Thomas Beddoes (13 April 1760 – 24 December 1808), English physician and scientific writer, was born in Shifnal, Shropshire. He was a reforming practitioner and teacher of medicine, and an associate of leading scientific figures. Beddoes was a friend of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and, according to E. S. Shaffer, an important influence on Coleridge's early thinking, introducing him to the higher criticism. The poet Thomas Lovell Beddoes was his son. A painting of him by Samson Towgood Roch is in the National Portrait Gallery, London.
Educated at Bridgnorth Grammar School and Pembroke College, Oxford, Beddoes enrolled in the University of Edinburgh's medical course in the early 1780s. There he was taught chemistry by Joseph Black and natural history by John Walker. He also studied medicine in London under John Sheldon (1752–1808). In 1784 he published a translation of Lazzaro Spallanzani's Dissertations on Natural History, and in 1785 produced a translation, with original notes, of Torbern Olof Bergman's Essays on Elective Attractions.
He took his degree of doctor of medicine at Oxford in 1786, and, after visiting Paris, where he became acquainted with Lavoisier, was appointed reader in chemistry at Oxford University in 1788. His lectures attracted large and appreciative audiences; but his sympathy with the French Revolution excited a clamour against him, he resigned his readership in 1792. In the following year he published the History of Isaac Jenkins, a story which powerfully exhibits the evils of drunkenness, and of which 40,000 copies are reported to have been sold.
Hope Square, Bristol
Between 1793 and 1799 Beddoes had a clinic at Hope Square, Hotwells in Bristol where he treated patients with tuberculosis. On the principle that butchers seemed to suffer less from tuberculosis than others, he kept cows in a byre alongside the building and encouraged them to breathe on his patients. This became the source of local ridicule, amongst claims that animals were kept in the clinic's bedrooms, against the protests of landlords.
Bristol Pneumatic Institution
While living in Hotwells he began work on a project to establish an institution for treating disease by the inhalation of different gases, which he called pneumatic medicine. He was assisted by Richard Lovell Edgeworth, whose daughter, Anna, became Beddoes' wife in 1794. In 1799 the Pneumatic Institution was established at Dowry Square, Hotwells. Its first superintendent wasHumphry Davy, who investigated the properties of nitrous oxide in its laboratory. The original aim of the institution was gradually abandoned; it became an ordinary hospital, and was relinquished by its founder in the year before his death.
Beddoes was a man of great powers and wide acquirements, which he directed to noble and philanthropic purposes. He strove to effect social good by popularizing medical knowledge, a work for which his vivid imagination and glowing eloquence eminently fitted him.—Encyc.Brit (1911), 
Besides the writings mentioned above, Beddoes was also associated with the following:
- Chemical Essays by Carl Wilhelm Scheele (1786) translator
- An Account of some Appearances attending the Conversion of cast into malleable Iron. In a Letter from Thomas Beddoes, M. D. to Sir Joseph Banks, Bart. P.R.S. (Phil. Trans. Royal Society, 1791)
- Observations on the Nature and Cure of Calculus, Sea Scurvy, Consumption, Catarrh, and Fever (1793)
- Observations on the nature of demonstrative evidence, with an explanation of certain difficulties occurring in the elements of geometry, and reflections on language (1793)
- Political Pamphlets (1795–1797)
- Contributions to Physical and Medical Knowledge, principally from the West of England (1799). In this work (p. 4), Beddoes makes the first recorded use of the word Biology in its modern sense.
- Essay on Consumption (1799)
- Essay on Fever (1807)
- Hygeia, or Essays Moral and Medical (1807)
Beddoes edited the second edition of John Brown's Elements of Medicine (1795).
- Shaffer, E. S. (1980) Kubla Khan and The Fall of Jerusalem. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521298075. particularly p. 28.
- Mike Jay; John Carey (reviewer) (26 April 2009). "The Atmosphere of Heaven: The Unnatural Experiments of Dr Beddoes and his Sons of Genius". The Sunday Times.
- Miller, D. P.; Levere, T. H. (2008). ""Inhale it and see?" the collaboration between Thomas Beddoes and James Watt in pneumatic medicine". Ambix 55 (1): 5–28. PMID 18831152.
- Stansfield, D. A.; Stansfield, R. G. (1986). "Dr Thomas Beddoes and James Watt: Preparatory work 1794-96 for the Bristol Pneumatic Institute". Medical history 30 (3): 276–302. PMC 1139651. PMID 3523076.
- Levere, Trevor H (1977). "Dr Thomas Beddoes and the Establishment of His Pneumatic Institution: A Tale of Three Presidents". Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London 32 (1): 41–49. doi:10.1098/rsnr.1977.0005. PMID 11615622.
- Uncredited "Beddoes, Thomas (1760–1808)" In Chisholm, Hugh (editor) (1911) Encyclopædia Britannica (11th edition) Volume 3, p. 614, Cambridge University Press
- "biology, n.". Oxford English Dictionary online version. Oxford University Press. September 2011. Retrieved 2011-11-01. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Barzun, Jacques (1972). Thomas Beddoes M.D. Harper Collins. – essay reprinted in A Jacques Barzun Reader (2002)
- Jay, Mike (2009). The Atmosphere Of Heaven: The Unnatural Experiments of Dr Beddoes and His Sons of Genius. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-12439-2.
- Levere, Trevor H. (1981). "Dr. Thomas Beddoes at Oxford: Radical politics in 1788–1793 and the fate of the Regius Chair in Chemistry". Ambix 28 (2): 61–69. doi:10.1179/000269881790224318. PMID 11615866.
- Porter, Roy (1992). Doctor of Society: Thomas Beddoes and the Sick Trade in Late Enlightenment England. London: Routledge.
- Robinson, Eric (June 1955). "Thomas Beddoes, M.D., and the reform of science teaching in Oxford". Annals of Science 11 (2): 137–141. doi:10.1080/00033795500200135.
- Stansfield, Dorothy A. (1984). Thomas Beddoes, M.D., 1760–1808: Chemist, Physician, Democrat. Springer. ISBN 90-277-1686-2.
- Stock, John Edmonds (1811). Memoirs of the Life of Thomas Beddoes, M.D.. London: John Murray.
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- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.