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Third-Worldism is a tendency within left-wing political thought to regard the division between First World developed countries and Third World developing countries as being of primary political importance. Third-Worldism supports Third World nations and national liberation movements against Western nations and their proxies. Third-Worldism is in many cases connected with movements such as Irish republicanism, Black Nationalism, Ba'athism, Pan-Africanism, Pan-Americanism, Pan-Arabism, Maoism, African socialism, Arab socialism and communism.
Key figures in the Third Worldist movement include Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Frantz Fanon, Walter Rodney, Ahmed Ben Bella, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Muammar Gaddafi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Ali Shariati, Andre Gunder Frank, Samir Amin and Simon Malley. The 1955 Bandung Conference in Indonesia, and the resultant formation of the Non-Aligned Movement represented a significant venue for Third World politics during the twentieth century.
The New Left led to an explosion of support for Third-Worldism, especially after the perceived failure of revolutionary movements in the First World. Among the New Left groups and movements associated with Third-Worldism were Monthly Review and the New Communist Movement.
From the 1970s, national liberation movements such as the Palestine Liberation Organization and the African National Congress have been causes célèbres of the movement. More recently, Third-Worldism has become a powerful force in the World Social Forum, (particularly since the 2004 forum in Mumbai) and in the Cairo Anti-War Conference.
Today, the Third Worldist movement is most associated with the Maoist-Third Worldist trend and organizations such as the Revolutionary Anti-Imperialist Movement  and Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons.
- Bangura, Abdul Karim, "Toward a Pan-Third Worldism: A Challenge to the Association of Third World Studies (Journal of Third World Studies, Spring 2003)
- Hadiz, Vedi R., The Rise of Neo-Third Worldism?: The Indonesian Trajectory and the Consolidation of Illiberal Democracy,
- Malley, Robert, The Call From Algeria: Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Turn to Islam (UC Press)
- Malley, Robert, "The Third Worldist Moment", in Current History (November 1999)
- Slobodian, Quinn, Foreign Front: Third World Politics in Sixties West Germany (Duke University Press)
- Third Worldism or Socialism?, by Solidarity UK
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