Born at Coles Creek, Mississippi, Davidson completed preparatory studies. He studied law. He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Greensburg, Louisiana. He was appointed register of the United States land office. He served as member of the State house of representatives 1833-1846.
Davidson was elected as a Democrat to the Thirty-fourth, Thirty-fifth, and Thirty-sixth Congresses (March 4, 1855-March 3, 1861). He resumed the practice of his profession. He served as president of the Democratic State convention in 1855. He served again in the State house of representatives 1874-1878, 1880, and 1883. He died in Springfield, Livingston Parish, Louisiana, September 11, 1883. He was interred in Springfield Cemetery.