Theodora (from Greek: Θεοδώρα, Theodōra) is a given name of Greek origin, meaning "God's gift". It is the feminine form of Θεόδωρος, Theódōros, woth the same meaning (from Θεός, Theós, "God", and δῶρον, dōron, "gift").
It can refer to any of the following people:
- Theodora (wife of Justinian I), 6th century Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress, wife of Justinian I, considered a saint by the Greek Orthodox Church
- Theodora of Khazaria, 7th century Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress, wife of Justinian II
- Theodora (wife of Theophilos), Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress in the 9th century
- Theodora, wife of Romanos I, 10th century Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress, wife of Romanos I
- Theodora, daughter of Constantine VII, 10th century Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress, wife of John I Tzimiskes
- Theodora (11th century), Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress who ruled 1055-1056
- Theodora Doukaina Vatatzina, 13th century Byzantine (Eastern Roman) empress, wife of Michael VIII Palaiologos.
Empresses of Trebizond
- Flavia Maximiana Theodora, daughter of the Roman Emperor Maximian and second wife of the Emperor Constantius I Chlorus.
- Episcopa Theodora, mother of Pope Paschal I in the 9th century
- Theodora (senatrix), Roman senatrix and mother of Marozia; concubine to Pope Sergius III.
- Theodora Komnene (disambiguation), several
- Theodora Tocco, despoina consort of Constantine, Despot in Morea (later Constantine XI Palaiologos).
- Theodora Asanina, titular empress consort of Demetrios Palaiologos.
- Theodora (Roman martyr), 2nd-century Christian martyr and saint
- Theodora and Didymus, early Christian martyrs
- Theodora (Handel) (HWV 68), an oratorio by George Frideric Handel, based on the story of Theodora and Didymus
- Theodora of Alexandria Eastern Orthodox saint
- Theodora of Arta 13th century, Empress of Epirus