- Theudas is also the name of a follower of Paul of Tarsus, who taught Valentinius, for more information, see Theudas (teacher of Valentinius)
Theudas // (died c. 46 AD) was a Jewish rebel of the 1st century AD. His name, if a Greek compound, may mean "gift of God", although other scholars believe its etymology is Semitic and might mean “flowing with water”. At some point between 44 and 46 AD, Theudas led his followers in a short-lived revolt.
Our principal source for the story is Josephus, who wrote:
It came to pass, while Cuspius Fadus was procurator of Judea, that a certain charlatan, whose name was Theudas, persuaded a great part of the people to take their effects with them, and follow him to the Jordan river; for he told them he was a prophet, and that he would, by his own command, divide the river, and afford them an easy passage over it. Many were deluded by his words. However, Fadus did not permit them to make any advantage of his wild attempt, but sent a troop of horsemen out against them. After falling upon them unexpectedly, they slew many of them, and took many of them alive. They also took Theudas alive, cut off his head, and carried it to Jerusalem. (Jewish Antiquities 20.97-98)[dead link]
The movement was dispersed, and was never heard of again.
Josephus does not provide a number for Theudas' followers, but the Acts of the Apostles, if it is referring to the same Theudas (see below), reports that they numbered about 400. The ease with which they were overcome suggests that they were unarmed, unlike many other Messianic insurgents of the period.
Some writers are of the opinion that he may have said he was the Messiah.
The Theudas problem
"Men of Israel, be cautious in deciding what to do with these men. Some time ago, Theudas came forward, claiming to be somebody, and a number of men, about four hundred, joined him. But he was killed and his whole following was broken up and disappeared. After him came Judas the Galilean at the time of the census; he induced some people to revolt under his leadership, but he too perished and his whole following was scattered." (NEB, Acts 5:36-8)
The difficulty is that the rising of Theudas is here given as before that of Judas of Galilee, which is itself dated to the time of the taxation (c. 6-7 AD). Josephus, on the other hand, says that Theudas was 45 or 46, which is after Gamaliel is speaking, and long after Judas the Galilean.
There are several arguments put forward to solve this problem. The 18th century theologian John Gill wrote "Some think Josephus is mistaken in his chronology, and then all is right." Another argument is that the author of the Book of Acts used Josephus as a source and made a mistake in a reading the text, taking a later reference to the execution of the "sons of Judas the Galilean" after the rebellion of Theudas as saying that the rebellion of Judas was later; however there is disagreement as to whether the author(s) of Luke used Josephus. Other explanations are that he was referring to a different revolt by another Theudas, or that he mistakenly transposed the two names.
- Emil Schürer (1973). The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ, Volume I. revised and edited by Geza Vermes, Fergus Millar and Matthew Black (revised English edition ed.). Edinburgh: T&T Clark. pp. 456, n. 6. ISBN 0-567-02242-0.
- Hitchcock, Roswell D. (1874). "Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary". A.J. Johnson. Retrieved 2007-04-16.
- W. J. Heard (1992). "Revolutionary Movements, 3.1.2: Theudas". In Joel B. Green, Scot McKnight and I. Howard Marshall. Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels. Downers Grove, Ill.: InterVarsity Press. ISBN 0-8308-1777-8.
- Jona Lendering. "Theudas". Livius. Retrieved 2007-01-05.
- Talbert, Charles H. Reading Lucke-Acts in Its Mediterranean Milieu Brill pg 200
- Gill, John (1810). Exposition of the Old and New Testaments: Complete and Unabridged. London: Mathews & Leigh, "see Commentary on Acts 5:36".
Online source for Gill and other commentaries on Acts 5:36
- Barbara Shellard, New Light On Luke: Its Purpose, Sources And Literary Context (Continuum International, 2004) page 31.
- Colin J. Hemer, Conrad H. Gempf, The book of Acts in the setting of Hellenistic history (Mohr Siebeck, 1989), pages 162-3.