Thirty Meter Telescope
||This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (September 2010)|
|Thirty Meter Telescope (Proposed)|
Rendering of the Thirty Meter Telescope design as of 2012
|Location||Mauna Kea Observatory 13 North|
|Altitude||4,050 m or 13,290 ft|
|Wavelength||Near UV, visible, and Mid-IR (0.31–28 μm)|
|Built||planned (est. completion 2018)|
|Telescope style||Segmented Ritchey–Chrétien telescope|
|Diameter||30 m or 98 ft|
|Collecting area||655 m2 or 7,050 sq ft|
|Focal length||f/15 (450 m):52|
|Dome||Spherical calotte[disambiguation needed]|
The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is a planned ground-based large segmented mirror reflecting telescope, proposed to be built on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The telescope is much larger than existing telescopes (though the planned European Extremely Large Telescope's mirror is 30% larger), and designed for observations from the near-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared (0.31 to 28 μm wavelengths). In addition, its adaptive optics system would help correct for image blur caused by the atmosphere of the Earth, helping it to reach the potential of such a large mirror. The TMT is the focal point of a legal battle in the State of Hawaiʻi over construction on Mauna Kea, which Native Hawaiians hold sacred.
The telescope was given approval by the state Board of Land and Natural Resources in April 2013.
Science case 
TMT would be a general purpose observatory capable of investigating a broad range of astrophysical problems. A science case prepared by the TMT Foundation outlines the following aims for the observatory:
- Dark energy, dark matter and tests of the Standard Model of particle physics
- Characterization of the first stars and galaxies in the Universe
- Characterization of the epoch of reionization
- Galaxy assembly and evolution over the past 13 billion years
- Connections between supermassive black holes and galaxies
- Star-by-star dissection of galaxies out to 10 million parsecs
- Physics of planet and star formation
- Exoplanet discovery and characterization
- Kuiper belt object surface chemistry
- Solar system planetary atmosphere chemistry and meteorology
- The search for life on planets outside the Solar System
Observatory design 
The TMT began in the 1990s as the California Extremely Large Telescope, and due to a positive response continued to be developed. The project changed its name to Thirty Meter Telescope in 2003-4 as the scope of development partners evolved, including a merger with the Canadian VLOT project and the GSMT.
A description of the TMT Observatory design can be found in the TMT Construction Proposal (2007).
The centerpiece of the TMT Observatory will be a Ritchey-Chrétien telescope with a 30 meter diameter primary mirror. This mirror will be segmented and consist of 492 smaller (1.4 m), individual hexagonal mirrors. The shape of each segment, as well as its position relative to neighboring segments, will be controlled actively.
A 3 m secondary mirror produces an unobstructed field-of-view of 20 arcminutes in diameter with a focal ratio of 15. A flat tertiary mirror will direct the light path to science instruments mounted on large Nasmyth platforms.
The telescope will have an altitude-azimuth mount. This mount will be capable of repositioning the telescope between any two points of the sky in less than 5 minutes, with a precision of 2.0 arcseconds or better. Once the celestial object is acquired, the telescope will track its motion with a precision of a few milliarcseconds.
The TMT moving mass (including instruments) is almost 2000 tonnes.
This design descends from the successful W. M. Keck Observatory.
Adaptive optics 
Integral to the observatory is a Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system. This MCAO system will measure atmospheric turbulence by observing a combination of natural (real) stars and artificial laser guide stars. Based on these measurements, a pair of deformable mirrors will be adjusted many times per second to correct optical wavefront distortions caused by the intervening turbulence.
This system will produce diffraction-limited images over a 30 arcsecond diameter field-of-view. For example, the core of the point spread function will have a size of 0.015 arcsecond at a wavelength of 2.2 micrometers, almost 10 times better than the Hubble Space Telescope.
Scientific instrumentation 
Early-light capabilities 
Three instruments are planned to be available for scientific observations:
- Wide Field Optical Spectrometer (WFOS) providing near-ultraviolet and optical (0.3–1.0 μm wavelength) imaging and spectroscopy over a more than 40 square arcminute field-of-view. Using precision cut focal plane masks, WFOS would enable long-slit observations of single objects as well as short-slit observations of hundreds of objects simultaneously. WFOS would use natural (uncorrected) seeing images.
- Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) mounted on the observatory MCAO system, capable of diffraction-limited imaging and integral-field spectroscopy at near-infrared wavelengths (0.8–2.5 μm). Principal investigators are James Larkin of UCLA and Anna Moore of CalTech. Project scientist is Shelley Wright of the University of Toronto.
- Infrared Multi-object Spectrometer (IRMS) allowing close to diffraction-limited imaging and slit spectroscopy over a 2 arcminute diameter field-of-view at near-infrared wavelengths (0.8–2.5 μm).
Additional first-decade capabilities 
For planning purposes, TMT has developed concepts for an additional six instruments, which it proposes to be deployed during the first decade of science operations. These plans have been reviewed and updated on a roughly bi-annual basis starting in 2010.
In no order of preference, planned additional scientific capabilities include:
- Extremely high contrast (1 part in 108 @ 1.65 μm) exoplanet imaging and spectroscopy at near-infrared wavelengths
- Diffraction-limited echelle spectroscopy (resolving power ~ 25 000) at near-infrared wavelengths (1.0–2.5 μm)
- Diffraction-limited imaging and echelle spectroscopy (resolving power ~ 50,000) at mid-infrared wavelengths (8–28 μm)
- High precision (~0.01 arcsecond) astrometric imaging and (<<0.001 arcsecond) astrometry at near-infrared wavelengths (1.0–2.5 μm)
- Multiple integral-field unit spectrometers deployable over a 5 arcminute diameter field-of-view, each with individual adaptive optics correction, at near-infrared wavelengths (1.0–2.5 μm)
In cooperation with AURA, the TMT project completed a multi-year evaluation of five sites:
- Cerro Armazones, Antofagasta Region, Republic of Chile
- Cerro Tolanchar, Antofagasta Region, Republic of Chile
- Cerro Tolar, Antofagasta Region, Republic of Chile
- Mauna Kea, Hawaiʻi, United States (preferred site)
- San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, Mexico
The TMT Observatory Corporation board of directors narrowed the list to two sites, one in each hemisphere, for further consideration: Cerro Armazones in Chile's Atacama Desert, and Mauna Kea on Hawai'i Island. On July 21, 2009 the TMT Board selected Mauna Kea as the preferred site. The final TMT site selection decision was based on a combination of scientific, financial, and political criteria; ESO is also building a very large telescope E-ELT, and was very likely to be doing so in Chile, and if both next-generation telescopes were in the same hemisphere, there would be many astronomical objects that neither could observe.
The Hawaii Board of Land and Natural Resources conditionally approved the Mauna Kea site for the TMT in February 2011. The approval has been challenged; however, the Board officially approved the site following a hearing on February 12, 2013, and the TMT Foundation anticipates that construction will begin in April 2014.
There is substantial opposition in Hawaii to the building of the telescope, based on potential disruption to the fragile glacial environment of Mauna Kea due to construction, traffic and noise, which is a concern for habitat disruption of several species, and to the fact that Mauna Kea is a sacred site for the Native Hawaiian culture. According to State of Hawaiʻi law HAR 13-5-30, eight key criteria must be met before construction can be allowed on conservation lands in Hawaiʻi. Among other criteria, the development may not “cause substantial adverse impact to existing natural resources within the surrounding area, community, or region,” and the "existing physical and environmental aspects of the land must be preserved or improved upon." The ability of the TMT to prove that it meets these criteria in a legal forum is in question, along with environmental laws and constitutional protections for native Hawaiian traditional practices. Other laws, procedural matters and departmental rules are being cited as well.
Native Hawaiian cultural practitioners cite impacts to indigenous cultural practice, while recreational users have argued that construction harms the scenic viewplane, and environmentalists are concerned that irreparable ecological damage may be done by construction. All three groups are represented amongst the petitioners opposing the TMT.
The TMT Observatory Corporation is a partnership between:
- Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA)
- California Institute of Technology (Caltech)
- University of California (UC)
- Department of Science and Technology of India
- National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
- National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
The current US$80 million, five-year design and development program is planned for completion in 2012. Construction is expected to commence immediately thereafter, leading to initial science operations in 2018. The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation has committed US$200 million for construction. Caltech and University of California have committed an additional US$50 million each. TMT is actively seeking additional major partners for the construction and operations phase.
- In 2008, the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) joined TMT as a Collaborating Institution.
- In 2009, the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC) joined TMT as an Observer.
- In 2010, a consortium of Indian Astronomy Research Institutes (IIA, IUCAA and ARIES) joined TMT project as an observer. The observer status is the first step in becoming a full partner in TMT and participating in the engineering development and scientific use of the observatory (Subject to approval of funding from Indian Government).
- In 2012, India and China became partners, with representatives on the TMT board. China and India will pay a share of the telescope construction costs, expected to top $1 billion.
Japan, which has its own large telescope at Mauna Kea, the 8.3-metre Subaru, is also a partner.
TMT has received design and development funding from the following public and private organizations:
- Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation
- Canada Foundation for Innovation
- Ontario Ministry of Research and Innovation
- National Research Council of Canada
- Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
- British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund
- Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA)
- National Science Foundation (NSF)
The telescope cost was estimated in 2009 to be $970 million to $1.2 billion; the funding had not been completely raised by mid-2011, although $100 million had already been spent on design, engineering and site-assessment work.
At wavelengths longer than 0.8 μm, adaptive optics correction would enable observations with ten times the spatial resolution of the Hubble Space Telescope. TMT would be more sensitive than existing ground-based telescopes by factors of 10 (natural seeing mode) to 100 (adaptive optics mode). If completed on schedule, TMT could be the first of the new generation of Extremely Large Telescopes.
See also 
||This article uses bare URLs for citations. (August 2012)|
- Thirty Meter Telescope Selects Mauna Kea, TMT Observatory Corporation, 2009-07-21, retrieved 2009-07-24
- Thirty Meter Telescope Construction Proposal, TMT Observatory Corporation, 2007-09-12, p. 29, retrieved 2009-07-24
- Sanders, Gary H (2005-01-11), [79.03] The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project, p. 17
- "Massive telescope to be built in Hawaii". 3 News NZ. April 15, 2013.
- [dead link]
- IRIS Home Page
- Klaus Schmidt , "Hawaii chosen to host world's largest telescope, Space Fellowship July 22, 2009 (accessed 18 October 2010)
- McAvoy, Audrey (July 21, 2009), "World's largest telescope to be built in Hawaii", Washington Post[dead link]
- Thirty Meter Telescope operations page, TMT Observatory Project, retrieved 2010-10-12
- "Thirty Meter Telescope". Tmt.org. 2009-04-01. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- "Thirty Meter Telescope". Tmt.org. 2009-11-17. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- "China, India to jump forward with Hawaii telescope". Associated Press. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- "Construction of 30-meter optical telescope to begin next year". The Economic Times. 23 January 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
- "China, India to work for largest telescope". The Hindu. Retrieved January 13, 2012.
- "India Joins Thirty Meter Telescope Project | Thirty Meter Telescope". Tmt.org. 2010-06-24. Retrieved 2012-08-06.
- Adam Mann, "Titanic Thirty Meter Telescope Will See Deep Space More Clearly", Wired November 16, 2009 (accessed 18 October 2010)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Thirty Meter Telescope|
- Official website
- TMT foundation documents: http://www.tmt.org/foundation-docs/index.html
- Construction Proposal (2007)
- Detailed Science Case (2007)
- Observatory Requirements Document
- Observatory Architecture Document
- Operations Concept Document
- Opposition to TMT