37th United States Congress
|37th United States Congress|
United States Capitol (1861)
|Duration: March 4, 1861 – March 4, 1863|
|Senate President:||Hannibal Hamlin|
|Senate Pres. pro tem:||Solomon Foot|
|House Speaker:||Galusha A. Grow|
7 Non-voting members
|Special: March 4, 1861 – March 28, 1861
1st: July 4, 1861 – August 6, 1861
2nd: December 2, 1861 – July 17, 1862
3rd: December 1, 1862 – March 4, 1863
The Thirty-seventh United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1861 to March 4, 1863, during the first two years of Abraham Lincoln's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Seventh Census of the United States in 1850. Both chambers had a Republican majority.
- April 12–14, 1861: Battle of Fort Sumter, Civil War began
- April 19, 1861: Baltimore riot of 1861
- April 19, 1861: Union blockade of the South begins at Fort Monroe, Virginia
- April 27, 1861: President Lincoln suspends habeas corpus from Washington, D.C., to Philadelphia and called up 75,000 militia.
- May 6, 1861: Arkansas Secession Convention enacted an Ordinance of Secession.
- May 20, 1861 North Carolina Secession Convention enacted an Ordinance of Secession.
- May 23, 1861: Virginia popular referendum ratified Ordinance of Secession that had been enacted by Convention on April 17. 5 of 12 U.S. Representatives remained. Although represented in the Confederate Congress, Missouri and Kentucky remained with full delegations in the 37th Congress. Two senators from the "Restored Government of Virginia" replaced the two who withdrew.
- June 8, 1861: Tennessee popular referendum ratified Ordinance of Secession that had been enacted by Convention on May 6. 3 of 10 U.S. Representatives remain. One Senator, Andrew Johnson, remained.
- July 21, 1861: Union forces lose the First Battle of Bull Run.
- September 17, 1862: Battle of Antietam
- September 22, 1862: Emancipation Proclamation ordered, to begin January 1, 1863
- November 1862: Democrats gained 31 House seats to 31% and lost 5 Senate seats to 19%.
Two special sessions
The Senate, a continuing body, was called into special session by President Buchanan, meeting in March 1861, to address national issues. It confirmed calling forth troops and raising money. The border states and Texas were still represented. Shortly after the Senate session adjourned, Fort Sumter was attacked. The immediate results were to draw four additional states "into the confederacy with their more Southern sisters", and Lincoln called Congress into extraordinary session on July 4, 1861.
Both Houses then duly met July 4, 1861. Seven states which would send representatives held their state elections for Representative over the months of May to June 1861. Members taking their seats had been elected before the secession crisis, during the formation of the Confederate government, and after Fort Sumter.
Once assembled with a quorum in the House, Congress approved Lincoln's war powers innovations as necessary to preserve the Union. Following the July Federal defeat at First Manassas, the Crittenden Resolution asserted the reason for "the present deplorable civil war." It was meant as an address to the nation, especially to the Border States at a time of U.S. military reverses, when the war support in border state populations was virtually the only thing keeping them in the Union.
Following resignations and expulsions occasioned by the outbreak of the Civil War, five states had some degree of dual representation in the U.S and the C.S. Congresses. Congress accredited Members elected running in these five as Unionist (19), Democratic (6), Constitutional Unionist (1) and Republican (1). All ten Kentucky and all seven Missouri representatives were accepted. The other three states seated four of thirteen representatives from Virginia, three of ten Tennesseans, and two of four from Louisiana.
The Crittenden Resolution declared the civil war "… has been forced upon the country by the disunionists of the southern States…" and it would be carried out for the supremacy of the Constitution and the preservation of the Union, and, that accomplished, "the war ought to cease". Democrats seized on this document, especially its assurances of no conquest or overthrowing domestic institutions (emancipation of slaves).
Slaves and slavery
Congressional policy and military strategy were intertwined. In the first regular March session, Republicans superseded the Crittenden Resolution, removing the prohibition against emancipation of slaves.
In South Carolina, Gen. David Hunter, issued a General Order in early May 1861 freeing all slaves in Florida, Georgia, and South Carolina. President Lincoln quickly rescinded the order, reserving this "supposed power" to his own discretion if it were indispensable to saving the Union. Later in the same month without directly disobeying Lincoln's prohibition against emancipation, General Benjamin Butler at Fort Monroe Virginia declared slaves escaped into his lines as "contraband of war", that is, forfeit to their rebel owners. On May 24, Congress followed General Butler's lead, and passed the First Confiscation Act in August, freeing slaves used for rebellion.
In Missouri, John C. Frémont, the 1856 Republican nominee for President, exceeded his authority as a General, declaring that all slaves held by rebels within his military district would be freed. Republican majorities in Congress responded on opening day of the December Session. Sen. Lyman Trumbull introduced a bill for confiscation of rebel property and emancipation for their slaves. "Acrimonious debate on confiscation proved a major preoccupation" of Congress. On March 13, 1862, Congress directed the armies of the United States to stop enforcing the Fugitive Slave Act. The next month, the Congress abolished slavery in the District of Columbia with compensation for loyal citizens. An additional Confiscation Act in July declared free all slaves held by citizens in rebellion, but it had no practical effect without addressing where the act would take effect, or how ownership was to be proved.
Lincoln's preliminary Emancipation Proclamation was issued September 22, 1862. It became the principle issue before the public in the mid-term elections that year for the 38th Congress. But Republican majorities in both houses held (see 'Congress as a campaign machine' below), and the Republicans actually increased their majority in the Senate.
On January 1, 1863, the war measure by executive proclamation directed the army and the navy to treat all escaped slaves as free when entering Union lines from territory still in rebellion. The measure would take effect when the escaped slave entered Union lines and loyalty of the previous owner was irrelevant. Congress passed enabling legislation to carry out the Proclamation including "Freedman's Bureau" legislation. The practical effect was a massive internal evacuation of Confederate slave labor, and augmenting Union Army teamsters, railroad crews and infantry for the duration of the Civil War.
Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War
Congress assumed watchdog responsibilities with this and other investigating committees.
The principle conflict between the president and congress was found in the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War. Eight thick volumes of testimony were filled with investigations of Union defeats and contractor scandals.
They were highly charged with partisan opinions "vehemently expressed" by chair Benjamin Wade of Ohio, Representative George Washington Julian of Indiana, and Zachariah Chandler of Michigan.
Sen. Chandler, who had been one of McClellan's advocates promoting his spectacular rise, particularly documented criticism of McClellan's Peninsular Campaign with its circuitous maneuvering, endless entrenchment and murderous camp diseases. It led to support for his dismissal.
A congressional committee could ruin a reputation, without itself having any military expertise. It would create the modern Congressional era in which generals fought wars with Congress looking over their shoulders, "and with public opinion following closely behind."
Republican Platform goals
Republican majorities in both houses, apart from pro-union Democrats, and without vacant southern delegations, were able to enact their party platform. These included the Legal Tender Act, February 20, 1862, and increases in the tariff that amounted to protective tariffs. The Homestead Act, May 20, 1862, for government lands, and the Morrill Land Grant Act, July 2, 1862, for universities promoting practical arts in agriculture and mining, had no immediate war purpose. But they would have long range effects, as would the Pacific Railroad Act, July 1, 1862, for a transcontinental railroad.
Treasury innovations were driven by Secretary Salmon P. Chase and necessity of war. The Income Tax of 1861, numerous taxes on consumer goods such as whiskey, and a national currency all began in Civil War Congresses.
Congress as election machinery
Member's floor speeches were not meant to be persuasive, but for publication in partisan newspapers. The real audience was the constituents back home. Congressional caucuses organized and funded political campaigns, publishing pamphlet versions of speeches and circulating them by the thousands free of postage on the member's franking privilege. Party congressional committees stayed in Washington during national campaigns, keeping an open flow of subsidized literature pouring back into the home districts.
Nevertheless, like other Congresses in the 1850s and 1860s, this Congress would see less than half of its membership reelected. The characteristic turmoil found in the "3rd Party Period, 1855-1896" stirred political party realignment in the North even in the midst of civil war. In this Congress, failure to gain nomination and loss at the general election together accounted for a Membership turnover of 25%.
This Congress in the generations cycle
This first Civil War Congress was one of the last with a plurality of members drwan from the "Transcendental" generation born between 1792 and 1821. They accounted for 87% of the national leadership, with 12% from the upcoming Gilded Age, and only 1% from the older Compromise Generation. As an age cohort, they were idealistic and exalted "inner truth" on both sides of the Civil War, with neither side prepared to compromise its principles. Those few Compromisers left with a voice were pushed to the side. Representative Thaddeus Stevens was typical of his Transcendentalist generations northern expression: "Instruments of war are not selected on account of their harmlessness ... lay waste to the whole South."
- August 5, 1861: Revenue Act of 1861, Sess. 1, ch. 45, 12 Stat. 292
- August 6, 1861: Confiscation Act of 1861, Sess. 1, ch. 60, 12 Stat. 319
- February 25, 1862: Legal Tender Act of 1862, Sess. 2, ch. 33, 12 Stat. 345
- April 16, 1862: Slavery in the District of Columbia abolished, Sess. 2, ch. 54, 12 Stat. 376
- May 15, 1862: An Act to Establish a Department of Agriculture, Sess. 2, ch. 72, 12 Stat. 387
- May 20, 1862: Homestead Act, Sess. 2, ch. 75, 12 Stat. 392
- June 19, 1862: An Act to secure Freedom to all persons within the Territories of the United States, Sess. 2, ch 111, 12 Stat. 432
- July 1, 1862: Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act, Sess. 2, ch. 126, 12 Stat. 501
- July 1, 1862: Revenue Act of 1862, Sess. 2, ch. 119, 12 Stat. 432
- July 1, 1862: Pacific Railway Act, Sess. 2, ch. 120, 12 Stat. 489
- July 2, 1862: Morrill Land Grant Colleges Act, Sess. 2, ch. 130, 12 Stat. 503
- July 17, 1862: Militia Act of 1862, Sess. 2, ch. 201, 12 Stat. 597
- February 25, 1863: National Banking Act, Sess. 3, ch 58, 12 Stat. 665
- March 2, 1863: False Claims Act, Sess. 3, ch. 67, 12 Stat. 696
- March 3, 1863: Enrollment Act, Sess. 3, ch. 75, 12 Stat. 731
- March 3, 1863: Habeas Corpus Suspension Act, Sess. 3, ch. 81, 12 Stat. 755
- March 3, 1863: Tenth Circuit Act, 12 Stat. 794
States admitted and seceded and Territories organized
- December 31, 1862: West Virginia admitted, Sess. 3, ch. 6, 12 Stat. 633, pending a presidential proclamation. (It became a state on June 20, 1863)
Territories organized or changed
- July 14, 1862: Nevada Territory extended and Utah Territory reduced, Sess. 2, ch. 12, 12 Stat. 575
- February 24, 1863: Arizona Territory organized, Sess. 3, ch. 56, 12 Stat. 664
- March 3, 1863: Idaho Territory organized, Sess. 3, ch. 117, 12 Stat. 808
Congress did not accept secession. Most of the Representatives and Senators from states that attempted to secede left Congress; those who took part in the rebellion were expelled.
- Secessions declared during previous Congress: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.
- Secessions declared during this Congress:
- April 17, 1861: Virginia (The pro-Union Restored Government of Virginia's two Senators and three Representatives were seated.)
- May 6, 1861: Arkansas
- May 20, 1861: North Carolina
- June 8, 1861: Tennessee (Sen. Andrew Johnson and three members of the House did not recognize secession and retained their seats.)
The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.
(Shading shows control)
|End of the previous congress||26||28||0||(American)
|Final voting share||26.0%||60.0%||14.0%||0.0%|
|Beginning of the next congress||10||33||4||(Unconditional
House of Representatives
(Shading indicates majority/pluality caucus)
|End of previous Congress||0||6||56||116||0||32||210||29|
|Final voting share||0.5%||24.6%||0.5%||57.9%||16.4%||0.0%|
|Beginning of the next Congress||0||72||0||85||9||14||180||61|
House of Representatives
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed in order of seniority, and Representatives are listed by district.
Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, Class 1 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1862; Class 2 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1864; and Class 3 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1866.
House of Representatives
Changes in membership
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
|Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's
|Missouri (3)||Vacant||Did not take seat until after Congress commenced||Waldo P. Johnson (D)||March 17, 1861|
|Kansas (2)||Vacant||Election not recognized by US Senate||James H. Lane (R)||April 4, 1861|
|Kansas (3)||Vacant||Election not recognized by US Senate||Samuel C. Pomeroy (R)||April 4, 1861|
|Pennsylvania (1)||Simon Cameron (R)||Resigned March 4, 1861 to become Secretary of War. Successor was elected.||David Wilmot (R)||March 14, 1861|
|North Carolina (2)||Thomas Bragg (D)||Withdrew March 6, 1861; expelled later in 1861.||Vacant thereafter|
|Ohio (3)||Salmon P. Chase (R)||Resigned March 7, 1861 to become Secretary of the Treasury. Successor was elected.||John Sherman (R)||March 21, 1861|
|Texas (1)||Louis T. Wigfall (D)||Withdrew March 23, 1861||Vacant||Vacant for remainder of term|
|North Carolina (3)||Thomas L. Clingman (D)||Withdrew March 28, 1861; expelled later in 1861.||Vacant thereafter|
|Virginia (2)||Robert M. T. Hunter (D)||Withdrew March 28, 1861 and later expelled for support of the rebellion. Successor was elected.||John S. Carlile (U)||July 9, 1861|
|Virginia (1)||James M. Mason (D)||Expelled March 28, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected.||Waitman T. Willey (U)||July 9, 1861|
|Illinois (2)||Stephen A. Douglas (D)||Died June 3, 1861. Successor was appointed.||Orville H. Browning (R)||June 26, 1861|
|Texas (2)||John Hemphill (D)||Expelled July ????, 1861||Vacant||Vacant for remainder of term|
|Illinois (2)||Orville H. Browning (R)||Retired January 12, 1863 upon election of a successor.||William A. Richardson (D)||January 30, 1863|
|Arkansas (2)||William K. Sebastian (D)||Expelled July 11, 1861||Vacant thereafter|
|Arkansas (3)||Charles B. Mitchel (D)|
|Michigan (2)||Kinsley S. Bingham (R)||Died October 5, 1861. Successor was elected.||Jacob M. Howard (R)||January 17, 1862|
|Oregon (2)||Edward D. Baker (R)||Killed at Battle of Ball's Bluff October 21, 1861. Successor was appointed.||Benjamin Stark (D)||October 29, 1861|
|Kentucky (3)||John C. Breckinridge (D)||Expelled December 4, 1861 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was elected.||Garrett Davis (U)||December 23, 1861|
|Missouri (1)||Trusten Polk (D)||Expelled January 10, 1862 for supporting the rebellion. Successor was appointed.||John B. Henderson (U)||January 17, 1862|
|Missouri (3)||Waldo P. Johnson (D)||Expelled January 10, 1862 for disloyalty to the government. Successor was appointed.||Robert Wilson (U)||January 17, 1862|
|Indiana (1)||Jesse D. Bright (D)||Expelled February 5, 1862 on charges of disloyalty. Successor was appointed.||Joseph A. Wright (U)||February 24, 1862|
|Tennessee (1)||Andrew Johnson (D)||Resigned March 4, 1862||Vacant thereafter|
|Rhode Island (1)||James F. Simmons (R)||Resigned August 15, 1862. Successor was elected.||Samuel G. Arnold (R)||December 1, 1862|
|New Jersey (1)||John R. Thomson (D)||Died September 12, 1862. Successor was appointed.||Richard S. Field (R)||November 21, 1862|
|Oregon (2)||Benjamin Stark (D)||Retired September 12, 1862 upon election of a successor.||Benjamin F. Harding (D)||September 12, 1862|
|Maryland (3)||James Pearce (D)||Died December 20, 1862. Successor was appointed.||Thomas H. Hicks (U)||December 29, 1862|
|Indiana (1)||Joseph A. Wright (U)||Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor.||David Turpie (D)||January 14, 1863|
|New Jersey (1)||Richard S. Field (R)||Retired January 14, 1863 upon election of a successor.||James W. Wall (D)||January 14, 1863|
House of Representatives
|District||Vacator||Reason for change||Successor||Date successor
|Colorado Territory At-large||New seat||Hiram P. Bennett
|August 19, 1861|
|Nevada Territory At-large||New seat||John Cradlebaugh||December 2, 1861|
|Dakota Territory At-large||New seat||John B. S. Todd
|December 9, 1861|
|Louisiana 1st||Vacant||Benjamin F. Flanders (U)||December 3, 1862|
|Louisiana 2nd||Vacant||Michael Hahn (U)||December 3, 1862|
|Tennessee 3rd||Vacant||Representative-elect George W. Bridges was arrested by Confederate troops while en route to Washington, D.C. and held prisoner before he escaped.||George W. Bridges (U)||February 25, 1863|
|Virginia 1st||Vacant||Joseph E. Segar (U)||May 6, 1862|
|California At-large||Vacant||Low not permitted to take seat, qualified later under special act of Congress||Frederick F. Low (R)||June 3, 1862|
|Virginia 7th||Vacant||Charles H. Upton (U)||July 4, 1861|
|Ohio 7th||Thomas Corwin (R)||Resigned March 12, 1861 to become Minister to Mexico||Richard A. Harrison (U)||July 4, 1861|
|Ohio 13th||John Sherman (R)||Resigned March 12, 1861 when elected U.S. Senator||Samuel T. Worcester (R)||July 4, 1861|
|Pennsylvania 12th||George W. Scranton (R)||Died March 24, 1861||Hendrick B. Wright (D)||July 4, 1861|
|Massachusetts 3rd||Charles F. Adams, Sr. (R)||Resigned May 1, 1861 to become Ambassador to Great Britain||Benjamin Thomas (U)||June 11, 1861|
|Pennsylvania 2nd||Edward Joy Morris (R)||Resigned June 8, 1861 to become Minister Resident to Turkey||Charles J. Biddle (D)||July 2, 1861|
|Virginia 11th||John S. Carlile (U)||Resigned July 9, 1861 to become United States Senator from the loyal faction of Virginia||Jacob B. Blair (U)||December 2, 1861|
|Missouri 3rd||John B. Clark (D)||Expelled July 13, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union||William A. Hall (D)||January 20, 1862|
|Oregon At-large||Andrew J. Thayer (D)||Election was successfully contested July 30, 1861||George K. Shiel (D)||July 30, 1861|
|Missouri 5th||John W. Reid (D)||Withdrew August 3, 1861 and then expelled December 2, 1861 for having taken up arms against the Union||Thomas L. Price (D)||January 21, 1862|
|Iowa 1st||Samuel Curtis (R)||Resigned August 4, 1861 to become colonel of the 2nd Iowa Infantry||James F. Wilson (R)||October 8, 1861|
|Massachusetts 5th||William Appleton (CU)||Resigned September 27, 1861 due to failing health||Samuel Hooper (R)||December 2, 1861|
|Illinois 6th||John A. McClernand (D)||Resigned October 28, 1861 to accept a commission as brigadier general of volunteers for service in the Civil War||Anthony L. Knapp (D)||December 12, 1861|
|Kentucky 1st||Henry C. Burnett (D)||Expelled December 3, 1861 for support of secession||Samuel L. Casey (U)||March 10, 1862|
|Kentucky 2nd||James S. Jackson (U)||Resigned December 13, 1861 to enter the Union Army||George H. Yeaman (U)||December 1, 1862|
|Virginia 7th||Charles H. Upton (U)||Declared not entitled to seat February 27, 1862||Lewis McKenzie (U)||February 16, 1863|
|Illinois 9th||John A. Logan (D)||Resigned April 2, 1862 to enter the Union Army||William J. Allen (D)||June 2, 1862|
|Pennsylvania 7th||Thomas B. Cooper (D)||Died April 4, 1862||John D. Stiles (D)||June 3, 1862|
|Massachusetts 9th||Goldsmith F. Bailey (R)||Died May 8, 1862||Amasa Walker (R)||December 1, 1862|
|Maine 2nd||Charles W. Walton (R)||Resigned May 26, 1862 to become associate justice of the Maine Supreme Judicial Court||Thomas A. D. Fessenden (R)||December 1, 1862|
|Missouri 1st||Francis P. Blair, Jr. (R)||Resigned July 1862 to become colonel in Union Army||Vacant||Vacant for remainder of term|
|Wisconsin 2nd||Luther Hanchett (R)||Died November 24, 1862||Walter D. McIndoe (R)||January 26, 1863|
|Illinois 5th||William A. Richardson (D)||Resigned January 29, 1863 after being elected to US Senate||Vacant||Vacant for remainder of term|
Standing committees of the Senate resolved, Friday, March 8, 1861
Order in the Galleries (Select)
House of Representatives
Unless otherwise noted, all committees listed are Standing, as found at the Library of Congress
- Sergeant at Arms:
House of Representatives
- Chaplain of the House:
- Messenger to the Speaker:
- Sergeant at Arms:
- Heidler, D.S.; Heidler, J.T.; Coles, D.J. (2000). Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social and Military History. p. 441. ISBN 0-393-04758-X.
- "The White House Historical Association, "The Great Cause of Union" search on 'habeas corpus'".
- "Ordinance of Secession of Arkansas". Csawardept.com. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- "Ordinance of Secession of North Carolina". Csawardept.com. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- "Ordinance of Secession of Virginia". Csawardept.com. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Martis, Kenneth C. et al (1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 0-02-920170-5.
- "Ordinance of Secession of Tennessee". Csawardept.com. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
- Martis, Kenneth C., p. 115, 117.
- Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas
- Excerpt from Isaac Bassett's Memoir re-published on the U.S. Senate webpage
- McPherson, James M. (2008). Tried by War: Abraham Lincoln as Commander in Chief. The Penguin Press. p. 23. ISBN 978-1-59420-191-2.
- Neely, Mark E., Jr., "Chapter 12. The Civil War" in "The American Congress: the building of a democracy", Julian E. Zelizer, ed., Houghton Mifflin Co., 2004, ISBN 0-618-17906-2, p. 208
- Congressional Globe, 37 Cong. 1 sess. p. 233
- Neely, p. 210
- Martis, p.115
- "Presidential Proclamation May 19, 1862", Abraham Lincoln's response to General Hunter's General Order Number Eleven. Abolition was to be outside the police functions of field commanders.
- New York Times: "How Slavery Really Ended in America" Viewed November 9, 2011.
- McPherson, p. 57-58
- Neely, p. 214
- McPherson, p. 142
- Blaine, James G. "Memoir re-published on the National Archives webpage".
- Neely, p. 212-213
- McPherson, p. 76
- Neely, p. 211
- Neely, p. 213
- Erickson, Stephen C. (Winter 1995). "The Entrenching of Incumbency: Reelections in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1790-1994". The Cato Journal.
- Swain, John W., et al., "A New Look at Turnover in the U.S. House of Representatives, 1789-1998", American Politics Research 2000, (28:435), p. 444, 452.
- Straus, William and Howe, Neil, Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584-2069 William Morrow and Company, Inc., New York, 1991, ISBN 0-688-08133-9, 196
- Straus, p.462
- Straus, 182
- The text of Virginia's Ordinance of Secession.
- The text of Arkansas's Ordinance of Secession.
- The text of North Carolina's Ordinance of Secession.
- The text of Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession.
- The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. Tennessee voters approved the agreement on June 8, 1861.
- Parsons, Stanley B, et.al. "United States congressional districts and data, 1843-1883", Greenwood Publishing Group, 1986. pp.xix-xxvii ISBN 0-313-22045-X. p. xvi. Parsons does not acknowledge the seven Virginian Representatives seated in this Congress from Falls Church, Alexandria, Elizabeth (now Hampton) City and the future West Virginian Kingwood, Wheeling, Parkersburg and Ceredo as reported in the Congressional Biographical Dictionary (p.165).
- Biographical Directory of the U.S. Congress, (1774–2005), "Official Annotated Membership Roster by State with Vacancy and Special Election Information for the 37th Congress".
- Withdrawal" meant that these senators announced they were withdrawing from the Senate due to their states' decisions to secede from the Union. Their seats were later declared vacant by the Senate, but some seats were actually unfilled since the beginning of this Congress on March 4, 1861.
- "Journal of the Senate of the United States of America, 1789-1873". p. 412.
- "Congressional Globe". July 8, 1861. pp. 21–22.
- "A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 37th Congress, Browse by Committee".
- The Bibliography of Vermont, Gilman, M.D.,The Free Press Association, 1897. p. 320.
- Lanman, Charles (1887). Biographical annals of the civil government of the United States. New York: JM Morrison. p. 514.
- "US Senate Art & History webpage, "Ashbury Dickens, Secretary of the Senate, 1836-1861"".
- "Congresssional Biographical Dictionary, 37th Congress". p. 162, footnote fn 2.
- Martis, Kenneth C. (1982). The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.
- Statutes at Large, 1789-1875
- Senate Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
- House Journal, First Forty-three Sessions of Congress
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
- House History from the U.S. House of Representatives
- Statistics & Lists from the U.S. Senate
- Congressional Directory: Main Page, Government Printing Office Online. Detailed listings of many aspects of previous memberships and sessions of Congress.