Thol Lake

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Thol Lake
Thol Bird Sanctuary
Thol Lake - Gujarat, India - Flickr - Emmanuel Dyan (12).jpg
Flamingoes and a ruff in Thol Lake
Location Thol village near Kalol, Gujarat
Coordinates 23°22.50′N 72°37.50′E / 23.37500°N 72.62500°E / 23.37500; 72.62500Coordinates: 23°22.50′N 72°37.50′E / 23.37500°N 72.62500°E / 23.37500; 72.62500
Lake type Lentic
Catchment area 15,500 hectares (38,000 acres)
Basin countries India
Surface area 699 hectares (1,730 acres)
Water volume 84 million cubic metres (3.0×10^9 cu ft)

Thol Lake is an artificial lake near Thol village in Kalol in Mehsana District in the Indian state of Gujarat. It was constructed as an irrigation tank in 1912. It is a fresh water lake surrounded by marshes. It was declared the Thol Bird Sanctuary in 1988; it is a habitat to 150 species of birds, about 60% are waterbirds. Many migratory birds nest and breed in the lake and its periphery. The two most prominent species of birds recorded in the sanctuary are flamingoes and sarus crane (Grus antigone).[1][2] The sanctuary is also proposed to be declared an Eco Sensitive-Zone, conforming to the Environment (protection) Act. 1986 (29 of 1986), for which draft notification has been prepared.[3]


The lake drains a catchment area of 15,500 hectares (38,000 acres).[1] It is in a semi-arid zone of the Mehsana district with dominance of dry deciduous vegetation.[4]

The climate in the area consists of three seasons: winter, summer and monsoon. The average annual rainfall in the catchment of the lake is 600 millimetres (24 in) with a minimum of 100 millimetres (3.9 in) and maximum of 800 millimetres (31 in). The maximum and minimum temperatures recorded in the area are 43 °C (109 °F) and 8 °C (46 °F).[4]

The lake is situated near Thol village 20 kilometres (12 mi) from Kalol and 40 kilometres (25 mi) north-west of Ahmedabad, 75 kilometres (47 mi) from Mehsana in Mehsana District. Kalol, the taluk headquarters, is 22 kilometres (14 mi) away.[5][1]


Thol Lake

The lake was initially built in 1912 as a tank by the Gaekwad regime to provide irrigation facilities to farmers. This established the user rights of the lake water. The operation and management of the lake is under the dual control of the Forest and Irrigation departments of the Government of Gujarat.[1]


The lake has a storage capacity of 84 million cubic metres (3.0×10^9 cu ft). Its water spread area is 699 hectares (1,730 acres).[1] Lake's shore length is 5.62 kilometres (3.49 mi) and water depth is shallow.[4]


Trees on the periphery of the lake

Apart from trees in the peripheral area of the lake, vegetation reported in this wetland consists of emergent and floating aquatic plants of Acacia nilotica, A. leucoploea, Zizyphus, Azadirachta indica, Ficus sp., Salvadora sp., Prosopis chilensis, and Capparis sp..[1] According to the Normal Biological Spectrum (NBS) study of the sanctuary, drought resistant vegetation in the category of Bio-geographiczone – IV consisting of thorny shrubs and trees are found, and also reported are mixed flora of aquatic and marshy plants.[4]



Thol Lake, as a bird sanctuary, an inland wetland and a protected area, is known as a very good habitat for waterfowl during the monsoon season, extending through the winter. According to IBA reports there are 150 species of birds in the sanctuary of which nearly 60% (90 species) are stated to be waterbirds which are mostly wintering birds. The most prominent of these species is the flamingos.[1] At one time 5-6 thousand flamingos were reported here.[6] Sarus cranes (Grus antigone), the tallest of the flying birds, nest here in large numbers.[1]

According to the IUCN categorization, the birds reported in the area are: greater flamingo (Phoenicopterus roseus) of least concern species; Dalmatian pelican (Pelecanus crispus), greater spotted eagle (Clanga clanga), sarus crane (Antigone antigone), and Indian skimmer (Rynchops albicollis) of the vulnerable species; and the white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) and Indian vulture (Gyps indicus) of the critically endangered species.[1]


Some of the important fauna reported in the area surrounding the lake are: bluebull (Boselaphus tragocamelus), striped hyena (Hyaena hyaena), wolf (Canis lupus), golden jackal (Canis aureus) and blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra).[1]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary". Bird Life International. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  2. ^ "Thol Sanctuary, Ahmedabad, Gujarat". Kolkata Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  3. ^ "Draft Notification declaring the area around Thol Wildlife Sanctuary, Gujarat as accessdate=17 April 2015". Ministry of Environment and Forests. 6 January 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d "Status of Lifeforms of Angiosperms Found at ‘Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary’ (North Gujarat) in Comparison of Normal Biological Spectrum (NBS)" (PDF). International Journal Of Scientific Research. Retrieved 17 April 2015. 
  5. ^ Desai 2007, p. 226.
  6. ^ Rahmani & Islam 2004, p. 402.