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For the river, see Thodupuzha river.
Thodupuzha Civil Station
Thodupuzha Civil Station
Thodupuzha is located in Kerala
Coordinates: 9°54′00″N 76°43′01″E / 9.9000°N 76.7170°E / 9.9000; 76.7170Coordinates: 9°54′00″N 76°43′01″E / 9.9000°N 76.7170°E / 9.9000; 76.7170
Country  India
State Kerala
District Idukki
Elevation 40 m (130 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 52,045
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 685584
Telephone code 914862
Vehicle registration KL-38
Nearest Railway Station Ernakulam (Aluva)

Thodupuzha is a town and a municipality in Idukki district in the Indian state of Kerala, spread over an area of 35.43 km2. Thodupuzha is 62km south east of Kochi, the biggest city of Kerala. Thodupuzha is 200 km from the state capital, Trivandrum. Geographical Classification of Thodupuzha Region is Malanad or Idanad.

Thodupuzha is also the name of the river that flows through the town. It is the largest town in the district and is the commercial centre. The town is being modernised with the help of a programme sponsored by the World Bank which is financing the programme through the Government of Kerala. It was once part of the territory of the princely state, Travancore. It lies in central Kerala, southeast of Muvattupuzha. The Thodupuzha municipality area is characterised by hilly terrain with a lot of green vegetation.


The name 'Thodupuzha' might have come from two words, 'thodu' (which means a rivulet) and 'puzha' (which means a river). It is believed that the stream developed into a river, and the town on the banks of the river came to be known as Thodupuzha.

There is another version which defines the word ‘thodu’ (Malayalam word) as ‘touch’ and ‘puzha’ as ‘river’. Thus the town touching the river became Thodupuzha. Mattathil Kovilakam[2] was the protectors and rulers of the Desham (region)Thodupuzha that they were in and a reporting relationship emerged to a "Naadu Vaazhi" (Ruler of the land)of Keezhmalainadu. Naadu is a group of Deshams came to known as Thodupuzha.The last ruler of the desam was Elasamprathi(Ruler of a region appointed by Maharaja of Keezhmalainadu) Shri Narayana Menon originally from Trivandrum and he was the representative of Maharaja Raja.His official residence was Mattathil Kovilakam located in Chalamkode Village.[3] Official Headquarters of Keezhmalainadu were Karikodu.


In records of Kerala state Archaeology Department Sarvadhikari Elasamprathi Shri Narayana Menon of Keezhmalainadu/Vadakku[4] was the ruler and father of Thodupuzha. The Kings of Vadakkumkoor used to live at Karikode for several years. At the time of King Marthanda Varma, Vadakkumkoor became part of the state of Travancore. He appointed his representative 'sarvadhikari' Elasamprathi Narayanamenon from Neyyattinkara (Trivandrum) to flourish Thodupuzha. The period of his reign was the golden age of Keezhmalainadu. He erected many splendid monuments, the most famous of which is the government offices, Pandika Shala and Temples. The Karikode Mosque and many other buildings in Thodupuzha and Muvattupuzha also date from his reign. He was also the founder of the new style tax collection in this region. He traveled every day from Chalamkode to Karikkodu in a Pallakku (palanquin). The relics of the fort is still there at Karikode.The Annamalai Temple, which carries the traits of Tamil Architecture is at Karikode. At this temple one can see many statues and lamps made out of stone and metal, believed to have been made in the 14th century. Thodupuzha is an ancient town with a history dating back to many centuries. The Buddhist and Jain religions which made their first inroads into Kerala in 300 BC have left their impact at Thodupuzha and neighbouring areas. The Buddhist religious relics found at Karikode near Thodupuzha is ample proof of this surmise. In AD 100, Kerala was divided for administrative reasons into several provinces such as Venadu, Otanadu, Navishainadu, Munjunadu, Vempolinadu, and Keezhmalainadu. Thodupuzha and Muvattupuzha were in Keezhmalainadu which had its headquarters at Karikode. Keezhmalainadu was in existence till AD 1600. In that year it lost a battle with Vadakkumkoor and became a part of it. The church at Muthalakodam, a small town, 4 kilometers from Thodupuzha, is believed to have been constructed before 13th century. The Ninnar Mosque near Karikode is said to have been constructed by Sarvadikari Elasmprathi Narayana Menon and instructions given by the Vadakumkoor Raja for his Muslim soldiers.

At the formation of Kerala state in 1956, Thodupuzha was part of the Ernakulam district. In the year 1972, Idukki district was formed by joining Thodupuzha taluk along with Devikulam, Udumbanchola and Peermade taluks, which were part of the erstwhile Kottayam district.


As of 2001 India census,[5] the total population of 46,226. Males constitute 49%of the population and females 51%. Thodupuzha has an average literacy rate of 82%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 84%, and female literacy is 81%. In Thodupuzha, 12% of the population is under 6 years of age. The majority of Thodupuzha's population consists of Christians, closely followed by Hindus and then Muslims.It also has a large population of people of the " Vellala Pillai" clan who migrated here from "Tenkasi" in Tamil Nadu. They spread later on to different parts of Kerala and their main deity, the symbol from Tenkasi is situated near Erattupetta and all Vellala Pillai people meet there once a year to mark the plight of them from Tenkasi.


Thodupuzha has an excellent network of roads which connects it to the nearby towns and cities. The Main Eastern Highway (Muvattupuzha - Punalur / SH-08 / 154 km) passes through Thodupuzha and connects it to two of its neighboring towns, Muvattupuzha and Pala. Thodupuzha-Puliyanmala road (SH-33) connects Thodupuzha to Idukki District centre at Painavu as well as tourist destinations like Idukki Dam and Thekkadi. Alappuzha-Madurai road (SH-40) also passes through Thodupuzha town. SH-43 which connects Muvattupuzha with Theni passes through some parts of the Thodupuzha Taluk but doesn’t pass through Thodupuzha town.Other state highways, Tekkady - Ernakulam and Sabarimala - Neryamangalam also passes through Thodupuzha town. The nearest Railway Stations are Aluva which is 56 kilometres from Thodupuzha. Kottayam Railway station is at 55 kilometres from Thodupuzha and Ernakulam Junction Railway Station is at 60 kilometres. The suggested Sabari Rail route to Sabarimala passes through Thodupuzha,with station expected at Manakkad. The nearest airport is Cochin International Airport at a distance of 54 kilometres from Thodupuzha. New 4 Lane Highway Proposed from Muvattupuzha to Kakkanad if materializes will connect Thodupuzha to Kochi in Less than 45 minutes to reach reducing the distance to 50 kilometres.[6]

The private bus stand at Thodupuzha

The new KSRTC bus stand if commissioned will get depot status (now a Subdepot).So many new inter state services would be started.

Economy and Infrastructure[edit]

Thodupuzha's economy is driven by agriculture, business and small industries. Farmers in Thodupuzha raise a number of crops, mostly rubber. Other crops such as pineapple, coconut, rice, pepper, cocoa, tapioca, banana, ginger, turmeric etc. are also being cultivated in plenty. In recent years Thodupuzha has showed more interest in promoting tourism. The planned developments in Thodupuzha after the changeover from Taluk to Municipality status has changed the face of Thodupuzha a lot in the last decade. The new private bus stand, Temple Bypass road, Kanjiramattom Bypass road, Kothayikkunnu Bypass, Vengaloor Bypass, Mangattu Kavala 4 lane road, Mini Civil Station, New Bridge, Municipal Park, Shopping complex at bus stand, New Townhall complex etc. are noted landmarks to change the look of Thodupuzha to a planned city. The famous footwear brand Lunar’s has its base at Thodupuzha. Thodupzha is strategically located in en route of Highranges other Central Kerala towns of Ernakulam and Kottayam. However the lack of well developed roads from Highranges to reach Thodupuzha has made High range population uses Aluva - Munnar road and Kottayam - Kumaly road as their main transport route, though these routes are through two borders of the district. The new state highways announced Tekkady - Ernakulam and Muvattupuzha - Theni once fully operational will drastically change the mobility from highranges, eventually people from highranges can access Thodupuzha in short distance. It is expected that the current flow of highrange population to Ernakulam and Kottayam towns for their commercial activities will be cut short and instead reach Thodupuzha which they can reach with half the time to reach other major cities. A study by some major business houses proved this fact, many known brands like Bhima, Josco, Seemas, Nandhilath G-Mart, Bismi,Woodland,Peter England,Vasan Eye Care,Sylcon, Titan, Bata, Reliance, More set up their outlet in Thodupuzha. Many other known brands like Kalyan,Immanuel silks, Chennai silks are waiting to enter Thodupuzha.


Thodupuzha was administered by a village panchayat and village union for several years, But on 1 September 1978, Thodupuzha was upgraded into a municipality and the Thodupuzha Municipality came into being. The Thodupuzha Municipality was formed by joining together the Thodupuzha Panchayat and the neighbouring Panchayats of Kumaramangalam, Karicodu and Manacaud. The municipality was administered by a special officer for 10 long years. In 1988, elections were held and the first popularly elected municipal council came into existence with Advocate N. Chandran as the Chairman. Today the Municipality has 28 wards. There is a Chairman, a Vice Chairman, and various Standing Committees to carry out the civic administration. T.J Joseph of Indian National Congress is the present Municipal Chairperson of Thodupuzha Municipality.

Thodupuzha is an assembly constituency and P J Joseph is the present MLA of Thodupuzha. He got elected 7th time from Thodupuzha marked with highest majority in the history of Idukki district. He is admired for the planned developments carried out during the tenure as MLA and Minister. Knowledge city, Malankara DAM tourism project, Sports complex and Thodupuzha ring roads are his dream plans which we should see how it materialises. Thodupuzha assembly constituency is part of Idukki (Lok Sabha constituency) & Adv.Joice George is the present MP.


There are at least 2150 hospital beds within the municipal area, serving a population less than 50,000 making a hospital beds per 1000 population of about 250 which is above UK average of 3.78 and USA average of 3.32. Besides, Thodupuzha is also an important hub of alternate medicine, with 3 major Ayurvedic groups having their headquarters in Thodupuzha. There are so many hospitals in Thodupuzha area. Some of the famous are District Ayurveda Hospital, Taluk Hospital (Karikode), St. Mary's Hospital (Idukki Road), Holy Family Hospital(Muthalakodam), Chazhikattu Hospitals, Archana hospital (Muvattupuzha Road),Mount Sinai Hospital ( Mount Sinai Road ),St Josephs Hospital & Children's Clinic ( Mount Sinai Road ) etc.

Al Azhar medical college is being constructed at Ezhallor, 7km away from the town. Thodupuzha taluk hospital got upgraded to District hospital recently. Also a super specialty hospital and cancer center is being constructed near Vengaloor junction.

The age old Ayurvedic Group Dhanwanthari Vaidyasala (Estd.1933) has a 60 bedded Ayurvedic Hospital In Thodupuzha.

Tourism (The nearby Tourist attractions)[edit]

Thodupuzha is blessed with natural scenic beauty. Although Thodupuzha itself is not a major tourist destination, it is the gateway to top tourist destinations like Munnar, Thekkadi, Idukki Dam, Peermade etc.


Thommankuthu waterfalls

Thommankuthu is a beautiful eco tourism destination only 20 km from Thodupuzha, has a series of waterfalls. In addition, there are several caves and viewpoints. To cover most of it, you need a 12 km trek up the hill and through the woods. A walk here is rewarding because it is nature at its best. The seven stepped waterfall is a major attraction. There are also small cascades and rapids that certainly contribute to the look and feel. Multiple waterfalls means multiple pools. Thommankuthu attracts nature lovers and adventure seekers. Nature lovers get the perfect opportunity to feel the coolness of mountain stream, take in the aromas and enjoy the woods. Adventure seekers find avenue for some exciting trekking. Fishing is popular too. The surrounding of Thommankuthu is gaining popularity as a camping spot.

Visiting hours : Waterfall entry is restricted to 10:00 AM to 6:00 PM.


Uravapara is very beautiful hillock temple situated at Olamattom near Thodupuzha, at a height of 500 ft above sea level attracts a lot of devotees and nature lovers. The drizzling drops of snow and the cool breeze early at the morning evokes the happiest moments of a lifetime. The presiding deity here is Lord Muruga as Bala Subramanya Swami. The temple is also known as Malayala Palani. The legend says that the presiding deity here is a self born one. A lot of devotees climb the rock to feel the power of Lord Muruga’s blessings wrapped in the hands of nature. The legend says that the Pandavas stayed here during their exile and used the temple premises. The three big boulders now seen at the top of the hillock is believed to be the three legs of ‘Aduppu’ (stove) used by the Pandavas in their kitchen. A small pond in the vicinity is believed to be made by Bhima, one among the Pandavas. When there was no water at that time for the Poojas, Bhima forcibly applied his foot on the rock and the pond was formed,in the shape of his foot. The view of sunset from the hill also amazes the visitors here. Today, Uravapara is known for its religious activities, as well as its natural scenic sights. The site is also a notable shooting location today. The annual festival of the temple is conducted in the Malayalam month ‘Makaram’ (January/February) each year.

Malankara Dam[edit]

Morning view of Malankara Dam reservoir from Kudayathoor

Malankara situated at a distance of 6 km from Thodupuzha is an upcoming tourist destination. Malankara is famous for its irrigation project, the Malankara Dam and the Reservoir constructed across the tail waters of Moolamattom Power House. This artificial lake is located on the Thodupuzha – Moolamattom Road (State Highway 33) covering an area of around 11 km. Malankara Dam is a gravity dam and is a project of Muvattupuzha Valley Irrigation Project and KSEB ( Kerala State Electricity Board ). Constructed across the Thodupuzha river for the purpose of irrigation, this reservoir is a good picnic spot too. There is also a park nearby the reservoir, which is under construction. Visitors can enjoy a good time in boating and fishing at the lake. The Malankara Tourism Project has been launched by the Department of Tourism and the site will be soon turned into a beautiful tourist spot. As a part of the project, steps are being taken by the Government of Kerala for the protection of trees and developing the area to an entertainment park.


Ilaveezhapoonchira is one of the most enchanting, beautiful adventurous tourist destinations in Kerala. Spread over thousands of acres of the Kottayam district, the beautiful valleys of Ilaveezhapoonchira is an ideal picnic spot for all nature lovers. Situated at a distance of 24 km from Thodupuzha via Kanjar and 20 km via Kanjiramkavala, this gorgeous picnic spot is a perfect place to unwind and enjoy. The spot located at the foot of the hillocks of Mankunnu, Kudayathur hill and Thonippara,each rising to about 3200 ft above sea level, makes it a best place for trekking. At the top of these hills, one can view large parts of Idukki, Kottayam, Ernakulam, Alapuzha, Pathanamthitta and Thrissur districts. Ilaveezhapoonchira means ‘the pond of flowers where the leaves do not fall’. The place gets its name from the fact that there’s not a single tree in the vicinity and hence no leaf falls there. Some say that the name comes from the fact that it is always windy at the place and hence the leaves are carried away. According to a legend, the Pandavas had a stay here during their life incognito. Their wife Draupati came to take a bath at a lake, some Devas attracted by her beauty tried to satisfy their voyeuristic itch. Lord Indra, King of Devas who came to know about this, built hills heaping flowers that prevented them from indulging in such a practice. And the pond there became a dam of floral hills. During the monsoons, the valley between the hills fills up to form large scenic lake unveiling another sight of beauty. Ilaveezhapoonchira is an interesting hilly area and a trekking spot and one of the best place in Kerala to watch sunrise and sunset. The place can be easily reached from Thodupuzha town and one can spot small streams and waterfalls on the way. When you reach the hilly path, only a four wheel drive vehicle or jeep can lift you up or you have to walk. From the top of Kudayathurmala, one can view the beauty of sunset, which will be a superb one.

The next spot to explore here is ‘Muniguha’ which is a small cave on northward. The journey will be through a highly rocky area, so one can better go by a jeep. After 30 minutes drive, one can reach the woody area and can see the cave surrounded by the woods. It has only a narrow opening, so only one can crawl at a time. At the end of the cave, there is a small stream, which is said that, it never dries.

Mollamattam Power House[edit]

The Idukki Hydroelectric Project is the biggest hydrolectric Project in Kerala (India). It comprises three dams at Idukki, Cheruthony and Kulamavu and related systems. The power house at Moolamattom is the longest underground power station in India and the pressure shaft is the largest in the country. The Idukki dam is one of the highest dams in the world and the first arch dam in India. Cheruthony is the largest and highest gravity dam in Kerala. The Project harnesses a major portion of the power potential of Periyar, the largest river in Kerala, by the creation of a reservoir of 2,000 M.cum (2 Billion Tonnes) capacity, diversion of waters thus impounded through a water conductor system consisting of a power tunnel and two underground pressure shafts to an underground power house situated in Moolamattom. The installed capacity of the Power House is 780MW consisting of 6 Units of Pelton-type turbines with a power generation capacity of 130 MW each. The regulated waters of Periyar falls through a drop of about 669.2 metres (2195 feet) while generating power in the underground power house. Irrigation The tail waters flowing to Kudayathurpuzha through tunnel and open channel is diverted for irrigation purposes in the Muvattupuzha Valley. Its one of the widely visited destinations for study tour packages. Visitors are only allowed to visit the area under special permissions due to security reasons.

Thumpichi Calvery Samuchayam[edit]

This is a Christian Pilgrim Centre and the pilgrims climb up the hill during Lent and Good Friday. The way to the Mountain is graced by the 14 crosses placed at regular intervals. Thumpachi Calveri Samuchayam is a nice 35 km ride from the town of Thodupuzha, a beautiful small town on the banks of river Thodupuzha. If you are a lover of natural beauty, it is recommended to include Thumpachi in your itinerary. The place is ideal for picnics and outings with family and friends. Schedule a tour to this place while you are holidaying at Idukki district. This is a perfect place to find inner peace. Revive yourself by meditating and relaxing amidst nature. Go for long walks and enjoy the panoramic landscape around you. There are a number of good hotels near the place where you can stay overnight.

Nadukani Pavilian[edit]

Nadukani which means ‘ to see the country ‘ is an ideal tourist location offering a panoramic view of Idukki and Ernakulam districts. Its an ideal place for one – day picnics where you can enjoy the beauty of nature. The view of enchanting blue mountains, towns and lakes remains in memory for a long time. Nadukani is located about 32 km from Thodupuzha and is situated at an altitude of 1300 ft above sea level. This hill station offers a clear view of the Thodupuzhayaar river, Moolamattom town, Moolamattom Underground Power Station, Malankara Reservoir and picturesque mountains touching the sky. There is a two - storeyed pavilion that makes a safe place to enjoy the landscape. Tourists can also enjoy trekking in the hill forests of Nadukani. On the sunny day, Nadukani offers a clear view of areas extending to Thodupuzha. Tourists can also enjoy beautiful sceneries, plantations and streams on the way to the top of the hill station. This hill station is one of the boundaries of Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary and hence visitors can enjoy the sight of the many rare species of fauna such as hornbill, wild rabbits, jungle mainah and elephants. This wonderful location attracts a lot of one – day picnickers every year. Mountains covered with mist gives you an amazing sight and makes you feel the fresh and crispy air. Nadukani pavilion can be easily accessed by road.

Elappally Water Falls[edit]

Elappally Waterfall

Elappally is 26 km from Thodupuzha town, 106 km from Kochi city. The Elappally Falls are situated near Moolamattom - Wagamon road, which originates in the upper reaches of the Western Ghats. This fall will be active only in monsoon season and will be dry during the summer season. The ideal time to visit this is from June – September. Route: Accessibility through Road only. Ernakulam - Muvattupuzha - Thodupuzha - Moolamattom - Elappally 106 km.


Vagamon meadows, Kerala, India
Route to Vagamon

Vagomon is a beautiful hill station situated 1200 meters above sea level, 42 km from Thodupuzha and is a perfect tourist place offering a unique and peaceful environment in comparison to other hill station of Kerala. An enchanting green carpeted hill station invites you to explore the untold story of fresh cool air, greenish hillocks, valleys, small streams, tea plantations, cascading waterfalls and murmuring dense pine forests that makes it a perfect place to rejuvenate and refresh yourself. It has a pleasant climate with the temperature between 10 – 23 degree Celsius during a summer midday. The peaceful and cool climate and gentle breeze makes it a perfect space for meditation. Pine forests and grasslands is an ideal romantic location for honeymooners.

The hill station also provides option of trekking, paragliding or rock climbing for adventurous seekers. The place has many varieties of flora and fauna located in various parts of hilly region. Evergreen tress, tall grasses and shrubs are present in the lower regions of Vagomon. Many rare species of birds, insects, wild buffaloes and elephants can be easily located in the forests. The main attractions are here mist covered mountains and lakes, Pilgrim centers – Kurishumala, Murugan temple, Burial chamber of Sufi saint and Pine forests

Filmisthan (Chalachitra Nagari)[edit]

The natural scenic beauty of Thodupuzha has attracted many Malayalam movie makers. Of late Thodupuzha has become a hot spot for Malayalam movies especially with Achayan background. Vasanthiyum Lakshmiyum Pinne Njaanum, Kunjikoonan, Rasathanthram, Palunku, Veruthe Oru Bharya, Swantham Lekhakan, Kadha Parayumbol, Samastha Keralam PO, Pappy Appacha, Vairam: Fight For Justice, Janapriyan, Arya (2005 film), Swapnam Kondu Thulabharam, Elsamma Enna Aankutty, Marykkundoru Kunjaadu, Oridathoru Postman, Detective, Vismayathumbathu, SringaravelanSwapna Sanchari, 101 Wedding, Evidam Swargamanu, Daivathinte Swantham Cleetus, Drishyam, Om Shanti Oshana, Vajram, Rebecca uthup kizhakkemala, etc. are some of the movies shot at and around Thodupuzha.


The first centre of higher learning which started functioning in Thodupuzha Taluk was Newman College. It was established in 1964 by the Syrian Catholic Diocese of Kothamangalam, and named after Cardinal Newman. The second college of Thodupuzha was established in 1982: St.Joseph's College at Arakkulam. Besides these, a number of parallel colleges are also active in the field of higher education in Thodupuzha.

The University College of Engineering, Thodupuzha managed and run by the Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, is located in Thodupuzha which is the first of its kind in the state of Kerala. The college started functioning in 1996. The college campus is located in a picturesque place spread over 25 acres (100,000 m2) of land at Muttom, 7 km from Thodupuzha, by the side of State Highway No 33. Other colleges in Thodupuzha include Santhigiri College at Vazhithala, Al-Azhar College of Arts and Science, Al-Azhar Dental College, Al-Azhar Engineering College and Al-Azhar Training college at Thodupuzha East, Perumpillichira College of Applied Science at Olamattom, and St. Thomas College of Teacher Education. The Village International School, MKNMHSS Kumaramangalam, De Paul High School,De Paul Public School, Co-operative Public School, Vimala Public School, Jai Rani High School,Jai Rani Public School, THSS Muttom are some of the famous schools in Thodupuzha

Janaranjini Vayanasala, Kolani, Thodupuzha, is one of the biggest libraries in Kerala and has around 30000 books including novels, children's books, stories, poems, Vedas, Upanishads etc. It is accommodated in its own two-storied building with separate TV room, reading room, book room, computer centre with high speed internet facility, and mini conference room.

Famous Personalities[edit]

Famous Landmarks[edit]

  • Gandhi Square
  • Thodupuzha Sri Krishna Temple
  • Karikode Nainar Juma Masjid
  • St. Sebastian's Town Forane Church
  • Karikode Devi Temple
  • Manakkad Narasimha Swami Temple
  • Town Hall
  • Thodupuzha Mini Civil Station
  • Kanjiramattom Siva Temple
  • Private Bus Stand
  • Newman College
  • Kanjiramattom Junction
  • Mini Civil Station
  • Municipal Park
  • KSRTC Stand
  • Jyothi Super Bazar
  • uravappara Temple
  • Boys High School
  • St.Thomas Forane Church, Mylacombu (known as the Mother Church of the East)


See also[edit]


  1. ^
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  5. ^ "Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns (Provisional)". Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 2004-06-16. Retrieved 2008-11-01. 
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^ "National workshop on Cryptology begins". The Hindu. 11 September 2004. 
  11. ^
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  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^ Asif Ali
  16. ^ Asin
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ Rajesh Touchriver
  21. ^
  22. ^ Aligarh Muslim University
  23. ^ Shiny Abraham
  24. ^ Preeja Sreedharan
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^

External links[edit]