Third Hellenic Republic

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Third Hellenic Republic (Greek: Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) is the period in modern Greek history that stretches from 1974, with the fall of Greek military junta and the final abolition of the Greek monarchy, to the present day.

It is considered the third period of republican rule in Greece, following the First Republic during the Greek War of Independence (1821–32) and the Second Republic during the temporary abolition of the monarchy in 1924-35. The term "Metapolitefsi" (Μεταπολίτευση) is commonly used for this period, but this term concerns more often with the first years immediately after the fall of the military junta. While the First and Second Hellenic Republics aren't in common use except ina historiographic context, the term Third Hellenic Republic is used frequently.[1][2]

Features of the Third Hellenic Republic are the development of social freedoms, the human growth,[clarification needed] the European orientation of Greece and the political dominance of the parties ND and PASOK. On the contrary this period includes high corruption, deterioration of some economic indexes such as the public debt and nepotism mostly in political scene and the state seats.[3][4][5]

Events[edit]

Signing at Zappeion of the documents for the accession of Greece to the European Communities in 1979.

This period is marked by great changes. In 1981 Greece joined in EU. Simultaneously the centre-left party PASOK won the election and changed the Greek political scenery. During 1990 the living standard of Greeks was improved importantly, nevertheless the Olympic Games of 2004 was the climax. On 1 January 2001, Greece adopted the Euro that was introduced in the country on 1 January 2002. At the last months of 2009, the Greek debt crisis broke out, an event that brought about great changes both social and political level.

Presidents of the Third Hellenic Republic[edit]

Main article: President of Greece

Political parties in Third Hellenic Republic[edit]

1974-1989[edit]

This period characterized from the fall of the position of centre that was gradually absorbed in PASOK. Also Communist Party of Greece was allowed to take part in election for first time after the end of Greek Civil War. The table below shows the course of the most important political parties and coalitions during this period.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1974
Legislative
Elections
1977
Legislative
Elections
1981
Legislative
Elections
1981
European
Elections
1984
European
Elections
1985
Legislative
Elections
1989
European
Elections
1989 June
Legislative
Elections
1989 Nov
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Communist KKE 9.36 10.93 12.84 11.64 9.89
KKE interior 1.37 5.30 3.42 1.84
Left-wing United Left 9.47
SPADE 2.72
SYN 14.31 13.13 10.97
Centre-left PASOK 13.58 25.34 48.06 40.12 41.58 45.82 35.96 39.13 40.97
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists 1.11 0.58
Centre Centre Union 20.42
EDIK 11.95 0.40 1.12 0.28 0.28
KODISO 0.72 4.26 0.80
Liberal Party 0.37 1.04 0.35 0.17 0.40 0.10 0.08
Christian Democracy 0.15 1.12 0.45 0.41 0.20
Liberatists New Liberals 1.08
Centre-right New Democracy 54.37 41.84 35.88 31.34 38.05 40.85 40.41 44.28 46.19
DIANA 1.36 1.00
Right-wing EDE 1.08
National Alignment 6.82
Progressive Party 1.69 1.96
Far-right EPEN 2.29 0.60 1.16 0.30

1990-2007[edit]

This period affected from the fall of communist regimes in East Europe. It is characterized by the reinforcement of bipartisanship with the two big parties collect even and 86% of votes totally.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 1990
Legislative
Elections
1993
Legislative
Elections
1994
European
Elections
1996
Legislative
Elections
1999
European
Elections
2000
Legislative
Elections
2004
Legislative
Elections
2004
European
Elections
2007
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % % % % %
Communist KKE 4.54 6.29 5.61 8.67 5.52 5.90 9.48 8.15
Left-wing SYN/SYRIZA 10.28 2.94 6.25 5.12 5.16 3.20 3.26 4.16 5.04
Centre-left PASOK 38.61 46.88 37.64 41.49 32.91 43.79 40.55 34.03 38.10
DIKKI 4.43 6.85 2.69 1.79
Ecologists Alternative Ecologists 0.77
Ecologist Greens 0.67 1.05
Centre Union of Centrists 0.23 1.19 0.70 0.82 0.34 0.26 0.56 0.29
Liberatists The Liberals 1.62
Centre-right New Democracy 46.89 39.30 32.66 38.12 36.00 42.74 45.36 43.02 41.84
DIANA 0.67 2.79
Right-wing Political Spring 4.88 8.65 2.94 2.28
Far-right EPEN 0.14 0.78 0.24
Golden Dawn 0.11 0.07
LAOS 2.19 4.12 3.80

2009-2015[edit]

This period correspond to Greek debt crisis, that changed dramatically the political stage. The traditional power parties brought down and the left-wing party SYRIZA as well as the right-wing parties and far-right parties were reinforced.

Political position/
Ideology
Political Party 2009
European
Elections
2009
Legislative
Elections
2012 May
Legislative
Elections
2012 June
Legislative
Elections
2014
European
Elections
2015
Legislative
Elections
% % % % % %
Communist KKE 8.35 7.54 8.48 4.50 6.11 5.47
ANTARSYA 0.43 0.36 1.19 0.33 0.72 0.64
Left Wing SYRIZA 4.70 4.60 16.79 26.89 26.57 36.34
Centre-Left PASOK/Olive Tree 36.64 43.92 13.18 12.28 8.02 4.68
Democratic Left 6.11 6.25 1.20 0.49
Social Agreement 0.96
The River 6.60 6.05
KIDISO 2.46
Ecologist Ecologist Greens 3.49 2.53 2.93 0.88 0.90
Centre Union of Centrists 0.38 0.27 0.61 0.28 0.65 1.79
Teleia 1.77
Liberatist Drassi 0.76 1.80
Recreate Greece 2.15
Democratic Alliance 2.55
Drassi/Recreate Greece 1.59 0.91
Greek European Citizens 1.40
Centre-Right New Democracy 32.29 33.48 18.85 29.66 22.72 27.81
Right Wing PAMME 1.27
Independent Greeks 10.62 7.51 3.46 4.75
UFP 1.04
Far Right LAOS 7.14 5.63 2.89 1.58 2.69 1.03
Golden Dawn 0.46 0.29 6.97 6.92 9.39 6.28

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ιορδάνογλου, Χρυσάφης Ι. (2002). Γερνώντας μαζί με την τρίτη ελληνική δημοκρατία. Εκδόσεις Παρατηρητής. ISBN 960-374-232-5. 
  2. ^ Μαυρογένης, Γιώργος (2008). Πολιτική Επικοινωνία & ΜΜΕ (Κεφάλαιο 17: Πολιτική Επικοινωνία στην Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία). Εκδόσεις Σταμούλη. ISBN 9789603517566. 
  3. ^ "H ποιότητα στην Γ΄ Ελληνική Δημοκρατία". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  4. ^ "Η Μεταπολίτευση, μία σύντομη αποτίμηση". kathimerini.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015. 
  5. ^ "Τρίτη Ελληνική Δημοκρατία. Του Γ. Ρωμαίου". tvxs.gr. Retrieved 29 January 2015.