbos, Lemnos, Chios, Imbros, Tenedos, Hellespont, Sporades and Cyclades Methymna, Mytilene, Chios, Alexandria Troas, Abydos, Lampsakos, Cyzicus, Sestos, Callipolis
Anatolics
(thema Anatolikōn, Θέμα των Ανατολικών)
by 669/670 New creation Cappadocia§ (830) Amorium Phrygia, Pisidia, Isauria Iconium, Polybotos, Philomelion, Akroinon, Synnada, Sozopolis, Thebasa, Antiochia, Derbe, Laranda, Isaura, Pessinus
Armeniacs
(thema Armeniakōn, Armeniakoi, Θέμα των Αρμενιακών)
by 667/668 New creation Chaldia (by 842), Charsianon§ (863), Koloneia (863), Paphlagonia (by 826) Amasea Pontus, Armenia Minor, northern Cappadocia Sinope, Amisus, Euchaita, Comana Pontica
Bucellarians
(thema Boukellarion, Boukellàrioi, Θέμα των Βουκελλαρίων)
by 767/768 Opsicians Paphlagonia (in part), Cappadocia (in part), Charsianon (in part) Ancyra Galatia, Paphlagonia Tios, Heraclea Pontica, Claudiopolis, Cratea, Iuliopolis, Lagania, Gordion
Cappadocia§
(thema Kappadokias, Θέμα Καππαδοκίας)
by 830 Armeniacs, part of the Bucellarians Koron Fortress, later Tyana SW Cappadocia Podandus, Nyssa, Loulon Fortress, Tyana, Nazianzus, Heraclea Cybistra
Cephallenia
(thema Kephallēnias, Θέμα Κεφαλληνίας)
by 809 Langobardia (by 910), ?Nicopolis (by 899) Cephallenia Ionian Islands, Apulia Corfu, Zakynthos, Leucate
Chaldia
(thema Chaldias, Θέμα Χαλδίας)
c. 840 Armeniacs (originally a tourma) Duchy of Chaldia Trebizond Pontic coast Rhizus, Cerasous, Polemonion, Paiperta
Charsianon§
(thema Charsianoù, Θέμα Χαρσιανού)
863–873 Armeniacs (originally a tourma), part of the Bucellarians Caesarea NW Cappadocia Charsianon
Cherson/Klimata
(thema Chersōnos/Klimata, Θέμα Χερσώνος/τα Κλίματα)
833 ruled by the Khazars in the 8th century, Byz. rule rest. by Theophilos Cherson South Crimea Sougdea, Theodosia, Bosporos, Galita
Cibyrrhaeots
(thema Kibyrrhaiotōn, Kibyrrhaiotai, Θέμα των Κυβυρραιωτών)
by 697/698 or c. 720 Created from the Karabisianoi fleet Aegean Sea, Samos, Seleucia Samos, later Attaleia Pamphylia, Lycia, Dodecanese, Aegean Islands, Ionian coast Rhodes, Myra, Cibyrrha, Limyra, Phaselis, Side, Selinus, Anemurium, Sagalassus, Telmissus, Patara, Halicarnassus, Iassus, Mylasa, Selge, Cnidus, Kos
Crete
(thema Krētēs, Θέμα Κρήτης)
by 767 (?), again in 961 Arab emirate from c. 828 until Byz. reconquest in 961 Chandax Crete Rethymnon, Gortys
Dalmatia
(thema Dalmatias, Θέμα Δαλματίας)
by 899 New territory Idassa/Iadera Ragousa, Aspalathos, Polae, Tragyrion, Scardona
Dyrrhachium
(thema Dyrrhachiou, Θέμα Δυρραχίου)
by 842 New territory Dyrrhachium Albanian coast Aulon, Apollonia, Lissos
Hellas
(thema Hellàdos, Helladikoi, Θέμα της Ελλάδος/Ελλαδικών)
c. 690 Karabisianoi Cephallenia (by 809), Peloponnese (by 811) Corinth, later Thebes (after 809) Initially E. Peloponnese and Attica, after 809 eastern Central Greece and Thessaly (after 809) Athens, Larissa, Pharsala, Lamia, Thermopylae, Plataeae, Euripus, Demetrias, Stagoi
Koloneia§
(thema Kolōneias, Θέμα Κολωνείας)
by 863, probably c. 842 Armeniacs, kleisoura by early 9th century Duchy of Chaldia Koloneia North Armenia Minor Satala, Nicopolis, Neocaesarea
Longobardia
(thema Longobardias, Θέμα Λογγοβαρδίας)
by 892 Cephallenia (originally a tourma) Barion Apulia Tarantas, Brindesion, Hydrus, Callipolis
Lykandos
(thema Lykàndou, Θέμα Λυκάνδου)
by 916 New territory Lykandos Fortress SE Cappadocia Arabissos, Cocyssos, Comana
Macedonia
(thema Makedonias, Θέμα Μακεδονίας)
by 802 Thrace Strymon Adrianopolis Western Thrace Didymoteicho, Mosynopolis, Aenos, Maronia
Mesopotamia
(thema Mesopotamias, Θέμα Μεσοποταμίας)
by 899-911 New territory Duchy of Mesopotamia Kamacha{{{1}}} upper Euphrates
Nicopolis
(thema Nikopoleōs, Θέμα Νικοπόλεως)
by 899 probably raised from tourma of the Peloponnese Naupaktos Epirus, Aetolia, Acarnania Ioannina, Buthrotum, Rogoi, Dryinoupolis, Nicopolis, Himarra
Opsician Theme
(Thema Opsikion, Θέμα των Οψικίων)
by 680 New creation Bucellarians (by 768), Optimates (by 775) Nicaea Prussa, Kios, Malagina, Dorylaion, Nakoleia, Krasos, Kotyaion, Midaeum
Optimates
(thema Optimàtōn, Optimatoi, Θέμα των Οπτιμάτων)
by 775 Opsicians Nicomedia Bithynia opposite Constantinople Chalcedon, Chrysopolis
Paphlagonia
(thema Paphlagonias, Θέμα Παφλαγονίας)
by 826, prob. c. 820 Armeniacs, Bucellarians (in part) Gangra Amastris, Ionopolis, Kastamonè, Pompeiopolis
Peloponnese
(thema Peloponnēsou, Θέμα Πελοποννήσου)
by 811 Hellas in part, in part new territory  ?Nicopolis (by 899) Corinth Peloponnese Patrae, Argos, Lacedaemon, Korinthos, Helos, Methòne, Elis, Monemvasia
Phasiane (Derzene)
(thema Phasianēs/Derzēnēs, Θέμα Φασιανής/Δερζένης)
by 935 New territory and Theme of Mesopotamia Duchy of Mesopotamia Arsamosata Upper Armenia
Samos
(thema Samou, Θέμα Σάμου)
by 899 Cibyrrhaeots, raised from independent drungariate of the Gulf Smyrna Southeastern Aegean islands, Ionian coast (shared with Thracesians) Samos, Ephesos, Miletus, Magnesia, Tralles, Lebedos, Teos, Clazomenae, Phocaea, Pergamon, Adramyttion
Sebasteia§
(thema Sebasteias, Θέμα Σεβαστείας)
by 911 Armeniacs, kleisoura by c. 900 Sebasteia Dazimon
Seleucia§
(thema Seleukeias, Θέμα Σελευκείας)
by 934 Cibyrrhaeots, from early 9th century a kleisoura Seleucia Claudiopolis
Sicily
(thema Sikelias, Θέμα Σικελίας)
by 700 Calabria (remaining territory after Muslim conquest of Sicily) Syracuse Sicily and Calabria Katàne, Tavromènion, Panormos, Akragas, Leontini, Himera, Mazzara, Lilybaeum, Drepanum
Strymon§
(thema Strymōnos, Θέμα Στρυμώνος)
by 899, probably 840s Macedonia, raised from kleisoura (709) Neapolis roughly modern Greek Eastern Macedonia Serres
Thessalonica
(thema Thessalonikēs, Θέμα Θεσσαλονίκης)
by 824 Thessalonica roughly modern Greek Central Macedonia Beroia, Edessa, Dion, Ierissos, Moglena, Diocletianopolis, Servia
Thrace
(thema Thrakēs, Θέμα Θράκης/Θρακώον)
by 680  ?Opsicians Macedonia Arcadiopolis Eastern Thrace, except Constantinople Selymbria, Bizye, Perinthus, Rhaedestus
Thracesians
(thema Thrakēsiōn, Thrakēsioi, Θέμα Θρακησίων)
by 687 New creation Chonae Hierapolis, Sardeis, Thyatira, Laodikea

Notes:
naval theme (in Greek thema nautikon, θέμα ναυτικόν)
§ Originally established as a kleisoura

List of new themes, 930s–1060s[edit]

These were the new major or minor themes, the so-called "Armenian" themes or generalships (strategiai), established during the Byzantine conquests, both in the East and in the Balkans.

Theme (name in Greek) Date Capital Comments
Artze
(Ἄρτζε)
970s Artze A minor theme attested in the Escorial Taktikon. Ceded to David III of Tao in 979, recovered after David's death in 1000 and subordinated to the catepanate of Iberia. The town was destroyed by the Turks in 1049.[40][41]
Asmosaton
(Ἀσμόσατον)
c. 938 Asmosaton A minor theme, it survived until conquered by the Turks in the 1050s.[40][42]
Boleron/Neos Strymon
(thema Voleroù/Nèou Strymōnos, Θέμα Βολερού/Νέου Στρυμώνος)
970s Serres
Bulgaria
(thema Boulgarias, Θέμα Βουλγαρίας)
1018 Scupi established by Emperor Basil II after the victory over Samuel of Bulgaria and the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire in 1018. It was based on the wider regions of Skopje and Ohrid (modern Republic of Macedonia and south Serbia).
Calabria
(thema Kalavrias, Θέμα Καλαβρίας)
c. 950 Rhegion Following the Muslim conquest of Sicily, from 902 the Theme of Sicily was limited to Calabria, but retained its original name until the middle of the 10th century
Charpezikion
(Χαρπεζίκιον)
949 Charpezikion A minor theme.[43]
Chavzizin
(Χαυζίζιον)
after 940 Chavzizin A minor theme covering the area of the Bingöl Dağ mountains.[44]
Chozanon
(Χόζανον)
before 956, possibly 948/952 Chozanon An "Armenian theme".[42][45]
Cyprus
(thema Kyprou, Θέμα Κύπρου)
965 Leukosia Byzantine-Arab condominium from 688 until the definite Byzantine reconquest in 965.
Derzene
(Δερζηνῆ)
948/952 Chozanon A minor theme, the administration of Derzene was often entrusted to officials of the theme of Chaldia.[42][46]
Edessa
(thema Edēssēs, Θέμα Εδέσσης)
1032 Edessa Captured by George Maniakes in 1032, it became seat of a strategos, later a doux, until conquered by the Turks on 1086.[47]
Euphrates Cities
(Παρευφρατίδαι Πόλεις)
c. 1032 Minor theme.[48]
Hexakomia or Hexapolis
(Ἑξακωμία/Ἑξάπολις)
970s Minor theme, its name means "six villages/cities", a region between Lykandos and Melitene. It apparently was also an episcopal see.[48][49]
Iberia
(θέμα 'Ιβηρίας)
c. 1001 or c. 1023 Theodosiopolis Formed out of the territories of David III of TaoTayk, which he bequeathed to Basil II. The date of establishment is disputed among scholars. United with Ani in 1045 and with Kars in 1064.[50]
Kama
(Κάμα)
970s Minor theme attested only in the Escorial Tactikon, location uncertain.[48][51]
Lucania
(thema Leukanias, Θέμα Λευκανίας)
968 Tursi
Manzikert
(Ματζικέρτ)
1000 Manzikert Part of the territories inherited from David III of Tao, it was the seat of a strategos, later probably a subordinate of the doux of Vaspurakan.[52]
Melitene
(Μελιτηνή)
970s Melitene Became an imperial curatorship (kouratoreia) after conquered by John Kourkouas in 934.[53]
Paristrion/Paradounavon
(thema Paristriou/Paradoùnavon, Θέμα Παριστρίου/Παραδούναβον)
1020 Dorostrolon
Samosata
(Σαμόσατα)
958 Samosata Became the seat of a strategos after the Byzantine conquest in 958.[54]
Sirmium
(thema Sirmiou, Θέμα Σιρμίου)
1018 Sirmium Established in 1018 at the northwestern part of the Bulgarian Empire (Syrmia)
Tarantas
(Τάραντας)
970s Tarantas Minor theme attested only in the Escorial Taktikon.[48][55]
Taron
(Ταρών)
966/7 A dependency of the Empire since the early 10th century, the region of Taron became a theme in 966/7 and remained a Byzantine province until lost to the Turks after Manzikert.[56]
Tephrike/Leontokome§
(thema Tephrikēs/Leontokōmēs, Θέμα Τεφρικής/Λεωντοκώμης)
934/944 Tephrike Formed as a kleisoura after the Byzantine conquest of the Paulician principality of Tephrike, renamed Leontokome under Leo VI the Wise, became a theme in the 930s.[57]
Theodosiopolis
(Θεοδοσιούπολις)
949, again in 1000 Theodosiopolis Formed as a theme after the Byzantine conquest in 949, ceded to David III of Tao in 979, recovered in 1000, it became the capital of the theme of Iberia.
Vaasprakania
(Βαασπρακανία)
1021/2 Established when Seneqerim-Hovhannes, king of Vaspurakan, ceded his realm to the Empire. Governed by a doux/katepano at Van, it lasted until overrun by the Turks after 1071.[58]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bréhier 2000, pp. 98–101
  2. ^ Haldon 1990, p. 210
  3. ^ Bréhier 2000, pp. 93–98
  4. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 2035
  5. ^ a b c Kazhdan 1991, p. 2034
  6. ^ Haldon 1990, p. 215
  7. ^ Cheynet 2006, pp. 151–152
  8. ^ Ostrogorsky 1997, p. 101
  9. ^ Treadgold 1997, p. 316
  10. ^ Haldon 1990, pp. 214–215
  11. ^ Cheynet 2006, p. 152
  12. ^ Haldon 1990, pp. 212–216
  13. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 177
  14. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 73, 112
  15. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 90
  16. ^ Haldon 1999, p. 73
  17. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 2080
  18. ^ Haldon 1990, pp. 216–217
  19. ^ Haldon 1990, p. 217
  20. ^ Haldon 1999, p. 77
  21. ^ Cheynet 2006, p. 155
  22. ^ Haldon 1990, p. 216
  23. ^ a b Haldon 1999, p. 87
  24. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 2079
  25. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 911
  26. ^ Cheynet 2006, p. 146
  27. ^ Treadgold 1998, pp. 26–29
  28. ^ Treadgold 1998, pp. 28–29, 71, 99, 210
  29. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 83–84
  30. ^ a b Haldon 1999, p. 84
  31. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 79, 84, 114
  32. ^ Kazhdan 1991, p. 1132
  33. ^ Treadgold 1998, pp. 33–37
  34. ^ Treadgold 1998, pp. 80–84
  35. ^ a b McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, p. 143
  36. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 84–85
  37. ^ Treadgold 1998, pp. 35–36
  38. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 85, pp. 90–93
  39. ^ Haldon 1999, pp. 86–87
  40. ^ a b McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, p. 148
  41. ^ Kühn 1991, pp. 64, 187–188
  42. ^ a b c Kühn 1991, p. 63
  43. ^ Kühn 1991, pp. 58, 63
  44. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, p. 149
  45. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, p. 150
  46. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 150–152
  47. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 162–164
  48. ^ a b c d Kühn 1991, p. 64
  49. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 152–153
  50. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 166–168
  51. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 153–154
  52. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, p. 156
  53. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 156–160
  54. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 160–161
  55. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, p. 161
  56. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 168–170
  57. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 161–162
  58. ^ McGeer, Nesbitt & Oikonomides 2001, pp. 170–171

Sources[edit]