Thomas Andrews (shipbuilder)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other people named Thomas Andrews, see Thomas Andrews (disambiguation).
Thomas Andrews
Thomas Andrews ül.jpg
Born Thomas Andrews, Jr.
(1873-02-07)7 February 1873
Comber, County Down, Ireland
Died 15 April 1912(1912-04-15) (aged 39)
RMS Titanic, Atlantic Ocean
Nationality Irish
Occupation Shipbuilder
Known for Head Designer – RMS Titanic
Spouse(s) Helen Reilly Barbour (1908 – 1912) (his death)
Children Elizabeth Law Barbour Andrews (1910-1973)

Thomas Andrews, Jr. (7 February 1873 – 15 April 1912) was an Irish businessman and shipbuilder; managing director and head of the drafting department for the shipbuilding company Harland and Wolff in Belfast, Ireland. Andrews was the naval architect in charge of the plans for the ocean liner RMS Titanic. He was travelling on board the Titanic during its maiden voyage when it hit an iceberg on 14 April 1912 and perished in the disaster.

Biography[edit]

Early life[edit]

Thomas (second from right) with family, circa 1895.

Thomas Andrews was born at Ardara House, Comber, County Down, in Ireland, to The Rt. Hon. Thomas Andrews, a member of the Privy Council of Ireland, and Eliza Pirrie. His siblings included John Miller Andrews, the future Prime Minister of Northern Ireland, and Sir James Andrews, the future Lord Chief Justice of Northern Ireland. Thomas Andrews lived with his family in Ardara, Comber. In 1884, he began attending the Royal Belfast Academical Institution until 1889 when, at the age of sixteen, he began a premium apprenticeship at Harland and Wolff where his uncle, the Viscount Pirrie, was part owner.

Andrews with wife, Helen Barbour, and daughter, Elizabeth Law Barber Andrews

Harland and Wolff[edit]

At Harland and Wolff, he began with three months in the joiners' shop, followed by a month in the cabinetmakers' and then a further two months working on the ships. The last eighteen months of his five-year apprenticeship were spent in the drawing office. In 1901, Andrews, after working his way up through the many departments of the company, became the manager of the construction works. That same year, he also became a member of the Institution of Naval Architects. In 1907, Andrews was appointed the managing director and head of the drafting department at Harland and Wolff. During his long years of apprenticeship, study, and work, Andrews had become well liked in the company and amongst the shipyard's employees.

On 24 June 1908, he married Helen Reilly Barbour, daughter of textile industrialist John Doherty Barbour and sister to Rt Hon Sir John Milne Barbour- known as "Milne". Their daughter, Elizabeth Law Barber Andrews (known by her initials, "ELBA"), was born on 27 November 1910. The couple lived at "Dunallan", 20 Windsor Avenue, Belfast.[1][2] It is known that Andrews took Helen to view the RMS Titanic one night, shortly before Elizabeth was born. After Thomas's death, Helen remarried; she died 22 August 1966 in Northern Ireland and is buried in the Barbour family mausoleum at Lambeg.

RMS Titanic[edit]

In 1907, Andrews began to oversee the plans for a new superliner, the RMS Olympic for the White Star Line. The Olympic and its sister ship the Titanic, which began construction in 1909, were designed by William Pirrie and general manager Alexander Carlisle along with Andrews. As he had done for the other ships he had overseen, Andrews familiarised himself with every detail of the Olympic and Titanic, in order to ensure that they were in optimal working order. Unfortunately, Andrews's suggestions that the ship have 46 lifeboats (instead of the 20 it ended up with) as well as a double hull and water tight bulkheads that went up to B deck, were overruled.

Andrews headed a group of Harland and Wolff workers who went on the maiden voyages of the ships built by the company (the guarantee group), to observe ship operations and spot any necessary improvements. The Titanic was no exception, so Andrews and the rest of his Harland and Wolff group travelled from Belfast to Southampton on Titanic for the beginning of her maiden voyage on 10 April 1912. During the voyage, Andrews took notes on various improvements he felt were needed, primarily cosmetic changes to various facilities. However, on 14 April, Andrews remarked to a friend that Titanic was "as nearly perfect as human brains can make her."

On 14 April at 11:40 PM, the Titanic struck an iceberg on the ship's starboard side. Andrews had been in his stateroom, planning changes he wanted to make to the ship, and barely noticed the collision. Captain Edward J. Smith had Andrews summoned to help examine the damage. Andrews and Captain Smith discussed the damage to the ship shortly after midnight, after Andrews had toured the damaged section of the ship and received several reports of the vessel's damage. Andrews determined that the first five of the ship's watertight compartments were rapidly flooding. Andrews knew that if more than four of the ship's compartments flooded, it would inevitably sink. He relayed this information to Captain Smith, stating that it was a 'mathematical certainty', and adding that in his opinion, the vessel had only about an hour before it completely sank. He also informed Smith of the severe shortage of lifeboats on board the ship.

As the evacuation of the Titanic began, Andrews tirelessly searched staterooms telling the passengers to put on lifebelts and go up on deck.[3] Several survivors testify to have met or spotted Andrews several times. It is almost possible to trace his actions during the sinking. Fully aware of the short time the ship had left and of the lack of lifeboat space for all passengers and crew, he continued to urge reluctant people into the lifeboats in the hope of filling them as fully as possible. Survivors also reported seeing Andrews frantically throwing deck chairs into the ocean for passengers to use as flotation devices.

At around 2:00 AM, Andrews was seen back on the boat deck.The crowd had began to stir, but there were still women reluctant to leave the ship. To be heard and to draw attention to himself, Andrews waved his arms and announced to them in a loud voice.[4] Andrews then headed towards the bridge perhaps searching for the captain.[4]

Death[edit]

Andrews was last seen in the first-class smoking room.

Andrews was last seen by John Stewart, a steward on the ship at approximately 2:10 A.M.(ten minutes before the Titanic fully sank into the Atlantic): Andrews was standing alone in the first–class smoking room staring at a painting, "Plymouth Harbour", above the fireplace, arms folded over his chest, his lifejacket lying on a nearby table.[5][6][7] The painting depicted the entrance to Plymouth Sound, which Titanic had been expected to visit on her return voyage.[8] The smoking room was near the spot where Titanic was broken in two so this could suggest Andrews died when the ship split and destroyed the smoking room. Andrews' body was never recovered.

Finally, on 19 April 1912, his father received a telegram from his mother's cousin, who had spoken with survivors in New York, searching for news of Andrews. The telegram was read aloud by Andrews Sr. to the staff of the home in Comber: "INTERVIEW TITANIC'S OFFICERS. ALL UNANIMOUS THAT ANDREWS HEROIC UNTO DEATH, THINKING ONLY SAFETY OTHERS. EXTEND HEARTFELT SYMPATHY TO ALL."

Legacy[edit]

Newspaper accounts of the disaster labelled Andrews a hero. Mary Sloan, a stewardess on the ship, whom Andrews persuaded to enter a lifeboat, later wrote in a letter: "Mr. Andrews met his fate like a true hero, realising the great danger, and gave up his life to save the women and children of the Titanic. They will find it hard to replace him." A short biography was produced within the year by Shan Bullock at the request of Sir Horace Plunkett, a member of Parliament, who felt that Andrews' life was worthy of being memorialised.

In his home town, Comber, one of the earliest and most substantial memorials for a single victim of the Titanic disaster was built. The Thomas Andrews Jr. Memorial Hall was opened in January 1914. The architects were Young and McKenzie with sculpted work by the artist Sophia Rosamond Praeger. The hall is now maintained by the South Eastern Education Board and used by The Andrews Memorial Primary School. An Ulster History Circle blue plaque is located on his house in Windsor Avenue, Belfast.

Today, the SS Nomadic is the sole surviving ship designed by Andrews. She was the tender to Titanic and Olympic, and is also the last White Star Line ship afloat. Nomadic is currently preserved in Belfast, where she has been fully restored, since the centenary of Titanic's maiden voyage. By February 2012, Nomadic's superstructure (with the exception of lifeboats, davits, and a covered bridge) was completely rebuilt and the ship was repainted in her original White Star Livery. Nomadic is the centrepiece of Titanic Quarter, a previously-derelict section of Belfast now rebuilt and filled with monuments and buildings to honour the RMS Titanic.

Portrayals[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ NationalArchives.ie
  2. ^ Ulster History Cycle
  3. ^ (Mark Chirnside 2004, p. 163)
  4. ^ a b (English) « The sinking of the Titanic », Thomas Andrews Shipbuilder. Consulté le 21 avril 2011
  5. ^ Eaton & Haas 1994, p. 155.
  6. ^ (Walter Lord 1998, p. 113)
  7. ^ (Mark Chirnside 2004, p. 177)
  8. ^ The painting is often incorrectly shown on television and in movies as depicting the entrance to New York Harbor.

External links[edit]