Cascabela thevetia

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Cascabela thevetia
Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) leaves & flowers in Kolkata W IMG 8008.jpg
Yellow Oleander flowers and leaves
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Gentianales
Family: Apocynaceae
Genus: Cascabela
Species: C. peruviana
Binomial name
Cascabela thevetia
(L.) Lippold
Synonyms[1]
Leaves & flower buds
Trunk and bark
Leaves & flowers

Cascabela thevetia (syn: Thevetia peruviana) is a poisonous plant of central and southern Mexico and Central America. It is a relative of Nerium oleander, giving it a common name Yellow Oleander, and is also called lucky nut in the West Indies.

C. thevetia is an evergreen tropical shrub or small tree. Its leaves are willow-like, linear-lanceolate, and glossy green in color. They are covered in waxy coating to reduce water loss (typical of oleanders). Its stem is green turning silver/gray as it ages.[2]

Flowers bloom from summer to fall. The long funnel-shaped sometimes-fragrant yellow (less commonly apricot, sometimes white) flowers are in few-flowered terminal clusters.[2] Its fruit is deep red-black in color encasing a large seed that bears some resemblance to a 'Chinese lucky nut.'[clarification needed]

Toxicity[edit]

All parts of the C. thevetia plant are toxic to most vertebrates as they contain cardiac glycosides. Many cases of intentional and accidental poisoning of humans are known.[3]

The main toxins are the cardenolides called thevetin A and thevetin B; others include peruvoside, neriifolin, thevetoxin and ruvoside.[4][5] These cardenolides are not destroyed by drying or heating and they are very similar to digoxin from Digitalis purpurea. They produce gastric and cardiotoxic effects. Antidotes for treatment include atropine and digoxin antibodies and treatment may include oral administration of activated charcoal.[6][7][8] Ovine polyclonal anti-digitoxin Fab fragment antibody (DigiTAb; Therapeutic Antibodies Inc.) can be used to treat T. peruviana poisoning, but for many countries the cost is prohibitive.[9]

A few bird species are however known to feed on them without any ill effects. These include the Asian Koel, Red-whiskered Bulbul, White-browed Bulbul, Red-vented Bulbul, Brahminy Myna, Common Myna and Common Grey Hornbill.[10][11][12][13][14][15]

Extracts from C. thevetia are reported to possess antispermatogenic activity in rats.[16]

Uses[edit]

Cultivation

C. thevetia is cultivated as an ornamental plant, and planted as large flowering shrub or small ornamental tree standards in gardens and parks in temperate climates. In frost prone areas it is container plant, in the winter season brought inside a greenhouse or as a house plant. It tolerates most soils and is drought tolerant.[2]

Biological pest control

The plant's toxins have tested in experiments for uses in biological pest control. T. peruviana seed oil was used to make a 'paint' with antifungal, antibacterial and anti-termite properties.[17]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved May 17, 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c "Thevetia peruvians". Missouri Botanical Garden. 
  3. ^ Shannon D. Langford & Paul J. Boor (1996). "Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures". Toxicology 109 (1): 1–13. doi:10.1016/0300-483X(95)03296-R. PMID 8619248. 
  4. ^ Bose TK, Basu RK, Biswas B, De JN, Majumdar BC, Datta S. (1999). "Cardiovascular effects of yellow oleander ingestion". J Indian Med Assoc 97 (10): 407–410. PMID 10638101. 
  5. ^ Kohls S, Scholz-Böttcher BM, Teske J, Zark P, Rullkötter J. (2012). "Cardiac glycosides from Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana) seeds". Phytochemistry: 114–27. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.11.019. PMID 22196940. 
  6. ^ Rajapakse S. (2009). "Management of yellow oleander poisoning". Clinical Toxicology 47 (3): 206–212. 
  7. ^ Roberts D.M., Southcott E., Potter J.M., Roberts M.S., Eddleston M., Buckley N.A. (2006). "Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal". Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 28 (6): 784–792. 
  8. ^ Bandara V., Weinstein S.A., White J., Eddleston M. (2010). "A review of the natural history, toxinology, diagnosis and clinical management of Nerium oleander (common oleander) and Thevetia peruviana (yellow oleander) poisoning". Toxicon 56 (3): 273–281. 
  9. ^ M. Eddleston, S. Rajapakse, Rajakanthan, S. Jayalath, L. Sjöström and W. Santharaj et al. (2000). "Anti-digoxin Fab fragments in cardiotoxicity induced by ingestion of yellow oleander: a randomised controlled trial". Lancet 355: 967–972. 
  10. ^ Kannan,R (1991). "Koels feeding on the yellow oleander.". Blackbuck 7 (2): 48. 
  11. ^ Krishnan, M (1952). "Koels (Eudynamis scolopaceus) eating the poisonous fruit of the Yellow Oleander.". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 50 (4): 943–945. 
  12. ^ Raj,PJ Sanjeeva (1963). "Additions to the list of birds eating the fruit of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia neriifolia ).". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 60 (2): 457–458. 
  13. ^ Raj, P J Sanjeeva (1959). "Birds eating poisonous fruit of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia neriifolia)". J. Bombay Nat.Hist.Soc. 56 (3): 639. 
  14. ^ Neelakantan,KK (1953). "Common Grey Hornbill (Tockus birostris) eating fruits of the Yellow Oleander (Thevetia neriifolia)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 51 (3): 738. 
  15. ^ Rajasingh,Simon G; Rajasingh,Irene V (1970). "Birds and mammals eating the fruits of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 67 (3): 572–573. 
  16. ^ Gupta R, Kachhawa JB, Gupta RS, Sharma AK, Sharma MC, Dobhal MP (March 2011). "Phytochemical evaluation and antispermatogenic activity of Thevetia peruviana methanol extract in male albino rats". Hum Fertil (Camb) 14 (1): 53–59. 
  17. ^ Kareru P.G., Keriko J.M., Kenji G.M., Gachanja A.N. (2010). "Anti-termite and antimicrobial properties of paint made from Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Schum. oil extract". African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 4 (2): 87–89. 

External links[edit]