Third National Population Census of the People's Republic of China

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The Third National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (PRC), also referred to as the 1982 Chinese Census, was conducted by the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of 1 July 1982.[1] A summary of the results were issued by the State Security Bureau and reported in the People's Daily on October 27, 1982.[2]

Preparations for the census were begun in 1976, with fact-finding missions sent to the United States and Japan to review their methods.[citation needed] Computers were installed in every provincial capital except Tibet; these were linked to a central processing unit at the Beijing office of the State Statistical Bureau.[citation needed] Pretests and trial runs occurred in 1980 and 1981. It was not until after this census had begun that the second census of 1964 was officially acknowledged to have occurred at all.[2] It had been an eighteen-year hiatus, and it wouldn't be until 1987 that China adopted a decennial plan, beginning with the 1990 census.

Approximately five million census takers interviewed a representative of each household in China over the month beginning 1 July 1982.[citation needed] In rural areas, census stations were located at production brigades.

The 1982 census removed the previous census's question about class status, but expanded other areas of inquiry. Nineteen demographic categories were covered, thirteen concerning individuals – name, relationship to the head of one's household, sex, age, ethnicity, registration status, educational level, profession, occupation, status if unemployed, marital status, number of living children, number of births in 1981 – and six concerning households – size, type (domestic or collective), serial number, number of births in 1981, number of deaths in 1981, and number of registered persons absent longer than one year.[citation needed]

Results[edit]

Total Population[edit]

The census found the total population of Mainland China in 1982 as 1,008,180,738. Official Chinese sources such as Xinhua, however, sometimes still report a result of 1,031,900,000.[3]

Demographics[edit]

The census found approximately 519,440,000 men and 488,740,000 women living in China, a ratio of 106.30 to 100.

The average household size was 4.41, almost unchanged since the previous census. 33.59% of the population was 14 or under; 61.50% of the population was between 15 and 64; and 4.91% of the population was 65 or older. Life expectancy was estimated to be 66.28 years for males and 69.27 years for females.

Han Chinese accounted for approximately 940,880,000 persons (93.32% of the total). Minorities accounted for approx. 67,300,000 persons (6.68%).

Early accounts listed an urbanized population of 206.59 million,[2] but this was subsequently revised to 210,820,000. This urbanization rate of 20.91% was an increase of 2.61 percentage points from 1964.[4]

Provincial Distribution[edit]

Province or
autonomous region
1964 Census 1982 Census Change  % Change
Anhui 31,241,657 49,665,724 Increase18,424,073 58.97
Fujian 16,757,223 25,931,106 Increase9,173,883 54.75
Gansu[n 1] 12,630,569 19,569,261 Increase6,938,692 54.94
Guangdong[n 2] 42,800,849 59,299,220 Increase16,498,371 38.55
Guizhou 17,140,521 28,552,997 Increase11,412,476 66.58
Hebei[n 3] 45,687,781 53,005,876 Increase7,318,095 16.02
Henan 50,325,511 74,422,739 Increase14,097,228 28.01
Heilongjiang 20,118,271 32,665,546 Increase12,547,275 62.37
Hubei 33,709,344 47,804,150 Increase14,094,806 41.81
Hunan 37,182,286 54,008,851 Increase16,827,565 45.26
Jiangsu 44,504,608 60,521,114 Increase16,016,506 35.99
Jiangxi 21,068,019 33,184,827 Increase12,116,808 57.51
Jilin 15,668,663 22,560,053 Increase6,891,390 43.98
Liaoning 26,946,200 35,721,693 Increase8,775,493 32.57
Qinghai 2,145,604 3,895,706 Increase1,750,102 81.57
Sichuan[n 4] 67,956,490 99,713,310 Increase31,756,820 46.73
Shaanxi 20,766,915 28,904,423 Increase8,137,508 39.18
Shandong 55,519,038 74,419,054 Increase18,900,016 34.04
Shanxi 18,015,067 25,291,389 Increase7,276,322 40.39
Yunnan 20,509,525 32,553,817 Increase12,044,292 58.73
Zhejiang 28,318,573 38,884,603 Increase10,566,030 37.31
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region 20,845,017 36,420,960 Increase15,585,943 74.77
Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region 12,348,638 19,274,279 Increase6,925,641 56.08
Xizang Autonomous Region
(Tibet)
1,251,225 1,892,393 Increase641,168 51.24
Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region 7,270,067 13,081,681 Increase5,811,614 79.94
Beijing Municipality 7,568,495 9,230,687 Increase1,662,192 21.96
Shanghai Municipality 10,816,458 11,859,748 Increase1,043,290 9.65
Tianjin Municipality   7,764,141    
Total 694,581,759 1,008,180,738 Increase313,599,019 45.15%

Surnames[edit]

In 2004, the 1982 census results were used to create a series of postage stamps honoring the 100 then–most common surnames:[5][6]

Controversy[edit]

Although praised as more accurate than the previous censuses in 1953 and 1964, the 1982 census suffered from irregularities as well. In particular, while the number of official cities shrank from previous lists, the urban population itself increased by more than 50% from a 1981 estimate of 138.70 million to the 1982 census total of 206.59 million.[2]

Another anomaly was that birth and death rates recorded by the census and household registration system differed but arrived at similar totals. Both deaths and births were found to have been underreported to the registration system, to maintain rations allocated to the deceased and to avoid punishment for violations of the recent One-Child Policy.[citation needed]

The publication of the 1964 data also allowed mortality and survival rates of recent generations to be analyzed in greater detail, revealing an enormous fall-off in surviving children born during the Great Leap Forward as well as an equally large surge afterwards.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The population Ningxia was detached from the 1964 figures.
  2. ^ Includes the modern Hainan province.
  3. ^ 1964 figure incorporates Tianjin municipality.
  4. ^ Includes the modern Chongqing municipality.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Aird, John S. "The Preparations for China's 1982 Census". The China Quarterly, No. 91 (Sept 1982), pp. 369-385. Cambridge University Press.
  2. ^ a b c d Kirkby, Richard J.R. Urbanisation in China: town and country in a developing economy, 1949-2000 AD. Taylor & Francis, 1985. ISBN 0-7099-1548-9. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  3. ^ Xinhua Net. "Backgrounder: China's national population censuses". 28 Apr 2011. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  4. ^ National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Cit. in Coutsoukis, Photius. Allcountries.org: "4-4 Basic Statistics on National Population Census in 1953, 1964, 1982, 1990 and 2000". 2006. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  5. ^ People's Daily Online. "China issues first set of stamps of Chinese family names". 19 Nov 2004. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.
  6. ^ 挑灯看剑 踏雪寻梅. "新'百家姓'图腾,快来看看您的尊姓啥模样". 12 Dec 2011. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.(Chinese)
  7. ^ Banister, Judith. China's Changing Population. Stanford University Press. Accessed 28 Mar 2012.