Then language

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Then
Native to China
Region Pingtang County, southern Guizhou
Native speakers
20,000  (2007)[1]
Language codes
ISO 639-3 tct
Glottolog tenn1245[2]

The Then language (also known as Yánghuáng 佯僙语 in Chinese; alternate spellings: T'en and Ten) is a Kam–Sui language spoken in Pingtang County, southern Guizhou. It is spoken by the Yanghuang 佯僙 people, many of whom are officially classified as Maonan by the Chinese government.

Names[edit]

The Yanghuang people called themselves ai˩raːu˩, except for the Yanghuang of Huishui County, Xiayou District 下游地区, and Xiguan Shangmo 西关上莫, who called themselves ai˩thən˧˥ (Bo 1997). According to the Guizhou Ethnic Gazetteer (2002:846),[3] their autonyms include jiŋ˨zau˨˦ (印绕) and ai˨au˨˦ (哎绕).

"Yanghuang" was mentioned in a Ming Dynasty record, the Dushi Fangyu Jiyao (读史方舆纪要).[3] According to it, "the Man people of Sizhou are Yanghuang, Gelao, Muyao (Mulao), and Miaozhi (Miaozi). (思州蛮自佯僙、仡佬、木瑶(老)、苗质(子)数种。)

Dialects[edit]

Bo (1997) lists three main dialects of Yanghuang.

  • Hedong 河东: spoken east of the Pingtang River 平塘河 in the townships of Kapu 卡蒲乡 and Zhemi 者密镇, in Pingtang County; parts of western Dushan County
  • Hexi 河西: spoken west of the Pingtang River 平塘河 in the western part of Zhemi Township 者密镇, Pingtang County, and neighboring areas
  • Huishui 惠水: spoken in Huishui County. This is the most divergent dialect, and is most heavily influenced by Chinese.

Phonology[edit]

Yanghuang of Kapu Township (卡蒲乡) has 71 consonants total, including those with secondary articulations. There are a total of 71 rhymes, 9 vowels, and 8 codas (Bo 1997).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Then at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "T'en". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
  3. ^ a b Guizhou Province Gazetteer: Ethnic Gazetteer [贵州省志. 民族志] (2002). Guiyang: Guizhou Ethnic Publishing House [貴州民族出版社].
  • 薄文泽 / Bo, Wenze. 1997. 佯僙语研究 / Yanghuang yu yan jiu (A Study of Yanghuang [Then]). Beijing: 中央民族大学出版社 / Zhong yang min zu da xue chu ban she.

External links[edit]