There was a medical case where a subungual exostosis developed on the third toe of 32 year old woman's right foot. A combination of diagnostic workup and surgical treatment "resulted in complete relief of symptoms with no signs of recurrence 7 months after surgery".
A favourable option for the reconstruction of missing adjacent fingers/multiple digit amputations, i.e. such as a metacarpal hand reconstruction, is to have a combined second and third toe transplantation. Third and fourth toe transplantation are also good.
There was a study done on the difference in size between the "third toe joint cartilage thickness to that of the finger proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint". This was done to work out if the third tow was suitable for transplantation in PIP joint reconstruction. The conclusion was that the cartilage thickness differed significantly between the third toe and the fingers. In comparison to the fingers, the third toe middle phalanx base cartilage has less differences in thickness than the third toe condyles.
Morton's neuroma commonly results in pain and numbness in the third and fourth toes of the sufferer, due to it affecting the nerve between the third and fourth metatarsal bones. If this occurs, the symptoms will be felt up left-hand side of the third toe (and the right-hand side of the fourth toe.
Within reflexology, the third toe is referred to as the Fire Toe. It tells its owner how direct they are - how focused they are to complete tasks and obtain their goals. A straight toe means great focus and determination. A pointed toe means they are bossy. A downward-pointed toe means that the owner can be easily prevented from achieving their goals. It is called the Fire toe because it represents the Fire element (big toe is ether, second toe is air, fourth toe is water, and fifth toe is earth). The fire relates to heat and fire, which in turn relates to perception and will, hence what the toe represents. Rubbing the third toe helps to stimulate it, and therefore restrengthens the person's fire element.
^Ilyas, W; Geskin, L; Joseph, AK; Seraly, MP (2001). "Subungual exostosis of the third toe". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology45 (6 Suppl): S200–1. doi:10.1067/mjd.2001.102666. PMID11712058.
^Podolsky, Dale; Mainprize, James; McMillan, Catherine; Binhammer, Paul (2011). "Comparison of Third Toe Joint Cartilage Thickness to That of the Finger Proximal Interphalangeal (PIP) Joint to Determine Suitability for Transplantation in PIP Joint Reconstruction". The Journal of Hand Surgery36 (12): 1950–8. doi:10.1016/j.jhsa.2011.09.013. PMID22051232.