Thirty Meter Telescope

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Thirty Meter Telescope
(postponed)
Top view of tmt complex.jpg
Artist's rendering of proposed telescope
Organization TMT International Observatory
Location Mauna Kea Observatory, Hawaii, United States[1][2]
Coordinates 19°49′58″N 155°28′54″W / 19.8327°N 155.4816°W / 19.8327; -155.4816Coordinates: 19°49′58″N 155°28′54″W / 19.8327°N 155.4816°W / 19.8327; -155.4816[3]
Altitude 4,050 m or 13,290 ft[2]
Wavelength Near UV, visible, and Mid-IR (0.31–28 μm)
Built Postponed
First light est. 2022[4]
Telescope style Segmented Ritchey–Chrétien telescope
Diameter 30 m or 98 ft
Secondary dia. 3.1 m or 10 ft
Tertiary dia. 2.5 m × 3.5 m or 8.2 ft × 11.5 ft
Collecting area 655 m2 or 7,050 sq ft[2]
Focal length f/15 (450 m)[2]:52
Mounting Altazimuth mount
Dome Spherical calotte
Website www.tmt.org

The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a planned, eighteen story, astronomical observatory and extremely large telescope to be built on the summit of Mauna Kea in the state of Hawaii. As of April 2015 its construction has been halted voluntarily due to protests about lack of indigenous peoples' consent[5] with worldwide demonstrations attracting international coverage.[6]

Scientists have been considering ELTs since the mid 1980s. In 2000, astronomers considered the possibility of a telescope with a light-gathering mirror larger than 20 meters in diameter. The technology to build a mirror larger than 8.4 meters does not exist. Two differing configurations were considered. Small segmented mirrors that create one large mirror were considered, as well as a grouping of larger 8 meter mirrors, combined as one unit. The US National Academy of Sciences recommended a thirty-meter telescope be the focus of US interests, seeking to see it built within the decade. Scientists at the University of California and Caltech began development of a design that would eventually become the TMT, consisting of 492 segmented mirrors with nine times the power of the Keck telescope.

The TMT is designed for near-ultraviolet to mid-infrared (0.31 to 28 μm wavelengths) observations, featuring adaptive optics to assist in correcting image blur. The TMT will be at the highest altitude of all the proposed ELTs. The telescope has government-level support from several R&D spending nations: China, Japan, Canada and India.

The observatory and telescope are expected to be operational on Mauna Kea by 2024.[7]

History[edit]

Mirror sizes of existing and proposed telescopes

Beginning in 2000, astronomers began considering the potential of telescopes larger than 20 meters in diameter. Two technologies were considered; segmented mirrors like that of the Keck Observatory and the use of a group of 8 meter mirrors mounted to form a single unit.[8] The US National Academy of Sciences made a suggestion that a thirty-meter telescope should be the focus of US astronomy interests and recommended it be built within the decade.[9] The University of California, along with Caltech began development of a 30-meter telescope that same year. This would eventually become the Thirty Meter Telescope. The TMT would have nine times the collecting area of the older Keck telescope using slightly smaller mirror segments in a vastly larger group.[8] Other telescopes of a large diameter are also in the works including the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) with a 21.5 meter mirror and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) being built in northern Chile.[10]

The telescope is designed for observations from near-ultraviolet to mid-infrared (0.31 to 28 μm wavelengths). In addition, its adaptive optics system will help correct for image blur caused by the atmosphere of the Earth, helping it to reach the potential of such a large mirror. Amongst existing and planned ELTs, the TMT will have the highest altitude and will be the second-largest telescope once the E-ELT is built. Both use segments of small 1.44 m hexagonal mirrors — a design vastly different from the large mirrors of the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) or Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT).[11] The TMT has government-level support from two large R&D spending nations — China and Japan. as well as other top R&D nations, including Canada and India.[12] The United States is also contributing some funding, but less than the formal partnership.[13][14]

The telescope was given approval by the state Board of Land and Natural Resources in April 2013.[15] The Intermediate Court of Appeals of the State of Hawai'i declined to hear an appeal of the permit until the Hawaii Department of Land and Natural Resources first issued a decision from a contested case hearing that could then be appealed to the court.[16] The dedication and ground-breaking ceremony was held, but interrupted by native Hawaiian protesters on October 7, 2014.[17][18][19] The project has now become the focal point of escalating political conflict,[20][21] police arrests,[22][23][24] and continuing litigation due to concerns over proper use of conservation lands,[25][26] continued environmental degradation and the process of environmental and cultural impact review,[27][28] the status of the Hawaii ceded land trust,[29] native Hawaiian cultural practice and religious rights,[30] and concerns over the lack of meaningful and inclusive dialogue during the permitting process.[31]

Observatory design[edit]

TMT would be a general-purpose observatory capable of investigating a broad range of astrophysical problems. The Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2007 outlines the aims for the observatory as follows:[32]

Telescope[edit]

Thirty Meter Telescope design (late 2007).

The centerpiece of the TMT Observatory is to be a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 30-metre (98 ft) diameter primary mirror. This mirror is to be segmented and consist of 492 smaller (1.4 m), individual hexagonal mirrors. The shape of each segment, as well as its position relative to neighboring segments, will be controlled actively.[33]

A 3.6-metre (12 ft) secondary mirror is to produce an unobstructed field-of-view of 20 arcminutes in diameter with a focal ratio of 15. A flat tertiary mirror is to direct the light path to science instruments mounted on large Nasmyth platforms.[34] The telescope is to have an altazimuth mount.[35] This mount will be capable of repositioning the telescope between any two points of the sky in less than 5 minutes. Once the celestial object is acquired, the telescope will track its motion with a precision of a few milliarcseconds.[citation needed] The moving mass of the telescope, optics, and instruments will be 1430 tonnes.[citation needed] The design of the facility descends from the successful W. M. Keck Observatory.[citation needed]

Adaptive optics[edit]

Integral to the observatory is a Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system. This MCAO system will measure atmospheric turbulence by observing a combination of natural (real) stars and artificial laser guide stars. Based on these measurements, a pair of deformable mirrors will be adjusted many times per second to correct optical wavefront distortions caused by the intervening turbulence.[36]

This system will produce diffraction-limited images over a 30 arcsecond diameter field-of-view. For example, the core of the point spread function will have a size of 0.015 arcsecond at a wavelength of 2.2 micrometers, almost 10 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope.[37]

Scientific instrumentation[edit]

Early-light capabilities[edit]

Three instruments are planned to be available for scientific observations:

  • Wide Field Optical Spectrometer (WFOS) providing near-ultraviolet and optical (0.3–1.0 μm wavelength) imaging and spectroscopy over a more than 40 square arcminute field-of-view. Using precision cut focal plane masks, WFOS would enable long-slit observations of single objects as well as short-slit observations of hundreds of objects simultaneously. WFOS would use natural (uncorrected) seeing images.
  • Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) mounted on the observatory MCAO system, capable of diffraction-limited imaging and integral-field spectroscopy at near-infrared wavelengths (0.8–2.5 μm). Principal investigators are James Larkin of UCLA and Anna Moore of Caltech. Project scientist is Shelley Wright of the University of Toronto.[38][39]
  • Infrared Multi-object Spectrometer (IRMS) allowing close to diffraction-limited imaging and slit spectroscopy over a 2 arcminute diameter field-of-view at near-infrared wavelengths (0.8–2.5 μm).

Additional first-decade capabilities[edit]

For planning purposes, TMT has developed concepts for an additional six instruments, which it proposes to be deployed during the first decade of science operations. These plans have been reviewed and updated on a roughly bi-annual basis starting in 2010.

In no order of preference, planned additional scientific capabilities include:

  • Extremely high contrast (1 part in 108 @ 1.65 μm) exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy at near-infrared wavelengths
  • Diffraction-limited echelle spectroscopy (resolving power ~ 25 000) at near-infrared wavelengths (1.0–2.5 μm)
  • Diffraction-limited imaging and echelle spectroscopy (resolving power ~ 50,000) at mid-infrared wavelengths (8–28 μm)
  • High precision (~0.01 arcsecond) astrometric imaging and (<<0.001 arcsecond) astrometry at near-infrared wavelengths (1.0–2.5 μm)
  • Multiple integral-field unit spectrometers deployable over a 5 arcminute diameter field-of-view, each with individual adaptive optics correction, at near-infrared wavelengths (1.0–2.5 μm)

Partnerships and funding[edit]

The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation has committed US$200 million for construction. Caltech and University of California have committed an additional US$50 million each.[40] Japan, which has its own large telescope at Mauna Kea, the 8.3-metre Subaru, is also a partner.[41] The telescope cost was estimated in 2009 to be $970 million[42] to $1.4 billion;[43]

  • In 2008, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) joined TMT as a Collaborating Institution.[44]
  • In 2009, the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) joined TMT as an Observer.[45][46]
  • In 2010, a consortium of Indian Astronomy Research Institutes (IIA, IUCAA and ARIES) joined TMT project as an observer. The observer status is the first step in becoming a full partner in TMT and participating in the engineering development and scientific use of the observatory (Subject to approval of funding from Indian Government).
  • In 2012, India and China became partners, with representatives on the TMT board. China and India will pay a share of the telescope construction costs, expected to top $1 billion.[47][48]
  • Canada - The continued financial commitment from the Canadian government had been in doubt due to economic pressures.[49][50] Nevertheless, on April 6, 2015 Prime Minister Stephan Harper announced that Canada would commit $243.5 million over 10 years.[51] The structure will be built by Dynamic Structures Ltd. in British Columbia, and then shipped to Mauna Kea.[52]

Proposed locations[edit]

In cooperation with AURA, the TMT project completed a multi-year evaluation of five sites:

The TMT Observatory Corporation board of directors narrowed the list to two sites, one in each hemisphere, for further consideration: Cerro Armazones in Chile's Atacama Desert, and Mauna Kea on Hawai'i Island. On July 21, 2009 the TMT board announced Mauna Kea as the preferred site.[43][53] The final TMT site selection decision was based on a combination of scientific, financial, and political criteria. Chile is also where the European Southern Observatory is building the E-ELT. If both next-generation telescopes were in the same hemisphere, there would be many astronomical objects that neither could observe. The telescope was given approval by the state Board of Land and Natural Resources in April 2013.[15] However, there was some opposition in Hawaii to the building of the telescope,[54] based on potential disruption to the fragile alpine environment of Mauna Kea due to construction, traffic and noise, which is a concern for habitat disruption of several species,[55] and to the fact that Mauna Kea is a sacred site for the Native Hawaiian culture.[56][57]

Hawaiian cultural practitioners cite impacts to indigenous cultural practice, while recreational users have argued that construction harms the scenic viewplane, and environmentalists are concerned that irreparable ecological damage may be done by construction. All three groups are represented amongst the petitioners opposing the TMT.[58] According to State of Hawaiʻi law HAR 13-5-30, eight key criteria must be met before construction can be allowed on conservation lands in Hawaiʻi. Among other criteria, the development may not “cause substantial adverse impact to existing natural resources within the surrounding area, community, or region,” and the "existing physical and environmental aspects of the land must be preserved or improved upon".[59]

The Hawaii Board of Land and Natural Resources conditionally approved the Mauna Kea site for the TMT in February 2011. The approval has been challenged; however, the Board officially approved the site following a hearing on February 12, 2013, and the TMT Foundation had anticipated that construction would begin in April 2014.[60]

Protests[edit]

Protesters on Mauna Kea, standing in front of construction crews and equipment on October 7, 2014

On October 7, 2014 the groundbreaking for the TMT was interrupted by demonstrators.[61][62] In late March 2015, demonstrators halted construction crews.[63] On April 2, 2015, about 300 protesters gathered on Mauna Kea, some of them trying to block the access road to the summit; 23 arrests were made.[7][64] Once the access road to the summit was cleared by the police, about 40 to 50 protestors began following the heavily laden and slow-moving construction trucks.[7]

On April 7, 2015, construction was halted for one week at the request of Hawaii state governor David Ige after the protest on Mauna Kea continued. Project manager Gary Sanders stated that TMT agreed to the one week stop for continued dialogue; Kealoha Pisciotta, president of Mauna Kea Anaina Hou, viewed the development as positive but said opposition to the project would continue.[65] On April 8, 2015, governor Ige announced that the project was being temporarily postponed until at least April 20, 2015.[66]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thirty Meter Telescope Selects Mauna Kea, TMT Observatory Corporation, 2009-07-21, retrieved 2009-07-24 
  2. ^ a b c d Thirty Meter Telescope Construction Proposal (PDF), TMT Observatory Corporation, 2007-09-12, p. 29, retrieved 2009-07-24 
  3. ^ Sanders, Gary H (2005-01-11), [79.03] The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project (PDF), p. 17 
  4. ^ Callis, Tom (29 July 2014). "TMT to begin construction". West Hawaii Today. 
  5. ^ Gutierrez, Ben (10 April 2015). "Protest against Thirty Meter Telescope spreading worldwide". Honolulu: Hawaii News Now. 
  6. ^ Herman, Doug (April 23, 2015). "The Heart of the Hawaiian Peoples' Arguments Against the Telescope on Mauna Kea". Smithsonian.com. Smithsonian.com. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c "Clash in Hawaii Between Science and Sacred Land". AP/US News and World Report. Associated Press. April 3, 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  8. ^ a b Martin Ratcliffe (1 February 2008). State of the Universe 2008: New Images, Discoveries, and Events. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-387-73998-4. 
  9. ^ A.P. Lobanov; J.A. Zensus; C. Cesarsky; Ph. Diamond (15 February 2007). Exploring the Cosmic Frontier: Astrophysical Instruments for the 21st Century. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 24. ISBN 978-3-540-39756-4. 
  10. ^ Govert Schilling; Lars Lindberg Christensen (7 December 2011). Eyes on the Skies: 400 Years of Telescopic Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 45. ISBN 978-3-527-65705-6. 
  11. ^ Anderson, Mark (13 March 2014). "The Billion-Dollar Telescope Race". Nautilus. New York: NautilusThink. 
  12. ^ "Megascope member". Seven Days. Nature (paper) 516 (7530): 148. 11 December 2014. India announced on 2 December that it will become a full partner in the Thirty Meter Telescope.... 
  13. ^ Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (2013-03-19). "Thirty Meter Telescope Gets Small Grant to Make Big Plans". Science, journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  14. ^ Yudhijit Bhattacharjee (2012-01-03). "Giant Telescopes Face NSF Funding Delay". Science, journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. Retrieved 2015-04-06. 
  15. ^ a b "Massive telescope to be built in Hawaii". 3 News NZ. April 15, 2013. 
  16. ^ Jamie Winpenny (2013-06-26). "The Uncertain Future of Mauna Kea". Big Island Weekly. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  17. ^ KITV4 News (2014-10-07). "Protesters disrupt Mauna Kea telescope groundbreaking". KITV4 News. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  18. ^ The Two-way, National Public Radio (2014-10-08). "Protesters disrupt telescope groundbreaking in Hawaii". NPR: National Public Radio. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  19. ^ Beatty, J. Kelly. "Work begins on Thirty Metre Telescope". Australian Sky & Telescope (Odysseus Publishing Pty Ltd) (83): 11. ISSN 1832-0457. 
  20. ^ Peter Apo (2015-04-02). "Peter Apo: Mauna Kea under siege". Honolulu Civil Beat. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  21. ^ Lynn Beittel (2015-04-01). "VIDEO: Why block TMT on Mauna Kea?". Big Island Video News. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  22. ^ KITV4 News (2015-04-02). "Protesters arrested blocking road to giant telescope site". KITV4 News. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  23. ^ Jamilia Epping (2015-04-03). "DLNR makes additional protest arrests". Big Island Now.com. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  24. ^ Ben Gutierrez (2015-04-04). "A day after arrests Mauna Kea telescope protest grows". Hawaii News Now. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  25. ^ Tom Callis (2014-08-29). "TMT project headed back to court: 4 appeal denial of contested case hearing request for sublease". West Hawaii Today. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  26. ^ Ikaika Hussey (2014-02-20). "Board of regents vote in favor of mauna kea sublease plan despite lawsuit, demonstrations". The Hawaii Independent. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  27. ^ Rose Tseng (2010-04-26). "Final Environmental Impact Statement, Thirty Meter Telescope Project, Island of Hawaii, Volume 1" (PDF). University of Hawaii at Hilo. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  28. ^ Rose Tseng (2015-04-03). "Final Environmental Impact Statement, Thirty Meter Telescope Project, Island of Hawaii, Volume 2" (PDF). Honolulu Civil Beat. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  29. ^ Kristine Kubat (2015-04-03). "Why everyone should support the telescope construction blockade". Honolulu Civil Beat. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  30. ^ Dominique Saks (2011-11-19). "Indigenous religious traditions: Mauna Kea". Colorado College. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  31. ^ Chad Blair (2015-04-04). "OHA trustee calls for moratorium on Mauna Kea telescope". Honolulu Civil Beat and KITV4 News. Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  32. ^ "Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case : 2007" (PDF). Tmt.org. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  33. ^ Stepp, Larry M.; Thompson, Peter M.; MacMynowski, Douglas G.; Regehr, Martin W.; Colavita, M. Mark; Sirota, Mark J.; Gilmozzi, Roberto; Hall, Helen J. (2010). "Servo design and analysis for the Thirty Meter Telescope primary mirror actuators" 7733. pp. 77332F–77332F–14. doi:10.1117/12.857371. ISSN 0277-786X. 
  34. ^ Ellerbroek, Brent L.; Boyer, C.; Bradley, C.; Britton, M. C.; Browne, S.; et al. (2006). "A conceptual design for the Thirty Meter Telescope adaptive optics systems" 6272. pp. 62720D–62720D–14. doi:10.1117/12.669422. ISSN 0277-786X. 
  35. ^ Gawronski, W. (2005). "Control and pointing challenges of antennas and telescopes". pp. 3758–3769. doi:10.1109/ACC.2005.1470558. 
  36. ^ Rochester, Simon M.; Otarola, Angel; Boyer, Corinne; Budker, Dmitry; Ellerbroek, Brent; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Wang, Lianqi (2012). "Modeling of pulsed-laser guide stars for the Thirty Meter Telescope project". Journal of the Optical Society of America B 29 (8): 2176. doi:10.1364/JOSAB.29.002176. ISSN 0740-3224. 
  37. ^ Ellerbroek, Brent; Adkins, Sean; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jennifer; Browne, Steve; et al. (2010). "First light adaptive optics systems and components for the Thirty Meter Telescope" 7736. pp. 773604–773604–14. doi:10.1117/12.856503. ISSN 0277-786X. 
  38. ^ "IRIS Home Page". Irlab.astro.ucla.edu. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  39. ^ Ellerbroek, Brent; Joyce, Richard; Boyer, Corinne; Daggert, Larry; Hileman, Edward; Hunten, Mark; Liang, Ming; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico (2006). "The laser guide star facility for the Thirty Meter Telescope" 6272. pp. 62721H–62721H–13. doi:10.1117/12.670070. ISSN 0277-786X. 
  40. ^ Perry, Jill. "Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation Commits $200 Million Support for Thirty-Meter Telescope". Caltech. Caltech. Retrieved 30 April 2015. 
  41. ^ "India Joins Thirty Meter Telescope Project | Thirty Meter Telescope". Tmt.org. 2010-06-24. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  42. ^ Mann, Adam (November 16, 2009). "Titanic Thirty Meter Telescope Will See Deep Space More Clearly". Wired. Retrieved 18 October 2010. 
  43. ^ a b Xin, Ling (October 9, 2014). "TMT opening ceremony interrupted by protests". Science. Retrieved 10 October 2014. 
  44. ^ "Thirty Meter Telescope". Tmt.org. 2009-04-01. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  45. ^ "Thirty Meter Telescope". Tmt.org. 2009-11-17. Retrieved 2012-08-06. 
  46. ^ "China, India to jump forward with Hawaii telescope". Associated Press. Retrieved January 12, 2012. 
  47. ^ "Construction of 30-meter optical telescope to begin next year". The Economic Times. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013. 
  48. ^ "China, India to work for largest telescope". The Hindu. Retrieved January 13, 2012. 
  49. ^ Mariella Moon (2015-03-18). "Canada's economic issues might affect Thirty Meter Telescope's future". Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  50. ^ Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (2013-10-10). "World's largest telescope stalled by Canadian funding woes". Retrieved 2015-04-04. 
  51. ^ "Canada finally commits its share of funds for Thirty Meter Telescope". CBC News. 
  52. ^ Semeniuk, Ivan. "With $243-million contribution, Canada signs on to mega-telescope in search of first stars and other Earths". Globe and Mail. 
  53. ^ McAvoy, Audrey (July 21, 2009), "World's largest telescope to be built in Hawaii", Washington Post [dead link]
  54. ^ "Hearing on Hawaii Thirty Meter Telescope to continue next week - Pacific Business News". Bizjournals.com. 2011-08-19. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  55. ^ "Summit Ecosystems — KAHEA". Kahea.org. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  56. ^ "Sacred Landscape — KAHEA". Kahea.org. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  57. ^ "Hawaii Tribune Herald". Hawaii Tribune Herald. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  58. ^ "For the Love of Mauna Kea — KAHEA". Kahea.org. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  59. ^ "Conservation District" (PDF). State.hi.us. Retrieved 2014-03-11. 
  60. ^ "TMT Takes Step Towards Construction after Approval by the Board of Land and Natural Resources | Thirty Meter Telescope". Tmt.org. 2013-04-13. Retrieved 2013-07-31. 
  61. ^ Kelleher, Jennifer Sinco (October 7, 2014). "Protesters halt Mauna Kea telescope groundbreaking". staradvertiser.com. Honolulu Star Advertiser. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  62. ^ Corrigan, David (March 31, 2015). "VIDEO: Lanakila Mangauil Defends Mauna Kea". Big Island Video News. Retrieved 3 May 2015. 
  63. ^ Davis, Chelsea (March 26, 2015). "Thirty Meter Telescope protesters continue to block construction on Mauna Kea". KHNL. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  64. ^ "Police, TMT Issue Statements on Mass Arrests on Mauna Kea". Big Island Video News. April 2, 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015. 
  65. ^ "Amid controversy, construction of telescope in Hawaii halted - US News". Retrieved April 7, 2015. 
  66. ^ Yoro, Sarah (April 11, 2015). "Thirty Meter Telescope construction delayed". KHON2. Retrieved 15 April 2015. 

External links[edit]