Theory of productive forces
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- The "theory of productive forces" should not be confused with the Marxist analysis of productive forces.
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The theory of productive forces (sometimes referred to as productive force determinism) is a widely disseminated variation of historical materialism and Marxism that places primary emphasis on technical advances as the basis for advances and changes in the social structure and culture of a given civilization. The relative strength assigned to the role of technical (or technological) progress in impacting society and social advancement differs among different schools of Marxist thinkers. A related concept is technological determinism.
On a prescriptive level, this view places a strong emphasis on the necessity of strengthening the productive forces of the economy as a precondition for the realization of socialism, and within a nominally socialist economy, essential to achieving communism. This theory was held by many Orthodox Marxists as well as Marxist-Leninists; as a result, it played a crucial role in informing the economic policies of Marxist-Leninist Communist states during the 20th century.
The most influential philosophical defence of this idea has been promulgated by Gerald Cohen in his book Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence. According to this view, technical change can beget social change; in other words, changes in the means (and intensity) of production causes changes in the relations of production, i.e., in people's ideology and culture, their interactions with one another, and their social relationship to the wider world. This view point is a foundation of Orthodox Marxism.
In this view, actual socialism, being based on social ownership and a wide distribution of an abundant surplus product, cannot come to pass until that society's ability to produce wealth is built up enough to satisfy its whole population and to support socialist production methods. Using this theory as a basis for their practical programmes meant that communist theoreticians and leaders in Marxist-Leninist socialist states, while paying lip service to the primacy of ideological change in individuals to sustain a communist society, actually put productive forces first, and ideological change second.
The theory of productive forces is encapsulated in the following quote from The German Ideology:
"...it is only possible to achieve real liberation in the real world... by employing real means... slavery cannot be abolished without the steam-engine and the mule and spinning-jenny, serfdom cannot be abolished without improved agriculture, and... in general, people cannot be liberated as long as they are unable to obtain food and drink, housing and clothing in adequate quality and quantity. “Liberation” is a historical and not a mental act, and it is brought about by historical conditions, the development of industry, commerce, agriculture, the conditions of intercourse [Verkehr]...
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Based on the theory of productive forces and related perspectives, the economic systems of the former Eastern bloc and other Communist states actually represented a form of state capitalism where the state accumulated capital through forcible extraction of surpluses from the population for the purpose of rapidly modernizing and industrializing their countries, because these countries were not technologically advanced to a point where an actual socialist economy was technically possible.
- Technological determinism
- Economic determinism
- Historical materialism
- Information revolution
- Mode of production
- Socialism (Marxism)
- Bertrand Badie; Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Leonardo Morlino (2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 2459. ISBN 978-1412959636. "The repressive state apparatus is in fact acting as an instrument of state capitalism to carry out the process of capital accumulation through forcible extraction of surplus from the working class and peasantry"
- Chan (2001). Mao's crusade: politics and policy implementation in China's great leap forward. ISBN 978-0-19-924406-5.
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