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Third-Worldism is a tendency within left-wing political thought to regard the division between First World developed countries and Third World developing countries as being of primary political importance. Third-Worldism supports Third World nations and national liberation movements against Western nations and their proxies. Third-Worldism is in many cases connected with movements such as Irish republicanism, Black Nationalism, Ba'athism, Pan-Africanism, Pan-Americanism, Pan-Arabism, Maoism, African socialism, Arab socialism and communism.

Key figures in the Third Worldist movement include Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar, Fidel Castro, Che Guevara, Frantz Fanon, Walter Rodney, Ahmed Ben Bella, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Muammar Gaddafi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Ali Shariati, Andre Gunder Frank, Samir Amin and Simon Malley.[citation needed] The 1955 Bandung Conference in Indonesia, and the resultant formation of the Non-Aligned Movement represented a significant venue for Third World politics during the twentieth century.

The New Left led to an explosion of support for Third-Worldism, especially after the perceived failure of revolutionary movements in the First World.[citation needed] Among the New Left groups and movements associated with Third-Worldism were Monthly Review and the New Communist Movement.[citation needed]

From the 1970s, national liberation movements such as the Palestine Liberation Organization and the African National Congress have been causes célèbres of the movement.[citation needed] More recently, Third-Worldism has become a powerful force in the World Social Forum, (particularly since the 2004 forum in Mumbai) and in the Cairo Anti-War Conference.[citation needed]

Today, the Third Worldist movement is most associated with the Maoist-Third Worldist trend and organizations such as the Revolutionary Anti-Imperialist Movement [1] and Maoist Internationalist Ministry of Prisons.[2]

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