18 January 2007 – 17 July 2009
10 March 1968 |
|Political party||Nominated Member of Parliament – no party affiliation|
|Relations||Thio Su Mien (mother), Josie Lau Meng Lee (cousin-in-law)|
|Alma mater||Keble College, Oxford (B.A. (Hons.) Jurisprudence, 1990); Harvard Law School (LL.M., 1993); University of Cambridge (Ph.D., 2000)|
|Occupation||Law academic at the Faculty of Law, NUS|
|Website||Thio-Li-ann at the Parliament of Singapore website;
Thio Li-ann at the website of the Faculty of Law, NUS
Thio Li-ann (Chinese: 张黎衍; pinyin: Zhāng Líyǎn; born 10 March 1968) is a Singaporean law professor at the National University of Singapore. She was educated at the University of Oxford, Harvard Law School and the University of Cambridge. In January 2007, she was appointed a Nominated Member of Parliament (NMP) in Singapore's 11th Parliament.
- 1 Early life and education
- 2 Career as law academic
- 3 Term as Nominated Member of Parliament
- 4 NYU Law School controversy
- 5 Personal life
- 6 Selected works
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 External links
Early life and education
Thio Li-ann was born in Singapore on 10 March 1968. Her mother is Dr. Thio (née Huang) Su Mien, former Dean of the Faculty of Law of the National University of Singapore (NUS) and presently Senior Executive Director of TSMP Law Corporation; her brother, Thio Shen Yi, is Joint Managing Director of the same law firm.
Thio was educated at the Singapore Chinese Girls' School (1975–1984) and Hwa Chong Junior College (1984–1986), at the latter on a Humanities Award from the Ministry of Education. She took a Bachelor of Arts (B.A. (Hons.)) in Jurisprudence at Keble College, Oxford between 1987 and 1990. At Oxford she was awarded the Law Moderations Book Prize (Constitutional Law, Criminal Law and Roman Law) in 1988. She was called to the Bar as a barrister at Gray's Inn in 1991.
Career as law academic
Thio joined the Faculty of Law of the NUS as a Senior Tutor in 1991, and was appointed Lecturer in 1992. That same year she embarked on postgraduate law studies at Harvard Law School on a National University of Singapore Overseas Graduate Scholarship, and obtained a Master of Laws (LL.M.) in 1993. She returned to NUS, where in 1997 she was appointed an Assistant Professor. Between 1997 and 2000 she carried out Ph.D. research at the University of Cambridge on another NUS Overseas Graduate Scholarship, and was duly conferred this degree in 2000. Her Ph.D. dissertation, entitled Managing Babel: The International Legal Protection of Minorities in the Twentieth Century, was subsequently published by Martinus Nijhoff Publishers in 2005. In June 2000 she was appointed an Associate Professor, and achieved the rank of full Professor in July 2006. Her research interests are the following:
- Constitutionalism and human rights in Asia.
- Domestic and comparative perspectives of constitutional law and administrative law.
- International human rights law and the rights of peoples.
- Law and religion.
- Public international law, its history and theory.
Thio was Young Asian Scholar at the Melbourne University Law School in 1997, was ranked as an NUS Excellent Teacher in 2001–2002 and 2002–2003, and was given a Young Researcher Award by NUS in 2004. In March 2006, she was a Visiting Lecturer at the Faculty of Law of the University of Hong Kong, where she was one of the academics teaching a course on "National Protection of Human Rights". In September of that year she returned to the University of Melbourne as a Senior Fellow of its Graduate Law Programme to teach a course entitled "Constitutionalism in Asian Societies".
Thio served as Chief Editor of the Singapore Journal of International & Comparative Law between 2000 and 2003, and since 2005 has been General Editor of the Asian Yearbook of International Law. She is also on the editorial or advisory boards of the Singapore Yearbook of International Law, the New Zealand Yearbook of International Law (since 2003) and Human Rights & International Legal Discourse (since 2006), and is Corresponding Editor (Singapore) for Blaustein & Flanz's Constitutions of the Countries of the World (since 2001) and the International Journal of Constitutional Law (since 2001). Since 2001 she has also been a contributor on constitutional and administrative law to the Singapore Academy of Law Annual Review of Singapore Cases.
Thio appeared as an expert witness before the Federal Court of Australia in the extradition of Michael McCrea to Singapore to stand trial for murder (2003), and as a consultant to a delegation of the House of Representatives of Japan (30 September 2002) and to the University of Warwick on academic freedom issues (2005).
Term as Nominated Member of Parliament
||This article possibly contains original research. (November 2007)|
||This article contains weasel words: vague phrasing that often accompanies biased or unverifiable information. (March 2009)|
In October 2007, the Parliament of Singapore reviewed the Penal Code. In the course of doing so, it decided not to repeal section 377A of the Code and thus continued to criminalise sexual activity between males. In the course of the debate in Parliament, Thio gave a speech to support the continued criminalisation of sexual activity between males, and likened gay sex to "shoving a straw up your nose to drink." She claimed to have support from a majority of Singaporeans, and stated she spoke "at the risk of being burned at the stake by militant activists." At the same time, Thio mentioned the existence of an active gay agenda that seeks to lobby the government and radically change sexual norms. It was later noted by Janadas Devan that the speech was heavily laced with phrases and imagery from the Dominionist movement.
The Internet subsequently saw a flood of websites heavily rebutting Thio's speech, most of which focused on her lurid straw-up-the-nose analogy. Efforts were even taken by some to rebut the pointers she raised, such as the SingaporePeasants blog-site. Thio was also criticised by local journalist Janadas Devan in a feature article in The Straits Times on 27 October, titled "377A debate and the rewriting of pluralism". Another Straits Times writer, Chua Mui Hoong, also wrote an article titled "Rules of Engagement for God and Politics" on 16 November 2007. In it, Chua acknowledged Thio's position in her speech that secularism could challenge religion. However, Chua disagreed that religion has been antagonised in Singapore, and encouraged that specific explanation be given as to how the repeal of a law would in reality harm the Singaporean society.
Thio's speech also drew the criticism of Michael Kirby, then a judge of the High Court of Australia, who referenced it in a speech he delivered in Brisbane on 16 November 2007. The content of his speech was subsequently published in The Sydney Morning Herald on 19 November 2007.
During the debate, Thio revealed that playwright Alfian Sa'at had sent her a short email saying, among other things, that "I hope I outlive you long enough to see the repeal of 377A and on that day I will piss on your grave." Sa'at later took responsibility for the email, saying it was sent in a moment of folly in response to the rumour that Thio had called the police to complain about a "Pink Picnic" some members of the gay community were organising in the Botanic Gardens. Thio later denied the allegation, and Sa'at apologised. Subsequently, in November 2007, Thio was alerted by the media to an anonymous threatening letter addressed to her stating: "We know where you work, we'll send people there to hunt you down". Thio made a police report the same day.
Question regarding support from the majority
Thio's strong position towards retaining the code naturally drew much protest from the Singaporean homosexual population. Two issues were constantly raised, especially on online forums. The first issue was the question of the real existence of a majority against repeal of the code. The second issue was the question of whether a Singaporean against homosexuality on personal or religious grounds would actually equate wanting a code to criminalise homosexuals. Concerns were also raised by a law professor on whether it was realistically possible to enforce such a code, whether it would lead to dangers of entrapment, and whether the informal position of the government not to enforce the code would reverse overnight.
At the same time, an alleged email also surfaced during the course of discussion, in which Senior Pastor Derek Hong of Church of Our Saviour, Singapore, supposedly encouraged acquaintances to lobby the government to decide against repealing the code. The email contains a suggested format of writing, which could be found repeated heavily in actual letters to The Straits Times and reach.gov.sg, the Singaporean government online feedback website. The content of the alleged email is strongly similar to an earlier one sent in 2003 by Cornerstone Community Church. Neither Hong nor his church has issued any statement on this matter.
NYU Law School controversy
Thio was to be a visiting human rights professor at New York University School of Law in the fall of 2009 until she withdrew her acceptance in July 2009. Her appointment prompted many to call for condemnation of her "anti-gay hate speech" before Parliament. The University's gay and lesbian law student group, NYU OUTLaw, released a statement calling for the condemnation.
NYU Law School's Dean Richard Revesz issued a memorandum stating "the Law School categorically rejects the point of view expressed in Professor Thio's speech, as evidenced by our early and longstanding commitment to end discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation." Students at NYU Law School have issued statements as well.
Thio then sent an 18-point defense memo to the entire NYU Law faculty. On 22 July 2009, she informed the school of her withdrawal from the appointment, citing hostility by its community towards her views and low enrollment. It was reported that only 9 students applied for her course on Human Rights and 5 for her another course on Constitutionalism.
Daughter of Thio Su Mien
Thio is the daughter of Dr. (Mrs.) Thio Su Mien, who was formerly the Dean of the Faculty of Law of the National University of Singapore, and is now in private practice. Dr. Thio Su Mien came to the attention of the Singaporean public in 2003 when she sent a letter to The Straits Times stating her strong disagreement with homosexuality. The letter, signed by eight persons, was in response to a speech by the then Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong in which he mentioned that the Civil Service would not discriminate against employing homosexual individuals. On 9 February 2006, Dr Thio Su Mien also wrote another letter to The Straits Times which, amongst other things, stated her belief that the American Psychiatric Association had ceased to regard homosexuality as a mental disorder due to "pressure tactics from homosexual activists — including riots and disruptions of APA meetings".
Due to the multi-ethnicity and multi-religion nature of the Singaporean population, open religious affiliation and campaigning by politicians has always been frowned upon by the ruling party. The overall rationale as stated consistently being a precaution not to upset the delicate social balance that would topple the tiny nation.
Thio, however, has not refrained from openly declaring her religious beliefs. In an interview with the local daily The Straits Times on 2 November 2007, Thio shared her personal story of how she converted from a "very, very arrogant" atheist to a Christian in 1987. Having entered Oxford University to read jurisprudence, she attended a Christian Union talk then and claimed to be "stopped" by a voice.
"I basically had a sense that God was talking to me. I had stood up to walk out and I heard someone say, 'Stop'. And no one was around me. Everybody was busy doing their own thing. I was one of only one or two Chinese girls in this whole room of ang mohs. And then I just had the sense that I had encountered God, that he knew my name and I was shocked." Thio was quoted as saying in the interview.
In the same interview, she also stated firmly that she is a Christian, belonging to church, Church of Our Saviour, the west of Singapore. She added, "'I don't know what right wing is. This is funny because I was always considered a political leftie and now I'm a rightie."
- Thio, Li-ann (1997), An 'i' for an 'I': Singapore's Communitarian Model of Constitutional Adjudication, Hong Kong Law Journal 27: 152–186, ISSN 0378-0600.
- Thio, Li-ann (1999), Implementing Human Rights in ASEAN Countries: Promises to Keep and Miles to Go before I Sleep, Yale Human Rights & Development Law Journal 2: 1–86, ISSN 1548-2596.
- Thio, Li-ann (2002), Battling Balkanization: Regional Approaches towards Minority Protection beyond Europe, Harvard International Law Journal 43 (2): 409–468, ISSN 0017-8063.
- Thio, Li-ann (2002), Recent Constitutional Developments: Of Shadows and Whips, Race, Rifts and Rights, Terror and Tudungs, Women and Wrongs, Singapore Journal of Legal Studies: 328–373, ISSN 0218-2173.
- Thio, Li-ann (2004), Pragmatism and Realism Do Not Mean Abdication: A Critical Inquiry into Singapore's Engagement with International Human Rights Law, Singapore Year Book of International Law 8: 41–91, ISSN 1793-0448.
- Thio, Li-ann (2006), 'Beyond the Four Walls' in an Age of Transnational Judicial Conversations: Civil Liberties, Rights Theories and Constitutional Adjudication in Malaysia and Singapore, Columbia Journal of Asian Law 19 (2): 428–518, ISSN 1094-8449.
Contributions towards books
- Thio, Li-ann (1997), "The Elected President and the Legal Control of Government: Quis Custodiet Ipsos Custodes?", in Tan, Kevin; Lam, Peng Er, Managing Political Change in Singapore: The Elected Presidency, New York, N.Y.: Routledge, p. 100, ISBN 0-415-15632-7.
- Thio, Li-ann (1997), "Choosing Representatives: Singapore Does It Her Way", in Hassall, Graham; Saunders, Cheryl, The People's Representatives: Electoral Systems in the Asia-Pacific Region, St. Leonards, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin, pp. 38–58, ISBN 1-86448-258-3.
- Thio, Li-ann (1999), "The Constitutional Framework of Powers", in Tan, Kevin Y.L. (Yew Lee), The Singapore Legal System (2nd ed.), Singapore: Singapore University Press, p. 67, ISBN 9971-69-213-9, ISBN 9971692120 (hbk.).
- Thio, Li-ann (1999), "Law and the Administrative State", in Tan, Kevin Y.L. (Yew Lee), The Singapore Legal System (2nd ed.), Singapore: Singapore University Press, p. 160, ISBN 9971-69-213-9, ISBN 9971692120 (hbk.).
- Thio, Li-ann (2004), "Rule of Law within a Non-liberal "Communitarian" Democracy : The Singapore Experience", in Peerenboom, Randall, Asian Discourses of Rule of Law: Theories and Implementation of Rule of Law in Twelve Asian Countries, France and the U.S., London; New York, N.Y.: RoutledgeCurzon, pp. 183–224, ISBN 0-415-32612-5, ISBN 0415326133 (hbk.).
- Thio, Li-ann (2005), "Taking Rights Seriously?: Human Rights Law in Singapore", in Peerenboom, R. (Randall) P.; Petersen, Carole; Chen, Albert H.Y., Human Rights in Asia: A Comparative Legal Study of Twelve Asian Countries, France and the United States, New York, N.Y.: Routledge, p. 158, ISBN 0-415-36003-X, ISBN 0415360021 (hbk.).
- Thio, Li-ann (2006), "International Law and Secession in the Asia-Pacific Region", in Kohen, Marcelo G., Secession: International Law Perspectives, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 297–354, ISBN 0-521-84928-4.
- Tan, Kevin Y.L. (Yew Lee); Thio Li-ann (1997), Tan, Yeo & Lee's Constitutional Law in Malaysia and Singapore (2nd ed.), Singapore: Butterworths Asia, ISBN 0-409-99908-3
- Thio, Li-ann (2005), Managing Babel: The International Legal Protection of Minorities in the Twentieth Century (International Studies in Human Rights; v. 81), Leiden; Boston, Mass.: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, ISBN 90-04-14198-7
- Derrick Paulo (18 January 2007), Citizen Thio goes to Parliament, Today[dead link]
- Prof THIO LI-ANN: Curriculum vitae, Parliament of Singapore, 25 January 2007, archived from the original on 27 July 2009, retrieved 8 November 2007.
- Dr Thio Su Mien, TSMP Law Corporation, 2007, retrieved 14 November 2007.
- Thio Shen Yi, TSMP Law Corporation, 2007, retrieved 14 November 2007.
- Curriculum vitae: Professor (Dr.) THIO Li-ann, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore, 5 February 2007, archived from the original on 20 July 2007, retrieved 18 November 2007.
- Her LL.M. thesis was entitled Constitutional Interpretation: Lost Lessons from the Fundamental Principles of the U.S. Constitution (1993).
- Academic profiles: THIO Li-ann, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore, 25 June 2004, archived from the original on 15 October 2007, retrieved 16 November 2007.
- Thio's curriculum vitae states that this took place in 1998: Curriculum vitae: Professor (Dr.) THIO Li-ann (PDF), Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore, 5 February 2007, archived from the original on 20 July 2007, retrieved 18 November 2007.
- Singapore Journal of International & Comparative Law (Singapore: Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore), 1997–2003, ISSN 0219-0508. After 2003 the journal was renamed the Singapore Year Book of International Law (SYBIL).
- Asian Yearbook of International Law (Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff), 1993– , ISSN 0928-432X Check date values in:
- Singapore Year Book of International Law (Singapore: Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore), 2004– , ISSN 1793-0448 Check date values in:
- New Zealand Yearbook of International Law (Christchurch, N.Z.: International Law Group, School of Law, University of Canterbury), 2004– , ISSN 1176-6417 Check date values in:
- Human Rights & International Legal Discourse (Mortsel, Belgium: Intersentia), 2007– , ISSN 1783-7014 Check date values in:
- A.P. Blaustein; G.H. Flanz, eds. (1971– ), Constitutions of the Countries of the World: A Series of Updated Texts, Constitutional Chronologies and Annotated Bibliographies (Permanent ed.), Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.: Oceana Publications Check date values in:
- International Journal of Constitutional Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press), 2002– , ISSN 1474-2640 Check date values in:
- Singapore Academy of Law Annual Review of Singapore Cases (Singapore: Singapore Academy of Law), 2001– , ISSN 0219-6638 Check date values in:
- Penal Code (Cap. 224, 1985 Rev. Ed.).
- Winnie Hu (22 July 2009), Citing opposition, professor calls off N.Y.U. appointment, The New York Times, retrieved 24 July 2009.
- Thio Li-ann (23 October 2007), Speech, Singapore Parliamentary Debates, Penal Code Revisions, 22–23 October 2007 (Professor Dr. Thio Li-ann, Nominated Member), Keep377A.com, archived from the original on 28 February 2008, retrieved 19 November 2007.
- Janadas Devan (27 October 2007), 377A debate and the rewriting of pluralism, The Straits Times.
- Chua Mui Hong (16 November 2007), Rules of engagement for God and politics, The Straits Times.
- Michael Kirby (19 November 2007), Selective tolerance is not tolerance at all, The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Li Xueying (8 November 2007), NMP Thio files 2nd police report after getting threat, The Straits Times.
- SGBOYX Forum
- K.C. Vijayan (30 October 2007), NUS don warns of 377A fallout, The Straits Times.
- Email from Derek Hong, April 2007 (Alleged)
- Richard L. Revesz (22 July 2009), Statement from Dean Richard L. Revesz of the New York University School of Law, The New York Times, retrieved 24 July 2009.
- Anti-gay Singapore prof cancels NYU stint after uproar, The Sydney Morning Herald, 24 July 2009, retrieved 24 July 2009.
- David Lat (6 June 2009), NYU professor of human rights: Not a fan of gay rights?, Above the Law, retrieved 11 June 2009; Rights for some people, Inside Higher Ed, 8 June 2009, retrieved 11 June 2009; Julie Bolcer (10 July 2009), Human rights prof. opposes gay rights, The Advocate, retrieved 11 June 2009.
- Tay Shi'an (22 July 2009), She's not against gay people, just against gay agenda, The New Paper, retrieved 24 July 2009.
- Cai Haoxiang (24 July 2009), Thio Li-ann cancels teaching stint at NYU, The Straits Times: A15.
- David Lat (10 July 2009), Dr. Li-ann Thio: The good professor speaks – and so does NYU Law School, Above the Law, retrieved 13 July 2009.
- Article from abovelaw.com
- Thio Su Mien (22 July 2003), No to homosexuality, Streats.
- M. Nirmala (23 July 2003), Gay backlash, The Straits Times.
- Li Xueying (2 November 2007), A fiery NMP gets her baptism of fire, The Straits Times.
- Academic profiles: THIO Li-ann, Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore, 25 June 2004, archived from the original on 15 October 2007, retrieved 17 November 2007.
- Prof THIO LI-ANN: Curriculum vitae, Parliament of Singapore, 25 January 2007, archived from the original on 27 July 2009, retrieved 8 November 2007.
- Curriculum vitae: Professor (Dr.) THIO Li-ann (PDF), Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore, 5 February 2007, archived from the original on 20 July 2007, retrieved 18 November 2007.
- Official website of the Faculty of Law, National University of Singapore
- NMP Profile @ Parliament of Singapore Website