Thirteener

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In mountaineering in the United States, a thirteener is a mountain that exceeds 13,000 feet (3,962.4 m) above mean sea level, similar to the more familiar "fourteeners," which exceed 14,000 feet (4,267.2 m). In most instances, "thirteeners" refers only to those peaks between 13,000 and 13,999 feet in elevation.

The importance of thirteeners is greatest in Colorado, which has the majority of such peaks in North America with over 600 of them. Despite the daunting number of peaks, a few dedicated peak baggers have successfully managed to climb all of Colorado's thirteeners.[citation needed] Thirteeners are also significant in states whose highpoints fall between 13,000 and 13,999 feet. Regarding whether or not peaks in excess of 13,999 feet should be considered as "thirteeners", this article will count them as such for statistical purposes, but concentrate its focus on those peaks less than 14,000 feet since the higher peaks are already covered in the fourteeners list.

Not all summits over 13,000 feet qualify as thirteeners, but only those summits that mountaineers consider to be independent. Objective standards for independence include topographic prominence and isolation (distance from a higher summit), or a combination. However thirteener lists do not always consistently use such objective rules. A rule commonly used by mountaineers in the contiguous United States is that a peak must have at least 300 feet (91 m) of prominence to qualify. According to the Mountaineering Club of Alaska, it is standard in Alaska to use a 500 ft (152 m) prominence rule rather than a 300 foot rule. These are the standards applied for the lists below.

List of United States thirteeners by state[edit]

Thirteeners are found in nine U.S. states. This table summarizes their numbers based on each state's prominence criteria:

U.S. State Thirteeners Fourteeners Highest 13er < 14,000 ft Elevation
Colorado 637 53 Grizzly Peak 13,988 ft (4,264 m)
California 147 11 Mount Barnard 13,990 ft (4,264 m)
Alaska 41 20 Mount Hunter, South Peak 13,966 ft (4,257 m)
Wyoming 34 0 Gannett Peak 13,804 ft (4,207 m)
Utah 17 0 Kings Peak 13,528 ft (4,123 m)
New Mexico 3 0 Wheeler Peak 13,161 ft (4,011 m)
Hawaii 2 0 Mauna Kea 13,796 ft (4,205 m)
Nevada 2 0 Boundary Peak 13,140 ft (4,005 m)
Washington 2 2 none -
The Crestone Group including
Columbia Point, Colorado

Colorado[edit]

By the most detailed count, Colorado has 637 peaks that exceed 13,000 feet (4,000 m) and meet the prominence criteria, of which 53 are fourteeners.[1][2] The highest of them less than 14,000 feet are as follows (the rank includes higher peaks):

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
54 Grizzly Peak 13,988 ft (4,264 m) Sawatch Range
55 Stewart Peak 13,983 ft (4,262 m) San Juan Mountains
56 Columbia Point 13,980 ft (4,261 m) Sangre de Cristo Range
57 Pigeon Peak 13,972 ft (4,259 m) San Juan Mountains
58 Mount Ouray 13,971 ft (4,258 m) Sawatch Range
59 Ice Mountain 13,951 ft (4,252 m) Sawatch Range
60 Fletcher Mountain 13,951 ft (4,252 m) Tenmile Range
61 Pacific Peak 13,950 ft (4,252 m) Tenmile Range

Surprisingly, Grizzly Peak is not only the name of Colorado's highest thirteener, but the state has four other Grizzly Peaks plus one Grizzly Mountain on the list:

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
130 Grizzly Peak 13,738 ft (4,187 m) San Juan Mountains
142 Grizzly Mountain 13,708 ft (4,178 m) Sawatch Range
145 Grizzly Peak 13,700 ft (4,176 m) San Juan Mountains
302 Grizzly Peak 13,427 ft (4,093 m) Front Range
415 Grizzly Peak 13,281 ft (4,048 m) Sawatch Range

Other notable Colorado thirteeners not named "Grizzly" include:

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
66 Mount Adams 13,931 ft (4,246 m) Sangre de Cristo Range
68 Mount Meeker 13,911 ft (4,240 m) Front Range
82 Crystal Peak 13,852 ft (4,222 m) Tenmile Range
89 Turret Peak 13,835 ft (4,217 m) Needle Mountains
96 Mount Silverheels 13,822 ft (4,213 m) Mosquito Range
131 Argentine Peak 13,738 ft (4,187 m) Tenmile Range
253 North Arapaho Peak 13,502 ft (4,115 m) Front Range
304 Mummy Mountain 13,425 ft (4,092 m) Mummy Range
324 Parry Peak 13,391 ft (4,082 m) Front Range
451 Hesperus Mountain 13,232 ft (4,033 m) San Juan Mountains
515 Twilight Peak 13,158 ft (4,011 m) San Juan Mountains
556 Lizard Head 13,113 ft (3,997 m) San Juan Mountains

California[edit]

California has the second greatest number of thirteeners with 147 of them, of which 11 are fourteeners (these counts exclude Mount Muir, which may not have 300 ft prominence).[3] The highest under 14,000 feet are as follows (the rank includes higher peaks):

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
12 Mount Barnard 13,990 ft (4,264 m) Sierra Nevada
13 Mount Humphreys 13,986 ft (4,263 m) Sierra Nevada
14 Mount Keith 13,975 ft (4,260 m) Sierra Nevada
15 Mount Stanford, South Peak 13,973 ft (4,259 m) Sierra Nevada

Other notable California thirteeners include:

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
18 Mount Le Conte 13,930 ft (4,246 m) Sierra Nevada
20 Mount Agassiz 13,893 ft (4,235 m) Sierra Nevada
22 Norman Clyde Peak 13,861 ft (4,225 m) Sierra Nevada
25 Mount Darwin 13,831 ft (4,216 m) Sierra Nevada
26 Mount Kaweah 13,802 ft (4,207 m) Sierra Nevada
28 Mount Winchell 13,775 ft (4,199 m) Sierra Nevada
29 Mount Morgan (Inyo County) 13,748 ft (4,190 m) Sierra Nevada
32 Red Kaweah 13,720 ft (4,182 m) Sierra Nevada
36 Black Kaweah 13,680 ft (4,170 m) Sierra Nevada
39 Mount Tom 13,652 ft (4,161 m) Sierra Nevada
44 Birch Mountain 13,602 ft (4,146 m) Sierra Nevada
51 Palisade Crest 13,553 ft (4,131 m) Sierra Nevada
68 Montgomery Peak 13,441 ft (4,097 m) White Mountains
76 Kaweah Queen 13,382 ft (4,079 m) Sierra Nevada
119 Mount Ritter 13,140 ft (4,005 m) Sierra Nevada
121 Mount Baxter 13,136 ft (4,004 m) Sierra Nevada
122 Red Slate Mountain 13,123 ft (4,000 m) Sierra Nevada
125 Mount Lyell 13,114 ft (3,997 m) Sierra Nevada
136 Mount Dana 13,057 ft (3,980 m) Sierra Nevada
147 Mount Morgan (Mono County) 13,002 ft (3,963 m) Sierra Nevada

Alaska[edit]

Alaska has at least 41 thirteeners that meet its more stringent prominence criteria of 500 ft, of which 20 are also fourteeners. Different sources list varying numbers of 13,000+ ft peaks in the state,[4][5][6] mainly because many of the peaks (especially those that are sub-peaks of a higher mountain) are unnamed and have no spot elevations given on the USGS topographical maps. The following list may miss a few peaks that should be included:

Mount Jarvis (north and main peaks), Alaska
Rank Mountain Elevation Range
21 Mount Hunter, South Peak 13,966 ft (4,257 m) Alaska Range
22 Atna Peaks 13,860 ft (4,225 m) Wrangell Mountains
23 Regal Mountain 13,845 ft (4,220 m) Wrangell Mountains
24 Mount Hayes 13,832 ft (4,216 m) Alaska Range
25 Mount Cook 13,760 ft (4,194 m) Saint Elias Mountains
26 Mount Sanford, South Peak 13,654 ft (4,162 m) Wrangell Mountains
27 Mount Quincy Adams 13,615 ft (4,150 m) Fairweather Range
28 Ocypete Peak 13,550 ft (4,130 m) Saint Elias Mountains
29 East Kahiltna Peak 13,440 ft (4,097 m) Alaska Range
30 Mount Natazhat 13,435 ft (4,095 m) Saint Elias Mountains
31 Mount Jarvis 13,421 ft (4,091 m) Wrangell Mountains
32 Mount Hunter, Middle Peak 13,400 ft (4,084 m) +  Alaska Range
33 Mount Bona, East Peak (Tressider Peak) 13,315 ft (4,058 m) Saint Elias Mountains
34 Mount Hayes, South Peak 13,305 ft (4,055 m) Alaska Range
35 Celeno Peak 13,300 ft (4,054 m) +  Saint Elias Mountains
36 Parka Peak 13,280 ft (4,048 m) Wrangell Mountains
37 Mount Silverthrone 13,220 ft (4,029 m) Alaska Range
38 Mount Marcus Baker 13,176 ft (4,016 m) Chugach Mountains
39 Mount Jarvis, North Peak 13,025 ft (3,970 m) Wrangell Mountains
40 Mount Moffit 13,020 ft (3,968 m) Alaska Range
41 Mount Zanetti 13,009 ft (3,965 m) Wrangell Mountains

Wyoming[edit]

Wyoming has 34 thirteeners with at least 300 ft of prominence, but no fourteeners.[7] 30 of the 34 are located in the rugged and remote Wind River Range. The highest of them are:

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
1 Gannett Peak 13,804 ft (4,207 m) Wind River Range
2 Grand Teton 13,770 ft (4,197 m) Teton Range
3 Fremont Peak 13,745 ft (4,189 m) Wind River Range
4 Mount Warren 13,722 ft (4,182 m) Wind River Range
5 Mount Helen 13,620 ft (4,151 m) Wind River Range
6 Turret Peak 13,620 ft (4,151 m) Wind River Range
7 Mount Sacagawea 13,569 ft (4,136 m) Wind River Range
8 Jackson Peak 13,517 ft (4,120 m) Wind River Range
9 Mount Woodrow Wilson 13,502 ft (4,115 m) Wind River Range
10 Bastion Peak 13,494 ft (4,113 m) Wind River Range
11 Mount Febbas 13,468 ft (4,105 m) Wind River Range
12 Flagstone Peak 13,450 ft (4,100 m) Wind River Range
13 Sunbeam Peak 13,440 ft (4,097 m) Wind River Range
14 Pinnacle Ridge 13,365 ft (4,074 m) Wind River Range
15 Downs Mountain 13,349 ft (4,069 m) Wind River Range

Other notable Wyoming thirteeners include:

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
20 Wind River Peak 13,192 ft (4,021 m) Wind River Range
23 Cloud Peak 13,167 ft (4,013 m) Big Horn Mountains
26 Francs Peak 13,153 ft (4,009 m) Absaroka Range
33 Black Tooth Mountain 13,005 ft (3,964 m) Big Horn Mountains

Utah[edit]

Utah has 17 thirteeners with at least 300 ft of prominence, but no fourteeners.[8][9] All of them are located in the remote Uinta Mountains near the Wyoming border, with none in the more famous Wasatch Range. Only nine of these thirteeners even have official names, the others (including those ranked 5–9) are merely unnamed sub-peaks with sufficient prominence to qualify. The highest of the thirteeners are:

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
1 Kings Peak 13,528 ft (4,123 m) Uinta Mountains
2 South Kings Peak 13,512 ft (4,118 m) Uinta Mountains
3 Gilbert Peak 13,442 ft (4,097 m) Uinta Mountains
4 Mount Emmons 13,440 ft (4,097 m) Uinta Mountains

New Mexico[edit]

New Mexico has 3 thirteeners, all located within about 40 miles (64 km) of each other in the Sangre de Cristo Mountains.[10]

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
1 Wheeler Peak 13,161 ft (4,011 m) Sangre de Cristo Mountains
2 Truchas Peak 13,102 ft (3,993 m) Sangre de Cristo Mountains
3 North Truchas Peak 13,024 ft (3,970 m) Sangre de Cristo Mountains

Hawaii[edit]

Hawaii has two thirteeners,[11] the great shield volcanoes which comprise the bulk of the Big Island of Hawaii.

Rank Mountain Elevation Range
1 Mauna Kea 13,796 ft (4,205 m) Island of Hawaii
2 Mauna Loa 13,680 ft (4,170 m) Island of Hawaii

Nevada[edit]

Nevada has only a single thirteener that meets the threshold for inclusion, Wheeler Peak in Great Basin National Park with an impressive 7,568 feet (2,307 m) of prominence. However, the highest point in the state is Boundary Peak, which is a sub-peak of California's Montgomery Peak with only 240 feet (73 m) of prominence.[12]

Mountain Elevation Range
Boundary Peak 13,140 ft (4,005 m) White Mountains
Wheeler Peak 13,065 ft (3,982 m) Snake Range

Washington[edit]

Mount Rainier is the only mountain in Washington state that exceeds 13,000 feet (4,000 m), and it has two summits that meet the prominence criteria,[13] both of which are included on the list of fourteeners.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Roach, Gerry; Roach, Jennifer (2001). Colorado's Thirteeners, 13,800 to 13,999 Feet: From Hikes to Climbs. Fulcrum Publishing. ISBN 1-55591-419-5. 
  2. ^ "Colorado’s Summits – 13,000 to 13,999 feet". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  3. ^ "California Thirteeners: The Official Vulgarian Ramblers List". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  4. ^ "Alaska’s Summits 13,000 feet and above". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  5. ^ "Alaska 13,000-foot Peaks". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  6. ^ "Highest Alaskan Summits (Wrangell-St. Elias National Park & Preserve)". Retrieved 2007-03-11. 
  7. ^ "Wyoming’s Summits over 13,000 feet". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  8. ^ Rose, David (2004). Utah Thirteeners. University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-794-8. 
  9. ^ "Utah’s Summits over 13,000 feet". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  10. ^ "New Mexico’s Summits over 12,000 feet". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  11. ^ "Hawaii’s Summits over 13,000 feet". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 
  12. ^ "Nevada’s Summits over 13,000 feet". Retrieved 2007-03-02. [dead link]
  13. ^ "Washington’s Summits over 13,000 feet". Retrieved 2007-03-02. 

External links[edit]