Thomas C. Hart
|Thomas C. Hart|
|United States Senator
February 15, 1945 – November 5, 1946
|Preceded by||Francis T. Maloney|
|Succeeded by||Raymond E. Baldwin|
|Born||Thomas Charles Hart
June 12, 1877
|Died||July 4, 1971
|Resting place||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1897–1945|
Submarine Division 2
Submarine Division 5
Submarine Flotilla 3
Cruiser Division 6
United States Asiatic Fleet
|Awards||Distinguished Service Medal (2)|
Thomas Charles Hart (June 12, 1877 – July 4, 1971) was an admiral of the United States Navy, whose service extended from the Spanish-American War through World War II. Following his retirement from the Navy, he served briefly as a United States Senator from Connecticut.
Life and career
Hart was born in Genesee County, Michigan. He graduated from the United States Naval Academy in 1897 and served his initial tours of sea duty in the battleship Massachusetts and in the steam yacht Vixen, where he was in combat during the Spanish-American War.
In the years preceding World War I, Hart filled a variety of sea and shore duty billets: as a junior officer in battleships, torpedo boats, and submarines; as an instructor at the Naval Academy; as aide to an Assistant Secretary of the Navy; and as commander of the Pacific Torpedo Flotilla. By the spring of 1917, Hart was commanding the cruiser Chicago and Naval Submarine Base New London, Connecticut, while also acting as Chief of Staff to the Commander, Submarine Force, Atlantic Fleet (COMSUBLANT). Chicago, 32 years old at the time and newly recommissioned from Naval Militia training duty, was COMSUBLANT's flagship.
At noon on Wednesday, 30 March 1910, at N Street, Annapolis, Maryland, in the home of Rear Admiral and Mrs. Willard H. Brownson, (Superintendent U.S. Naval Academy, 1902–1905) and in the presence of a small company of naval officers and friends, Lieutenant Commander Thomas Charles Hart, USN, was married to Ms. Caroline Brownson, daughter of Rear Admiral and Mrs. Brownson. The wedding ceremony was conducted by Chaplain Clarke, USN, of the U.S. Naval Academy Chapel. The bride was attended by her sister Mrs. C. L. Hussey (matron of honor), Ms. Edith Cutler of Brookline, Massachusetts, and Ms. Cecile Gifford of Jamestown, New York. One of the bride's maids was Ms. Harriet Sutherland of Washington D.C. - daughter of Senator George Sutherland (Republican - Utah). Best man was Lieutenant Commander Leigh C. Palmer, USN (White House naval aide), and other groom's men were Lieutenant Commanders R. K. Crank, L. M. Overstreet, and Lieutenant H. W. Osterhaus. Following the ceremony, Lieutenant Commander and Mrs. T. C. Hart took a house in Brookline, Massachusetts. Their home was close to the Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts, where LCDR Hart was assigned inspecting the building of the new Delaware-class battleship North Dakota in which he was assigned to prior to its commissioning (Monday, 11 April 1910). They spent their honeymoon at the newly rebuilt luxury resort "The Homestead", in Hot Springs, Bath County, Virginia.
World War I
During World War I, Hart served concurrently as commander of Submarine Divisions 2 and 5, with Bushnell as his flagship. One division was based at Bantry Bay, protecting sea approaches to the British Isles; the second was based at Ponta Delgada in the Azores, protecting routes to that vital island. In 1918, after temporary duty with the British Admiralty, Hart was appointed Director of Submarines in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. Serving in this office as its head until 1922, Hart fought doggedly to improve the lot of the submarine arm of the Navy. His tenacity was responsible for the U.S. Navy's acquisition of surrendered German U-boats after World War I to learn the details of the technical innovations incorporated in the erstwhile enemy craft. Examination and trials of these U-boats were very influential in subsequent US Navy submarine design.
As chairman of the Submarine Design Board in late 1918, Hart and future admiral Chester W. Nimitz advocated large long-range "cruiser submarines" and by 1920 Hart recognized the need for long-range medium-sized submarines that was incorporated in the "fleet submarine" concept. Long range was vital to operations in the Pacific, which would require extended patrols in Japanese home waters. The cruiser submarine recommendation resulted in Argonaut, Narwhal, and Nautilus, the second trio of "V-boats" launched 1927-30. These were influenced by German "U-cruisers" such as the Type U-139.
Receiving the Distinguished Service Medal (DSM) for his service as Director of Submarines, Hart spent the ensuing years of the 1920s and 1930s in a succession of sea and shore billets as he advanced up the Navy ladder. He studied at both the Army and Navy War Colleges; commanded the Atlantic Fleet Submarine Divisions, battleship Mississippi, and Submarine Flotilla 3; served as Assistant Commandant of the 3d Naval District; Inspector of Ordnance at the Naval Torpedo Station, Newport, R.I.; and Commander of the Control Force. After a tour as Superintendent of the Naval Academy, he went to sea as Commander, Cruiser Division 6, in June 1934. Reporting to the General Board after this tour of sea duty in 1936, Hart became its chairman in 1937.
While on the General Board as the Board's only experienced submariner, Hart made several influential recommendations on submarine design. All US submarines launched 1933-1941 carried a 3-inch (76 mm) deck gun, a reduction from the 4-inch (102 mm) gun of the S-class of the early 1920s, reportedly because Hart wanted to discourage submarine captains from fighting it out on the surface with heavily-armed escorts. During World War II, these were replaced with more powerful 4-inch and 5-inch (127 mm) guns. Hart was also skeptical of full diesel-electric propulsion for submarines, because it could be disabled by flooding. This and excessive arcing in the first US diesel-electric submarines, the Porpoise class, led to adoption of a "composite" plant for the next two classes, in which two direct drive diesels were supplemented by a diesel-electric system. However, the Tambor class, launched in 1940, returned to full diesel-electric propulsion, which was fitted on the other successful mass production World War II fleet submarines and other US conventional submarines through the 1960s.
An unsuccessful recommendation of Hart's while on the General Board, beginning in 1936, was the building of small submarines. This was to replace the aging S-boats, R-boats, and O-boats to provide area defense of submarine bases. By 1942, it was also desired to acquire something resembling the German Type VII U-boat, based on trials of U-570, captured by the British and loaned to the US. However, only two submarines, Mackerel and Marlin, resulted from this effort.
With the temporary rank of admiral, Hart relieved classmate Admiral Harry E. Yarnell as Commander-in-Chief, Asiatic Fleet (CinCAF) on 25 July 1939. For the next two years, as tensions increased in the western Pacific, Hart prepared the small Asiatic Fleet for war with Japan. He reduced the presence of his fleet in Chinese waters and concentrated it in the Philippines to await the onslaught expected momentarily. He also successfully badgered Washington for reinforcements in the way of patrol planes and fleet submarines.
World War II
The Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, coupled with nearly simultaneous assaults on British and Dutch possessions and the Philippines, catapulted the United States into World War II. On 8 December 1941 Hart proclaimed unrestricted submarine warfare against Japan, and the Americans, with their Filipino allies, fought a delaying action in the Philippines, while a mixed American, British, Dutch, and Australian (ABDA) military structure under the command of General Hein ter Poorten was set up to operate from Java in an attempt to hold the Japanese at the Malay Barrier.
Admiral Hart was evacuated from the Philippines to Soerabaja, Java by USS Shark (SS-174) on 26 December 1941, two days after General Douglas MacArthur was evacuated by PT boat. Given command of ABDA naval forces (ABDAFLOAT), Hart directed part of this defense into mid-February 1942 when he was replaced, for political reasons, by Admiral Helfrich of the Dutch Navy. By that point, it had become evident that the Japanese forces could not be stopped with the allied ships available at that time.
He returned to the United States on 8 March 1942. President Roosevelt presented Hart with a Gold Star in lieu of a second Distinguished Service Medal in July 1942 for "His conduct of the operations of the Allied naval forces in the Southwest Pacific area during January and February, 1942, was characterized by unfailing judgment and sound decision, coupled with marked moral courage, in the face of discouraging surroundings and complex associations."
Transferred to the retired list due to age in July 1942 with the rank of Admiral, Hart nevertheless was returned to active duty with the General Board the next month, and remained there through 1944. During his brief retirement, Hart wrote articles for the Saturday Evening Post criticizing the lack of preparedness at Pearl Harbor.
From February to April 1944, he conducted a one-member investigation, the "Hart Inquiry," into the Pearl Harbor attack, a duty which took him to the length and breadth of the Pacific Ocean area. The purpose of the investigation was not to determine fault, but to ensure that the statute of limitations did not run out before courts-martial could be considered.
Admiral Hart's decorations included: Navy Distinguished Service Medal with Gold star for second award, Sampson Medal, Navy Spanish Campaign Medal, Mexican Service Medal, World War I Victory Medal, China Service Medal, American Defense Service Medal, Asiatic-Pacific Campaign Medal, American Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal and Submarine Warfare insignia.
Political career and later years
On 9 February 1945, Hart retired from the Navy to fill an appointment as Republican senator from Connecticut. He served in Congress until 5 November 1946 and did not seek election. Admiral Hart then returned to his family home in Sharon, Connecticut, and died there on 4 July 1971, aged 94.
USS Thomas C. Hart (commissioned in 1973, decommissioned in 1993 and transferred to Turkey as Zafer) was named in his honor. Originally classified as a destroyer escort, (DE-1092), it was reclassified as a frigate, (FF-1092), in 1975. The Naval Academy named its former library and current midshipmen lounge "The Hart Room" in his honor. Admiral Hart was also recognized by his high school alma mater, with his inclusion in the inaugural class of Davison High School's Alumni Hall of Fame.
- Hart, Thomas (2013). War in the Pacific: The Classified Report of Admiral Thomas C. Hart. Clarion Publishing. ISBN 978-0988714571.
- List of Superintendents of the United States Naval Academy
- List of United States Senators from Connecticut
- L, Klemen (1999–2000). "Admiral Thomas Charles Hart". Forgotten Campaign: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942.
- Oakland Tribune (Sunday morning edition, 27 March 1910, page 4, column 1, section - "Washington Society News and Gossip")
- The Washington Post (Thursday edition, 31 March 1910, page 7, columns 3-4, section- "Miss Brownson a Bride").
- The Washington Post Monday edition, 11 April 1910, page 7, column 3, section - "Personal Paragraphs".
- Julia Wells. Born in the White House, Pastor to All, Very Rev. Francis B. Sayre Jr. Dies at 93
- Friedman submarines, pp. 159-161
- Friedman submarines, pp. 106-107, 151
- Alden, p. 93
- Friedman submarines, pp. 193, 214-219
- Friedman submarines, pp. 221-231
- Friedman cruisers, pp. 228-236
- Gary E. Weir Silent Defense One Hundred Years of the American Submarine Force, U.S. Naval Historical Center, Section "Shaping an Identity". Accessed 25 April 2008. "Thus, when Admiral Thomas Hart proclaimed unrestricted submarine warfare against Japan on, it came as no surprise"
- Biographical sketch of ADM Hart at Dutch East Indies Webs
- Passenger List of Pan American Airways System - Atlantic Division, Yankee Clipper (NC 18603). From the Passenger and Crew Lists of Vessels Arriving at New York, New York, 1897-1957 (National Archives Microfilm Publication Year: 1942; Microfilm serial: T715; Microfilm roll: T715_6613; Line: 1).
- TIME June 01, 1942
- Biographical sketch of ADM Hart at Dutch East Indies Webs
- TCG Zafer (F253) at Helicopter History
- Friedman, Norman US Submarines through 1945: An Illustrated Design History, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis:1995, ISBN 1-55750-263-3.
- Friedman, Norman US Cruisers: An Illustrated Design History, Naval Institute Press, Annapolis:1984, ISBN 0-87021-718-6.
- Alden, John D., Commander, USN (retired). The Fleet Submarine in the U.S. Navy, Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 0-87021-187-0.
- This article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here.
- Biographical Directory of the United States Congress: Thomas Charles Hart
- ibiblio.org - Proceedings of the Hart Inquiry, on the Pearl Harbor Attack
- Proceedings of Pearl Harbor investigations including the Hart Inquiry
- arlingtoncemetery.net : Thomas Charles Hart
Samuel S. Robison
|Superintendent of United States Naval Academy
David F. Sellers
Harry E. Yarnell
|Commander-in-Chief, United States Asiatic Fleet
25 July 1939–14 February 1942
|United States Senate|
|U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Connecticut
February 15, 1945 – November 5, 1946
Served alongside: Brien McMahon