Third-party officeholders in the U.S. are very rare at any point of time. Although the current two-party system in the U.S., with the Republican party and Democratic party, started in 1856, many of the older parties still existed and had an influence. Therefore, this article includes any politician since the end of Reconstruction or since the 45th United States Congress.
These galleries and lists include anyone who at one time, while in office, was an independent or affiliated with a third party. They are listed in descending order from the first year they were in office as something other than a Republican or Democrat.
Since the end of Reconstruction, there have been a total of 30 U.S. Senators, 111 U.S. Representatives, and 28 Governors that weren't affiliated with a major party. Currently, there are two U.S. Senators (King and Sanders), one Governor (Chafee), zero U.S. Representatives, and four major city Mayors. Hundreds of third-party officeholders exist at the local level (including those in nonpartisan positions who are affiliated with a third-party), including 135 Green Party members and 151 Libertarian Party members.
Current Mayors of the largest 50 U.S. cities
Most mayoral elections are nonpartisan. All of the following are current mayors that are not registered with a major party