Thomas (12th-century bishop)

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Thomas
Archbishop of York
Province York
Diocese Diocese of York
See Archbishop of York
Installed unknown
Term ended 24 February 1114
Predecessor Gerard
Successor Thurstan
Orders
Consecration 27 June 1109
Personal details
Birth name Thomas
Died 24 February 1114
Beverley
Buried York Minster
Parents Sampson, Bishop of Worcester

Thomas (died 24 February 1114) was a medieval archbishop of York. To distinguish him from his uncle, also a Thomas who was archbishop of York, Thomas is usually known as Thomas II or Thomas the Younger.

Life[edit]

Thomas was the nephew of Thomas of Bayeux, archbishop of York,[1] and the son of the elder Thomas' brother Samson, Bishop of Worcester. He was a royal chaplain, and then Provost of Beverley Minster in 1092, both appointments he owed to his uncle.[2] He was raised in the cathedral chapter at York, and the clergy of York trusted him,[3] and he proved himself devoted to York's cause against the primacy of Canterbury.[4] Thomas' brother Richard became Bishop of Bayeux in about 1108 until Richard's death in 1133.[5] Thomas and Richard's sister, Isabelle of Douvres, was the mistress of Robert of Gloucester, and their son Richard was Bishop of Bayeux from 1135 to 1142.[6]

Thomas became archbishop in May 1108[7] at the request of the dean and cathedral chapter of York.[1] Because he refused to profess obedience to the Archbishop of Canterbury, his consecration was delayed and formed part of the Canterbury-York dispute. Thomas said that the chapter would not allow him to make a written profession, and the chapter wrote as a body to Archbishop Anselm confirming this. Meanwhile, the dean of York went to Rome to procure the pallium for Thomas, which was sent with a papal legate. Anselm died in April 1109 without any resolution to the dispute between the two archbishops.[3] Anselm had told the bishops before his death that he felt that Thomas must make a profession of obedience, and obediently the bishops appealed to the king's court to make Thomas do so. Henry I and his bishops finally decided against Thomas, who capitulated[8] and was consecrated in London on 27 June 1109[7] by Richard de Beaumis, Bishop of London.[1] He received his pallium from Cardinal Ulrich, the legate, on 1 August 1109.[3]

Thomas worked to extend York's metropolitan authority over Scotland, and consecrated Michael of Glasgow as Bishop of Glasgow. Michael made a written profession of obedience to York before his consecration.[2] Thomas also consecrated Thurgot as Bishop of St Andrews, although Thurgot seems to have managed to insert a reservation of his rights into his oath.[9] Other Scottish bishops he consecrated were Radulf Novell as Bishop of Orkney and Wimund to as Bishop of Man and the Isles.[2]

In the diocese of York, the archbishop founded the Hospital of St. John the Baptist at Ripon.[10] He also created more prebends in his diocese, extending the work of his two predecessors in introducing the Norman system of ecclesiastical government. He is said have only been stopped from appropriating the relics of Saint Eata by a vision of the saint. He also endowed the Augustinian priory of Hexham with lands and books.[2] He had helped found the priory at Hexham when he expelled the hereditary priest from the church and settled canons there from Huntingdon.[11]

Thomas died at Beverley on 24 February 1114.[1] He was noted for his chastity, but equally noted for his gluttony, and died of overeating.[12] Thomas was buried in York Minster near his uncle. Hugh the Chantor relates the story that Thomas one time when ill was told by his doctors that he would only be cured by intercourse with a young girl. Some of Thomas' friends then attempted to introduce a young woman into his household, but Thomas instead prayed to a saint, John of Beverley, and recovered.[2]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d British History Online Archbishops of York accessed on 14 September 2007
  2. ^ a b c d e Burton "Thomas (d. 1114)" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography'
  3. ^ a b c Vaughn Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan pp. 336-357
  4. ^ Barlow English Church 1066–1154 p. 43
  5. ^ Barlow English Church 1066–1154 p. 58
  6. ^ Spear "The Norman Empire and the Secular Clergy" Journal of British Studies p. 5
  7. ^ a b Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 281
  8. ^ Cantor Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture pp. 300-301
  9. ^ Bartlett England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings p. 94
  10. ^ British History Online Victoria County History of York accessed on 14 September 2007
  11. ^ Burton Monastic and Religious Orders p. 48
  12. ^ Barlow The English Church 1066–1154 p. 82

References[edit]

Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gerard
Archbishop of York
1109–1114
Succeeded by
Thurstan