- This article is about the novel. For the film adaptations, see Atlas Shrugged: Part I, Atlas Shrugged: Part II, or Atlas Shrugged: Part III.
|Published||1957 (Random House)|
|Media type||Print (hardback and paperback)|
|Pages||1168 (first edition)|
ISBN 0-525-94892-9 (hardback centennial edition),ISBN 0-452-28636-0 (paperback centennial edition)
Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand, first published in 1957 in the United States. Rand's fourth and last novel, it was also her longest, and the one she considered to be her magnum opus in the realm of fiction writing. Atlas Shrugged includes elements of science fiction, mystery, and romance, and it contains Rand's most extensive statement of Objectivism in any of her works of fiction.
The book explores a dystopian United States where many of society's wealthiest citizens refuse to pay increasingly high taxes, reject government regulations and disappear, shutting down their vital industries. The disappearances evoke the imagery of what would happen if the mythological Atlas refused to continue to hold up the sky. They are led by John Galt. Galt describes the disappearances as "stopping the motor of the world" by withdrawing the people that drive society's productivity. In their efforts, these characters hope to demonstrate that the destruction of the profit motive leads to the collapse of society. The title is a reference to Atlas, a Titan of Ancient Greek mythology, described in the novel as "the giant who holds the world on his shoulders", although in Greek mythology he holds the sky, not the earth. The significance of this reference is seen in a conversation between the characters Francisco d'Anconia and Hank Rearden, in which d'Anconia asks Rearden what sort of advice he would give Atlas upon seeing that "the greater [the titan's] effort, the heavier the world bore down on his shoulders". With Rearden unable to answer, d'Anconia gives his own response: "To shrug".
The theme of Atlas Shrugged, as Rand described it, is "the role of man's mind in existence". The book explores a number of philosophical themes from which Rand would subsequently develop Objectivism. In doing so, it expresses the advocacy of reason, individualism, capitalism, and the failures of governmental coercion.
Atlas Shrugged received largely negative reviews after its 1957 publication but achieved enduring popularity and consistent sales in the following decades.
- 1 Context and writing
- 2 Synopsis
- 3 Themes
- 4 Reception
- 5 Film and television adaptations
- 6 In popular culture
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 Further reading
- 10 External links
Context and writing
Rand referred to Atlas Shrugged as a mystery novel, "not about the murder of man's body, but about the murder — and rebirth — of man's spirit". Her stated goal for writing the text was "to show how desperately the world needs prime movers and how viciously it treats them" and to portray "what happens to a world without them". Nonetheless, when asked by film producer Albert S. Ruddy if a screenplay could focus on the love story, Rand agreed and said, "That's all it ever was".
Rand remarked that the core idea for the book came to her after a 1943 telephone conversation with a friend, who asserted that Rand owed it to her readers to write fiction about her philosophy. Rand replied, "What if I went on strike? What if all the creative minds of the world went on strike?" Rand then set out to create a work of fiction that explored the role of the mind in human life and the morality of rational self-interest, by exploring the consequences when the people "of the mind" go on strike, refusing to allow their inventions, art, business leadership, scientific research, or new ideas to be taken from them by the government or by the rest of the world. The working title throughout her writing was The Strike, but Rand thought this title would have revealed the mystery element of the novel prematurely, so she was pleased when her husband suggested Atlas Shrugged, previously the title of one of the chapters, as a better title for the book.
To produce Atlas Shrugged, Rand conducted research on American industry, specifically the railroad industry, which forms a key element in her novel. Her previous work on a proposed (but never realized) screenplay based on the development of the atomic bomb, including her interviews of J. Robert Oppenheimer, was used in the portrait of the character Robert Stadler and the novel's depiction of the development of "Project X". To do further background research, Rand toured and inspected a number of industrial facilities, such as the Kaiser Steel plant, rode the locomotives of the New York Central Railroad, and even learned to operate the locomotive of the Twentieth Century Limited (and proudly reported that when operating it, "nobody touched a lever except me").
Rand's self-identified literary influences include Victor Hugo, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Edmond Rostand, and O. Henry. In addition, Justin Raimondo has observed similarities between Atlas Shrugged and the 1922 novel The Driver, written by Garet Garrett, which concerns an idealized industrialist named Henry Galt, who is a transcontinental railway owner trying to improve the world and fighting against government and socialism. In contrast, Chris Matthew Sciabarra found Raimondo's "claims that Rand plagiarized ... The Driver" to be "unsupported", and Stephan Kinsella doubts that Rand was in any way influenced by Garrett. Writer Bruce Ramsey observed, "Both The Driver and Atlas Shrugged have to do with running railroads during an economic depression, and both suggest pro-capitalist ways in which the country might get out of the depression. But in plot, character, tone, and theme they are very different."
To persuade Rand to publish her novel with Random House, publisher Bennet Cerf proposed a "philosophic contest" in which Rand would submit her work to various publishers to judge their response to its ideas, so she could evaluate who might best promote her work. Because of the success of Rand's 1943 novel The Fountainhead, the initial print run was 100,000 copies. It marked a turning point in her life, ending her career as novelist and beginning her tenure as a popular philosopher.
Atlas Shrugged is set in an alternative dystopian United States at an unspecified time, in which the country has a "National Legislature" instead of Congress and a "Head of State" instead of President. Writer Edward Younkins noted, "The story may be simultaneously described as anachronistic and timeless. The pattern of industrial organization appears to be that of the late 1800s — the mood seems to be close to that of the depression-era 1930s. Both the social customs and the level of technology remind one of the 1950s." Many early 20th-century technologies are available, and the steel and railroad industries are especially significant; jet planes are described as a relatively new technology, and television is a novelty significantly less influential than radio. Although other countries are mentioned in passing, there is no mention of the Soviet Union, World War II, or the Cold War. It is implied that the countries of the world are organized along vaguely Marxist lines, in references to "People's States" in Europe and South America. Characters also refer to nationalization of businesses in these "People's States", as well as in America. The "mixed economy" of the book's present is often contrasted with the "pure" capitalism of 19th century America, wistfully recalled as a lost Golden Age.
The novel is divided into three parts consisting of ten chapters each. Robert James Bidinotto noted "the titles of the parts and chapters suggest multiple layers of meaning. The three parts, for example, are named in honor of Aristotle's laws of logic ... Part One is titled 'Non-Contradiction' ... Part Two, titled 'Either-Or' ... [and] Part Three is titled 'A Is A,' a reference to 'the Law of Identity'."
As the novel opens, protagonist Dagny Taggart, the Operating Vice President of Taggart Transcontinental, a railroad company originally pioneered by her grandfather, attempts to keep the company alive against collectivism and statism. Her brother, James Taggart, the railroad's President, is peripherally aware of the company's troubles, but will not make difficult decisions, and seems to make irrational decisions, such as preferring to buy steel from Orren Boyle's Associated Steel, rather than Hank Rearden's Rearden Steel, despite the former continually delaying delivery of vital rail. In this as in other decisions, Dagny simply continues her own policy; but is herself disappointed to discover that Francisco d'Anconia, her childhood friend and first love, appears to be destroying his family's international copper company, which has made him one of the richest and most powerful men in the world.
Hank Rearden, a self-made steel magnate, has recently developed an alloy called Rearden Metal, now the strongest and most reliable metal in the world; but keeps its composition secret, sparking jealousy among competitors. As a result of this, pressure is put on Dagny to use conventional steel; but she refuses. Hank's career is hindered by his feelings of obligation to his wife, mother, and younger brother. Dagny also becomes acquainted with Wesley Mouch, a Washington lobbyist initially working for Rearden, whom he betrays; and later notices the nation's most capable business leaders abruptly disappearing, leaving their industrial businesses to failure. The most recent of these is Ellis Wyatt, the sole founder and supervisor of Wyatt Oil, and one of the few men still loyal to Dagny and Hank's efforts against government control, who leaves his most successful oil well spewing petroleum and fire into the air (later named "Wyatt's Torch"). Each of these men remains absent despite a thorough search by ever-anxious politicians.
While economic conditions worsen and government agencies continue to enforce their control on successful businesses, the citizens are often heard reciting the street phrase, "Who is John Galt?", in response to questions to which the individual can find no answer. It sarcastically means, "Don't ask important questions, because we don't have answers", or more broadly, "What's the point?" or "Why bother?". Having demonstrated the reliability of Rearden Metal in a railroad line named after 'John Galt', Hank Rearden and Dagny Taggart become paramours; and later discover, amongst the ruins of an abandoned factory, an incomplete motor that transforms atmospheric static electricity into kinetic energy, of which they seek the inventor. Eventually this search reveals the reason of business-leaders' disappearances, when Dagny pursues a scientist to 'Galt's Gulch', where the character John Galt is leading an organized "strike" of business leaders against their constraint by the government.
Reluctant to forsake her railroad, Dagny leaves Galt's Gulch; but Galt follows Dagny to New York City, where he hacks into a national radio broadcast to deliver a long speech (70 pages in the first edition), serving to explain the novel's theme and Rand's philosophy of Objectivism. As the government begins to collapse, the authorities capture Galt; but he is rescued by his partisans, while New York City loses its electricity. The novel closes as Galt announces that they will later re-organize the world.
The story of Atlas Shrugged dramatically expresses Rand's philosophy of Objectivism: Rand's ethical egoism, her advocacy of "rational selfishness", is perhaps her most well-known position. For Rand, all of the principal virtues and vices are applications of the role of reason as man's basic tool of survival (or a failure to apply it): rationality, honesty, justice, independence, integrity, productiveness, and pride — each of which she explains in some detail in "The Objectivist Ethics". Rand's characters often personify her view of the archetypes of various schools of philosophy for living and working in the world. Robert James Bidinotto wrote, "Rand rejected the literary convention that depth and plausibility demand characters who are naturalistic replicas of the kinds of people we meet in everyday life, uttering everyday dialogue and pursuing everyday values. But she also rejected the notion that characters should be symbolic rather than realistic." and Rand herself stated, "My characters are never symbols, they are merely men in sharper focus than the audience can see with unaided sight. . . . My characters are persons in whom certain human attributes are focused more sharply and consistently than in average human beings."
In addition to the plot's more obvious statements about the significance of industrialists to society, and the sharp contrast it provides to the Marxist version of exploitation and the labor theory of value, this explicit conflict is used by Rand to draw wider philosophical conclusions, both implicit in the plot and via the characters' own statements. Atlas Shrugged caricatures fascism, socialism and communism — any form of state intervention in society — as fatally flawed. This includes any form of a welfare state: Rand suggests that every individual has to take complete responsibility for themselves. All government assistance is depicted as creating "moochers" by allowing poor people to "leech" the hard earned wealth of the rich and powerful. In addition, positions are expressed on a variety of other topics, including sex, politics, friendship, charity, childhood, and many others. Rand contends that the outcome of any individual's life is purely a function of their ability, and that any individual could overcome adverse circumstances, given ability and intelligence. Rand said it is not a fundamentally political book, but a demonstration of the individual mind's position and value in society.
Rand argues that independence and individual achievement enable society to survive and thrive, and should be embraced. But this requires a rational moral code. She argues that, over time, coerced self-sacrifice must cause any society to self-destruct.
Similarly, Rand rejects faith (that "short-cut to knowledge", she writes in the novel), along with belief in divinity — apart from the absolute of existence, itself. The book positions itself against religion specifically, often within the characters' dialogue.
Sanction of the victim
The concept "sanction of the victim" is defined by Leonard Peikoff as "the willingness of the good to suffer at the hands of the evil, to accept the role of sacrificial victim for the 'sin' of creating values". Rand holds that evil is a parasite on the good and can only exist if the good tolerates it. Atlas Shrugged can be seen as an answer to the question of what would happen if this sanction were revoked. When Atlas shrugs, relieving himself of the burden of carrying the world, he is revoking his sanction.
Throughout Atlas Shrugged, numerous characters are frustrated by sanction of the victim. We first glimpse the concept when Hank Rearden feels he is duty-bound to support his family, despite their hostility towards him; later, the principle is stated explicitly by Dan Conway: "I suppose somebody's got to be sacrificed. If it turned out to be me, I have no right to complain". John Galt vows to stop the motor of the world by persuading the creators of the world to withhold their sanction: "Evil is impotent and has no power but that which we let it extort from us", and, "I saw that evil was impotent ... and the only weapon of its triumph was the willingness of the good to serve it".
In Rand's view, morality requires we do not sanction our own victimhood. She assigns virtue to the trait of rational self-interest. However, Rand contends moral selfishness does not mean a license to do whatever one pleases, guided by whims. It means the exacting discipline of defining and pursuing one's rational self-interest. A code of rational self-interest rejects every form of human sacrifice, whether of oneself to others or of others to oneself.
Government and business
Atlas Shrugged endorses the belief that a society's best hope rests on adopting a system of pure laissez-faire. Rand's view of the ideal government is expressed by John Galt, who says, "The political system we will build is contained in a single moral premise: no man may obtain any values from others by resorting to physical force", and claims that "no rights can exist without the right to translate one's rights into reality — to think, to work and to keep the results — which means: the right of property". Galt himself lives a life of laissez-faire capitalism as the only way to live consistently with his beliefs.
In the world of Atlas Shrugged, society stagnates when independent productive achievers are socially demonized and even "punished" (by institutions such as taxation) for their accomplishments. Independence and personal happiness had flourished to the extent that people were free, and achievement was rewarded to the extent that individual ownership of private property was strictly respected. This is in line with an excerpt from a 1964 interview with Playboy magazine in which Rand states "What we have today is not a capitalist society, but a mixed economy — that is, a mixture of freedom and controls, which, by the presently dominant trend, is moving toward dictatorship. The action in Atlas Shrugged takes place at a time when society has reached the stage of dictatorship. When and if this happens, that will be the time to go on strike, but not until then."
Rand characterizes the actions of government employees in a way that is consistent with public choice theory, describing how in her view the language of altruism is used to pass legislation that is nominally in the public interest (e.g., the "Anti-Dog-Eat-Dog Rule", and "The Equalization of Opportunity Bill") but which in reality serves special interests and government agencies at the expense of the public and the producers of value.
Property rights and individualism
Rand's heroes must continually fight against "parasites", "looters", and "moochers" who demand the benefits of the heroes' labor. Edward Younkins describes Atlas Shrugged as "an apocalyptic vision of the last stages of conflict between two classes of humanity — the looters and the non-looters. The looters are proponents of high taxation, big labor, government ownership, government spending, government planning, regulation, and redistribution."
"Looters" are Rand's depiction of bureaucrats and all forms of government officials, who confiscate others' earnings by force ("at the point of a gun") whose demands are backed by the implicit threat of force. Some officials are merely executing government policy, such as those who confiscate one state's seed grain to feed the starving citizens of another; others are exploiting those policies, such as the railroad regulator who illegally sells the railroad's supplies for his own profit. Both use force to take property from the people who "produced" or "earned" it.
"Moochers" are Rand's depiction of those who have no ability or work ethic whatsoever and are thus unable to produce value themselves. Therefore they demand others' earnings on behalf of the needy; however, they curse the producers who make that help possible and are jealous and resentful of the talented upon whom they depend. They are ultimately as destructive as the looters — destroying the productive through guilt, and appealing to "moral right" while enabling the "lawful" looting performed by governments.
Looting and mooching are seen at all levels of the world Atlas Shrugged portrays, from the looting officials Dagny Taggart must work around and the mooching brother Hank Rearden struggles with, to the looting of whole industries by companies like Associated Steel and the mooching demands for foreign aid by the starving countries of Europe.
One of the novel's heroes, Francisco d'Anconia, indicates the role of "looters" in relation to money itself:
"So you think that money is the root of all evil? ... Have you ever asked what is the root of money? Money is a tool of exchange, which can't exist unless there are goods produced and men able to produce them. Money is the material shape of the principle that men who wish to deal with one another must deal by trade and give value for value. Money is not the tool of the moochers, who claim your product by tears, or the looters who take it from you by force. Money is made possible only by the men who produce. Is this what you consider evil? ... Not an ocean of tears nor all the guns in the world can transform those pieces of paper in your wallet into bread you need to survive tomorrow. ... Whenever destroyers appear among men, they start by destroying money, for money is men's protection and the base of a moral existence. Destroyers seize gold and leave its owners a counterfeit pile of paper. This kills all objective standards and delivers men into the arbitrary power of an arbitrary setter of values ... Paper is a mortgage on wealth that does not exist, backed by a gun aimed at those who are expected to produce it. Paper is a check drawn by legal looters upon an account which is not theirs: upon the virtue of the victims. Watch for the day when it bounces, marked: 'Account Overdrawn.'"
Theory of sex
||This section possibly contains original research. (October 2013)|
In rejecting the traditional altruistic moral code, Rand also rejects the sexual code that, in her view, is the logical implication of altruism. In Atlas Shrugged Rand introduces a theory of sex that is based in her broader ethical and psychological theories. Rather than considering sexual desire a debasing animal instinct, Rand portrays it as the highest celebration of human values, a physical response to intellectual and spiritual values that gives concrete expression to what could otherwise be experienced only in the abstract.
In Atlas Shrugged, characters are sexually attracted to those who embody or seem to embody their values, be they higher or lower values by Rand's standards. Characters who lack clear purpose find sex devoid of meaning. This is illustrated in the contrasting relationships of Hank Rearden with Lillian Rearden and Dagny Taggart, by the relationships of James Taggart with Cherryl Brooks and with Lillian Rearden, and finally in the relationship between Dagny and John Galt.
Adultery is committed by three characters in the novel. The first and predominant act is of Hank Rearden, who sleeps with Dagny after the opening of the John Galt Line, to celebrate the success of his metal and her determination to have the line built. The affair continues for some time - even including a cross-country vacation for the two - until Hank's wife finds out; his wife does not want to divorce him, but instead wants to maintain her image as Mrs. Rearden and allows the affair to continue until Hank manipulates the judicial system to obtain a divorce. Later in the novel, as Mrs. Rearden knows the divorce will be processed shortly, she has sex with Dagny's brother James (who is also married, and despises Hank), as an act of revenge for them both against him. Having caught them, James' wife proceeds to commit suicide. Yet adultery is never addressed on moral grounds; the sex is addressed on its own, either as celebration of accomplishment or as an act of revenge.
Fictional technology and Atlas as science fiction
Technological progress and intellectual breakthroughs in scientific theory both figure prominently in Atlas Shrugged, leading some observers to classify Atlas in the genre of science fiction. Writer Jeff Riggenbach notes, "Galt's motor is one of the three inventions that propel the action of Atlas Shrugged", the other two being Rearden Metal and the government's sonic weapon, Project X. Other fictional technologies included in the story are refractor rays (Gulch mirage), a sophisticated electrical torture device (the Ferris Persuader), voice activated door locks (Gulch power station), palm-activated door locks (Galt's New York lab), Galt's means of quietly turning the entire contents of his laboratory into a fine powder when a lock is breached, and a means of taking over all radio stations worldwide. Riggenbach adds, "Rand's overall message with regard to science seems clear: the role of science in human life and human society is to provide the knowledge on the basis of which technological advancement and the related improvements in the quality of human life can be realized. But science can fulfill this role only in a society in which human beings are left free to conduct their business as they see fit."
Atlas Shrugged was generally disliked by critics, despite being a popular success. The book was dismissed by some as an "homage to greed", while author Gore Vidal described its philosophy as "nearly perfect in its immorality". Helen Beal Woodward, reviewing Atlas Shrugged for The Saturday Review, opined that the novel was written with "dazzling virtuosity" but that it was "shot through with hatred". This was echoed by Granville Hicks, writing for The New York Times Book Review, who also stated that the book was "written out of hate". The reviewer for Time magazine asked: "Is it a novel? Is it a nightmare? Is it Superman – in the comic strip or the Nietzschean version?" In the magazine National Review, Whittaker Chambers called Atlas Shrugged "sophomoric" and "remarkably silly", and said it "can be called a novel only by devaluing the term". Chambers argued against the novel's implicit endorsement of atheism, whereby "Randian man, like Marxian man is made the center of a godless world". Chambers also wrote that the implicit message of the novel is akin to "Hitler's National Socialism and Stalin's brand of Communism" ("To a gas chamber — go!").
The negative reviews produced responses from some of Rand's admirers, including a letter by Alan Greenspan to The New York Times Book Review, in which he responded to Hicks' claim that "the book was written out of hate" by saying, "... Atlas Shrugged is a celebration of life and happiness. Justice is unrelenting. Creative individuals and undeviating purpose and rationality achieve joy and fulfillment. Parasites who persistently avoid either purpose or reason perish as they should." Greenspan had read unpublished drafts of the work in Rand's salon at least three years earlier. In an unpublished letter to the National Review, Leonard Peikoff wrote, "... Mr. Chambers is an ex-Communist. He has attacked Atlas Shrugged in the best tradition of the Communists — by lies, smears, and cowardly misrepresentations. Mr. Chambers may have changed a few of his political views; he has not changed the method of intellectual analysis and evaluation of the Party to which he belonged."
Positive reviews appeared in a number of publications. Richard McLaughlin, reviewing the novel for The American Mercury, compared it to Uncle Tom's Cabin in importance. Well-known journalist and book reviewer John Chamberlain, writing in The New York Herald Tribune, found Atlas Shrugged satisfying on many levels: science fiction, a "Dostoevsky" detective story and, most importantly, a "profound political parable". However, Rand scholar Mimi Reisel Gladstein later wrote that "reviewers seemed to vie with each other in a contest to devise the cleverest put-downs"; one called it "execrable claptrap", while another said it showed "remorseless hectoring and prolixity".
Former Rand business partner and lover Nathaniel Branden, to whom the book was originally dedicated, has expressed differing views of Atlas Shrugged. He was initially quite favorable to it, praising it in the book he and Barbara Branden wrote in 1962 called Who Is Ayn Rand? After he and Rand ended their relationship in 1968, both he and Barbara Branden repudiated their book in praise of Rand and her novels. As of 1971 though, in an interview he gave to Reason he listed some critiques, but concluded, "But what the hell, so there are a few things one can quarrel with in the book, so what? Atlas Shrugged is the greatest novel that has ever been written, in my judgment, so let's let it go at that."
But in 1984, two years after Rand's death, he argued that Atlas Shrugged "encourages emotional repression and self-disowning" and that her works contained contradictory messages. Branden claimed that the characters rarely talk "on a simple, human level without launching into philosophical sermons". He criticized the potential psychological impact of the novel, stating that John Galt's recommendation to respond to wrongdoing with "contempt and moral condemnation" clashes with the view of psychologists who say this only causes the wrongdoing to repeat itself.
Praise, criticism, influence, and renewed popularity
Over the years, Atlas Shrugged has attracted an energetic and committed fan base. Each year the Ayn Rand Institute donates 400,000 copies of works by Ayn Rand, including Atlas Shrugged, to high school students. According to a 1991 survey done for the Library of Congress and the Book of the Month Club, Atlas Shrugged was situated between the Bible and M. Scott Peck's The Road Less Traveled as the book that made the most difference in the lives of 5,000 Book-of-the-Month club members surveyed, with a "large gap existing between the #1 book and the rest of the list". Modern Library's 1998 nonscientific online poll of the 100 best novels of the 20th century found Atlas rated #1 although it was not included on the list chosen by the Modern Library board of authors and scholars.
In 1997, the libertarian Cato Institute held a joint conference with The Atlas Society, an Objectivist organization, to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Atlas Shrugged. At this event, Howard Dickman of Reader's Digest stated that the novel had "turned millions of readers on to the ideas of liberty" and said that the book had the important message of the readers' "profound right to be happy". In 2013 John Goedde, Chair of the Idaho Senate’s Education Committee, proposed that Atlas Shrugged be required reading for all Idaho high school students, with mandatory testing on the tome a requirement for high school graduation. Although legislation to that effect was introduced, the Senator had no plans to push the plan for adoption.
Rand's impact on contemporary libertarian thought has been considerable; the title of the libertarian magazine, Reason: Free Minds, Free Markets, is taken directly from John Galt, the hero of Atlas Shrugged, who argues that "a free mind and a free market are corollaries".
The Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises admired the unapologetic elitism he saw in Rand's work. In a private letter to Rand written a few months after the novel's publication, he declared, "... Atlas Shrugged is not merely a novel. It is also (or may I say: first of all) a cogent analysis of the evils that plague our society, a substantiated rejection of the ideology of our self-styled "intellectuals" and a pitiless unmasking of the insincerity of the policies adopted by governments and political parties ... You have the courage to tell the masses what no politician told them: you are inferior and all the improvements in your conditions which you simply take for granted you owe to the efforts of men who are better than you."
Nobel Prize-winning economist and commentator Paul Krugman alluded to a quip by John Rogers in his blog: "There are two novels that can change a bookish fourteen-year old's life: The Lord of the Rings and Atlas Shrugged. One is a childish fantasy that often engenders a lifelong obsession with its unbelievable heroes, leading to an emotionally stunted, socially crippled adulthood, unable to deal with the real world. The other, of course, involves orcs." In his commentary Krugman has continually mocked those whose purportedly serious economic ideas come from the novel.
Besides Paul Krugman, conservatives, such as William Buckley, Jr., strongly disapproved of Rand and her Objectivist message. Soon after the book's publication Buckley solicited a number of critical pieces: Russell Kirk called objectivism an “inverted religion”, Frank Meyer accused Rand of “calculated cruelties” and her message, an “arid subhuman image of man”, Garry Wills regarded Rand a “fanatic” and Whittaker Chambers considered the story of Atlas Shrugged preposterous, its characters crude caricatures, its message dictatorial and overall, "a remarkably silly book".
In the late 2000s, the book gained more media attention and conservative commentators suggested the book as a warning against a socialistic reaction to the finance crisis. Conservative commentators Neal Boortz, Glenn Beck, and Rush Limbaugh have offered high praise of the book on their respective radio and television programs. In 2006 Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Clarence Thomas cited Atlas Shrugged as among his favorite novels. Republican Congressman John Campbell said for example: "People are starting to feel like we're living through the scenario that happened in [the novel] ... We're living in Atlas Shrugged", echoing Stephen Moore in an article published in The Wall Street Journal on January 9, 2009, titled "Atlas Shrugged From Fiction to Fact in 52 Years". In 2005 Congressman Paul Ryan said that Rand was "the reason I got into public service" and later required his staff members to read Atlas Shrugged. In April 2012 he disavowed such beliefs however, calling them "an urban legend", and rejected Rand's philosophy.
BioShock, the critically acclaimed 2007 videogame is widely considered to be a deconstruction of Atlas Shrugged. The story depicts a collapsed Objectivist society, with the player learning of how it fell apart after the fact. The game features Objectivism as its central theme and even goes so far as to give the characters names that are connected with the book. Examples of this include Atlas, Andrew Ryan(a play on the name Ayn Rand) and Alisa Rosenbaum (Rand's birth name). When asked about the influences for BioShock, the creator of the game, Ken Levine, replied, "I have my useless liberal arts degree, so I've read stuff from Ayn Rand and George Orwell, and all the sort of utopian and dystopian writings of the 20th century, which I've found really fascinating."
Sales of Atlas Shrugged have increased since the 2007 financial crisis, according to The Economist magazine and The New York Times. The Economist reported that the fifty-two-year-old novel ranked #33 among Amazon.com's top-selling books on January 13, 2009 and that its thirty-day sales average showed the novel selling three times faster than during the same period of the previous year. With an attached sales chart, The Economist reported that sales "spikes" of the book seemed to coincide with the release of economic data. Subsequently, on April 2, 2009, Atlas Shrugged ranked #1 in the "Fiction and Literature" category at Amazon and #15 in overall sales. Total sales of the novel in 2009 exceeded 500,000 copies. The book sold 445,000 copies in 2011, the second-strongest sales year in the novel's history. At the time of publication, the novel was on The New York Times best-seller list and was selling at roughly a third the volume of 2011.
Film and television adaptations
A film adaptation of Atlas Shrugged was in "development hell" for nearly 40 years. In 1972, Albert S. Ruddy approached Rand to produce a cinematic adaptation. Rand agreed that Ruddy could focus on the love story. "That's all it ever was," Rand said. Rand insisted on having final script approval, which Ruddy refused to give her, thus preventing a deal. In 1978, Henry and Michael Jaffe negotiated a deal for an eight-hour Atlas Shrugged television miniseries on NBC. Michael Jaffe hired screenwriter Stirling Silliphant to adapt the novel and he obtained approval from Rand on the final script. However, in 1979, with Fred Silverman's rise as president of NBC, the project was scrapped.
Rand, a former Hollywood screenwriter herself, began writing her own screenplay, but died in 1982 with only one-third of it finished. She left her estate, including the film rights to Atlas, to her student Leonard Peikoff, who sold an option to Michael Jaffe and Ed Snider. Peikoff would not approve the script they wrote, and the deal fell through. In 1992, investor John Aglialoro bought an option to produce the film, paying Peikoff over $1 million for full creative control.
In 1999, under Aglialoro's sponsorship, Ruddy negotiated a deal with Turner Network Television (TNT) for a four-hour miniseries, but the project was killed after the AOL Time Warner merger. After the TNT deal fell through Howard and Karen Baldwin obtained the rights while running Phillip Anschutz's Crusader Entertainment. The Baldwins left Crusader and formed Baldwin Entertainment Group in 2004, taking the rights to Atlas Shrugged with them. Michael Burns of Lions Gate Entertainment approached the Baldwins to fund and distribute Atlas Shrugged. A draft screenplay was written by James V. Hart and re-written by Randall Wallace, but was never produced.
In May 2010, Brian Patrick O'Toole and Aglialoro wrote a screenplay, intent on filming in June 2010. Stephen Polk was set to direct. However, Polk was fired and principal photography began on June 13, 2010 under the direction of Paul Johansson and produced by Harmon Kaslow and Aglialoro. This resulted in Aglialoro's retention of his rights to the property, which were set to expire on June 15, 2010. Filming was completed on July 20, 2010, and the movie was released on April 15, 2011. Dagny Taggart was played by Taylor Schilling and Hank Rearden by Grant Bowler.
The film was met with a generally negative reception from professional critics, getting an 11% (rotten) rating on movie review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, and had less than $5 million in total box office receipts. The producer and screenwriter John Aglialoro blamed critics for the film's paltry box office take and said he might go on strike.
However, on February 2, 2012, Kaslow and Aglialoro announced Atlas Shrugged: Part II was fully funded and that principal photography was tentatively scheduled to commence in early April 2012. The film was released on October 12, 2012, without a special screening for critics. It suffered one of the worst openings ever, 98th worst according to Box Office Mojo, among films in wide release. Final box office take was $3.3 million, well under that of Part I despite the doubling of the budget to $20 million according to the Daily Caller. Those figures should be treated as tentative as the Internet Movie Database estimates Part 1 budget at $20 million and the Part II budget at $10 million, while Box Office Mojo says Part 1 cost $20 million and Part 2 data is "NA". Critics gave the film a 5% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 21 reviews.
In popular culture
- In Mad Men season 1, episode 8 ("The Hobo Code"), Bert Cooper urges Don Draper to read the book, and Don's sales pitch tactic to cosmetics client Belle Jolie indicates he's been influenced by the "individuals of mind" on strike plot: "If you don't appreciate my hard work, then I will take it away and we'll see how you do."
- In the animated television show South Park, episode "Chickenlover", newly literate Officer Barbrady gave up on reading after experiencing Atlas Shrugged. 
- Atlas Shrugged is briefly featured in the film Men In Black during the morgue scene with David Cross.
- In One Tree Hill season 1, episode 2 ("The Places You Have Come to Fear the Most"), Jake Jagielski gives Lucas Scott a copy of "Atlas Shrugged" to read.
- The Futurama episode "I Second That Emotion" contains a library of books flushed down to the sewers, to be read only by grotesque mutants. Bender looks through it, sees Atlas Shrugged, and dismisses it as "nothing but crumpled porno and Ayn Rand".
- In The Pagemaster, After Richard Tyler crash lands into a mountain in the Fantasy Section, the large book that falls on top of him is a version of "Atlas Shrugged".
- Industrial Revolution
- Libertarianism and Objectivism
- The Transhumanist Wager
- Dowd, Maureen (April 17, 2011). "Atlas Without Angelina". New York Times. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
- McConnell, Scott (2010). 100 Voices:An Oral History of Ayn Rand. United Kingdom: Penguin Books/NAL Trade. p. Al Ruddy section. ISBN 0451231309.
- Interview Transcript (1999). "The Making Of The Atlas Shrugged TV MiniSeries Albert Ruddy, Susan Black, Bill Collins". Prodos Institute Inc. Retrieved August 3, 2012.
- Rand, Ayn (1997). Harriman, David, ed. Journals of Ayn Rand. New York: Dutton. p. 704. ISBN 0-525-94370-6. OCLC 36566117.
- Gladstein, Mimi (1999). The New Ayn Rand Companion. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 42. ISBN 0-313-30321-5.
- As described in Hesiod's Theogony, Atlas holds the sky in punishment for waging war against Zeus.
- Shermer, Michael (2008). The Mind of the Market. Times Books. p. XX. ISBN 0-8050-7832-0.
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- "History of Atlas Shrugged". Ayn Rand Institute. Retrieved April 18, 2012.
- Ayn Rand's Literature of Capitalism by Harriet Rubin, The New York Times, September 15, 2007
- Rand, Ayn (1986). Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal. Signet. p. 150. ISBN 0-451-14795-2.
- Branden, Barbara (1986). The Passion of Ayn Rand. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company. p. 291. ISBN 0-385-19171-5. OCLC 12614728.
- Burns, Jennifer (2009). Goddess of the Market: Ayn Rand and the American Right. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-0-19-532487-7. OCLC 313665028.
- Rand, Ayn (1997). Harriman, David, ed. Journals of Ayn Rand. New York: Dutton. pp. 311–344, 566–578, 617. ISBN 0-525-94370-6. OCLC 36566117.; Rand, Ayn (1995). Berliner, Michael S, ed. Letters of Ayn Rand. New York: Dutton. pp. 188–193, 311, 378, 381–383, 457–459. ISBN 0-525-93946-6. OCLC 31412028.
- Rand, Ayn, "Favorite Writers", reprinted in Schwartz, Peter, edit., The Ayn Rand Column, Second Renaissance Books, 1991, pp. 113-115.
- Raimondo, Justin (1993). Reclaiming the American Right: The Lost Legacy of the Conservative Movement. Center for Libertarian Studies. ISBN 1-883959-00-4.
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- Younkins, Edward W. (2007). "Preface". Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged: A Philosophical and Literary Companion. Aldershot: Ashgate. p. 1. ISBN 0-7546-5549-0. "Atlas Shrugged ... is the demarcation work and turning point that culminated [Rand's] career as a novelist and propelled her into a career as a philosophizer"
- Younkins, Edward W. (2007). "Atlas Shrugged: Ayn Rand's Philosophical and Literary Masterpiece". Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged: A Philosophical and Literary Companion. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 9–10. ISBN 0-7546-5549-0.
- Robert James Bidinotto. "Atlas Shrugged as Literature". The Atlas Society. Archived from the original on March 15, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2009.
- Atlas Shrugged, Centennial Edition, Signet, 1992. Peach Wilkins
- On Rand's normative ethics see also Smith, Tara, The Virtuous Egoist: Ayn Rands Normative Ethics Cambridge University Press, 2006 ISBN 978-0-521-86050-5 .
- Peikoff, Leonard. "Introduction to the 35th Anniversary Edition", in Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged (1996/1957) Signet. ISBN 0-451-19114-5 p. 6-8.
- Leonard Peikoff, "The Philosophy of Objectivism" lecture series (1976), Lecture 8. 
- Rand, Ayn (1992) . Atlas Shrugged (35th anniversary ed.). New York: Dutton. p. 1062. ISBN 0-525-94892-9. OCLC 60339555.
- Gladstein, Mimi (1999). The New Ayn Rand Companion. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. 54. ISBN 0-313-30321-5.
- The concept of societal stagnation in the wake of collectivist systems is also central to the plot of another of Rand's works, Anthem.
- "Ayn Rand interviewed by Alvin Toffler". Playboy Magazine. discoveraynrand.com. 1964. Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
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- Atlas Shrugged, p. 410-413
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- Gladstein, Mimi Reisel. "Ayn Rand and Feminism: An Unlikely Alliance" In: Feminist interpretations of Ayn Rand by Mimi Reisel Gladstein, Chris Matthew Sciabarra. Penn State Press, 1999 ISBN 0-271-01831-3, ISBN 978-0-271-01831-7. p. 52.
- Riggenbach, Jeff (2007). "Atlas Shrugged as a Science Fiction Novel". In Younkins, Edward W. Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged: A Philosophical and Literary Companion. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing. p. 124. ISBN 0-7546-5549-0.
- Riggenbach, Jeff (2007). "Atlas Shrugged as a Science Fiction Novel". In Younkins, Edward W. Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged: A Philosophical and Literary Companion. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing. p. 126. ISBN 0-7546-5549-0.
- Woodward, Helen Beal, "Non-Stop Daydream", Saturday Review 12 Oct. 1957, p. 25.
- Hicks, Granville, "A Parable of Buried Talents", The New York Times Book Review 13 Oct. 1957, pp. 4-5.
- Time, "Solid Gold Dollar Sign", 14 Oct. 1957, p.128.
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- Martin, Justin (2000). Greenspan: The Man behind Money. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus. p. 47. ISBN 0-7382-0275-4.
- Martin, Justin (2000). Greenspan: The Man behind Money. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Perseus. p. 42. ISBN 0-7382-0275-4.
- Mayhew, Robert, ed. (2009). Essays on Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books. pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-0-7391-2780-3. OCLC 315237945.
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- Subject of article: Yardley, Jonathan. "The Voice of the People Speaks. Too Bad It Doesn't Have Much to Say." The Washington Post August 10, 1998, D2 (Final Edition). Retrieved from ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
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- von Mises, Ludwig. Letter dated January 23, 2958. Quoted in Hülsmann, Jörg Guido (2007). Mises: The Last Knight of Liberalism. Auburn, Alabama: The Ludwig von Mises Institute. p. 996. ISBN 978-1-933550-18-3.
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- Murty, Govindini (July 21, 2010).  "EXCLUSIVE: LFM Visits the Set of Atlas Shrugged + Director Paul Johansson's First Interview About the Film". Libertas Film Magazine. Retrieved 2010-08-26.
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- Keegan, Rebecca. 'Atlas Shrugged' producer: 'Critics, you won.' He's going 'on strike.', The LA Times.
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- Leeman, Zachary. (2012-10-06) 'Atlas Shrugged' Producer Won't Screen Sequel for 'Prostitute' Critics. Breitbart.com. Retrieved on 2013-10-23.
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- Rand, Ayn (1992) . Atlas Shrugged (35th anniversary ed.). New York: Dutton. ISBN 0-525-94892-9.
- Branden, Nathaniel (1962). "The Moral Revolution in Atlas Shrugged". Who is Ayn Rand?. Book co-authored with Barbara Branden. New York: Random House. pp. 3–65. OCLC 313377536. Reprinted by The Objectivist Center as a booklet in 1999, ISBN 1-57724-033-2.
- Gladstein, Mimi Reisel (2000). Atlas Shrugged: Manifesto of the Mind. Twayne's Masterwork Studies. New York: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 0-8057-1638-6.
- Hunt, Robert (1983). "Science Fiction for the Age of Inflation: Reading Atlas Shrugged in the 1980s". In Slusser, George E.; Rabkin, Eric S. & Scholes, Robert. Coordinates: Placing Science Fiction and Fantasy. Carbondale, Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 80–98. ISBN 0-8093-1105-4.
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Foreign language translations
- Chinese:阿特拉斯耸耸肩, 2 vol., published by Chongqing Publishing Group, October 2007, ISBN 978-7-5366-8639-7, Translator: 杨格.
- Dutch: Atlas in Staking, published by the "De Boekenmaker", www.boekenmaker.nl (Krommenie, 2006).
- La révolte d'Atlas, 2 vol. (Paris 1958 et 1959, Editions Jeheber). Because of its flaws, this translation by Henri Daussy was not authorized by Rand and the third volume did not appear, probably because of the publisher's bankruptcy.
- Another unauthorized translation by Monique di Pieirro was made available on the Internet in 2009.
- La Grève (Paris, France: Les Belles Lettres, September 22, 2011), ISBN 978-2-251-44417-8 (paperback). Only Translation Authorized by Ayn Rand Institute. Translator: Sophie Bastide-Foltz through Andrew Lessman Foundation.
- German: Wer ist John Galt? (Hamburg, Germany: GEWIS Verlag), ISBN 3-932564-03-0.
- Hebrew: מרד הנפילים, (Tel Aviv, Israel: S. Fridman, 1999), 2 vol., Danacode 113-138 (hardcover). Translator: Itzhak Avrahami.
- Hungarian: Veszett világ (Budapest, Hungary: Alexandra Kiadó), ISBN 963-297-112-4.
- Italian: La rivolta di Atlante, 3 vol. (Milano, Corbaccio, 2007), ISBN 88-7972-863-6, ISBN 88-7972-878-4, ISBN 88-7972-881-4. Translator: Laura Grimaldi
- Japanese: 肩をすくめるアトラス (ビジネス社), ISBN 4-8284-1149-6. Translator: 脇坂 あゆみ.
- Marathi: The first translation Yugant was considered to be flawed. The new authorized translation is now available, and is widely reported to be true to the spirit of Ayn Rand's original work.
- ऍटलस श्रग्ग्ड (Atlas Shrugged; Diamond Publications, India; 2011) Translator: Mugdha Karnik; ISBN 978-81-8483-350-8 (Paperback).
- युगांत (Yuganta), published by Shivam Prakashan; October 2004, Translator: श्री. सु. वि. पारखी (S. V. Parkhi)
- Mongolian: Атлантын нуруу тэнийв (Mongolian Libertarian Fund, Ulaanbaatar, 2010),ISBN 978-9996258-06-0. Translator: J.Nergui.
- Norwegian: De som beveger verden. (Kagge Forlag, 2000), ISBN 82-489-0083-5 (hardcover), ISBN 82-489-0169-6 (paperback). Translator: John Erik Bøe Lindgren.
- Polish: Atlas zbuntowany (Zysk i S-ka, 2004), ISBN 83-7150-969-3 (hardcover). Translator: Iwona Michałowska.
- Russian: Атлант расправил плечи (Издательство Альпина Бизнес Букс, 2007 г.), ISBN 978-5-9614-0603-0. Translator: Ю.Соколов, В.Вебер, Д.Вознякевич.
- Spanish: La rebelión de Atlas. (Editorial Grito Sagrado), ISBN 987-20951-0-8 (hardcover), ISBN 987-20951-1-6 (paperback).
- Swedish: Och världen skälvde. (Timbro Förlag, 1986), ISBN 0-394-41576-0. Translator: Maud Freccero.
- Turkish: Atlas Silkindi. (Plato Yayınları, 2003), ISBN 975-96772-6-1. Translator: Belkıs Çorapçı.
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- Atlas Shrugged (Centennial Edition) at Google Books
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