Thomas Gardner (planter)

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Thomas Gardner
Born c. 1592
Died 1674
Salem, MA
Resting place
Harmony Grove Cemetery
Occupation Overseer (Cape Ann settlement), Salem: Deputy to General Court, Land owner, Constable, Selectman/Juryman
Spouse(s) Margaret Fryer
Children Thomas, George, John, Sarah, Samuel, Joseph, Richard, Miriam, Seeth

Thomas Gardner[a] (c. 1592 – 1674) was an Overseer of the "old planters" party of the Dorchester Company who landed in 1624 at Cape Ann to form a colony at what is now known as Gloucester. Gardner is considered by some to have been the first Governor of Massachusetts, due to his being in authority in the first settlement that became the Massachusetts Bay Colony (into which was later subsumed the Plymouth Colony).[1][2]

Cape Ann[edit]

The area known as Cape Ann had been visited by the Plymouth group, who had obtained a Patent and had fished in the area known as Gloucester. These visitors from the south had built structures for salting and temporary housing.[3] The Gardner-led group, who settled the area via another Patent, maintained themselves after their landing. Disagreements occurred between the Plymouth colonists and the "West Country" colonists over Patent conflicts. Roger Conant, a Plymouth colonist, was instrumental in working out a compromise between the parties, part of which was moving the Dorchester group away.[4] The colony that had been planned for Cape Ann was doing well, having brought over adequate provisions and having had the proper skills, yet it was commercially unsuccessful because of the rocky, infertile soil and poor fishing in the area. In 1626, the Dorchester Company granted permission for Conant, who had arrived in 1625 from Plymouth via Nantasket, to assess the situation, to become the new Overseer, and to move the colony.[1]

The first Great House in New England was built on Cape Ann by the planters. This house was dismantled on the orders of John Endecott in 1628 and was moved to Salem to serve as his Governor's house.[5] When Higginson arrived in Salem, he wrote that "we found a faire house newly built for the Governor", which was remarkable for being two stories high.[6]

Salem[edit]

Some of the Old Planters moved with Conant to the mouth of the Naumkeag River, now the North River. They first landed near the foot of present-day Skerry Street. Other members of the group returned to England or to went south to Virginia. For a few years, the area was multicultural; the setlers had a peaceful relationship with Native Americans, who had been regular visitors to the area for generations. In the early years, the thatched cottages of the planters huddled along the bank of the river.[7]

The new colony at Naumkeag proved to be successful and was named Salem in 1629. According to Conant, the settlement laid the foundation for the Commonwealth. Those following Gardner and Conant as leader were John Endicott and John Winthrop, respectively, as new planters. Thomas and Roger continued to be considered old planters, who got little recognition from the religious leaders, such as Francis Higginson.[8] By the time of Winthrop, the influx into the area accelerated, resulting in Mass Bay outgrowing and annexing Plymouth.[citation needed] Gardner and his sons played several roles in the early development of the settlement. They did much of the early survey work in the area. Thomas also served on the court and oversaw highway work.[9]

Biographical information[edit]

Thomas Gardner's signature

Thomas Gardner's origins are not clearly known.[10] He may have been born in 1592 to Thomas and Elizabeth Gardner. His mother may have been the sister of Minister John White, who help found and fund the Dorchester Company that became the colony of Massachusetts Bay.[11][12] According to Goff, Gardner may have been chosen through family ties to head the 1623 Cape Ann Colony, which was a "fishing station and saltworks" whose goal was to ship seafood to England.[12]

Gardner had two wives; Margaret (c. 1589 – 1659) and Demaris UNK (c. 1597 - 28 November 1674), widow of UNK Shattuck. He had six sons with Margaret; Thomas, George, John, Samuel, Joseph, and Richard, and three daughters; Sarah, Seeth, and Miriam. In 1623, Gardner landed at Cape Ann with Margaret and the three sons, who had been born in England. A fourth son was born in 1624.[13] Gardner died on 29 December 1674 and is buried in Salem.

Descendants[edit]

The legacy of Thomas Gardner, from seven children is wide and varied. Some (small sampling) of Thomas' descendants are as follows, grouped by category and in chronological order by birth.

American patriots (and military)[edit]

Business[edit]

Academic/science/arts[edit]

Frank A. Gardner, MD, Who's Who in New England,1916

Burial[edit]

Thomas was buried on Gardner Hill near present-day Boston Street and Grove in Salem. His daughter Seeth and his grandson Abel are also buried there.[16] Abel's wife, Sarah Porter Gardner, whose mother was the sister of John Hathorne, was buried with her husband. The remains of Thomas and many others were moved from the old burial ground to Harmony Grove Cemetery in the 1840s.

Degrees of separation[edit]

Through his second wife Damaris, Thomas' influence could be expanded through the shrinking world argument. Damaris was the widow of (unknown first name) Shattuck. Their son Samuel was an active Quaker. Thomas' stepchildren's descendants include, for example, Nathaniel Gorham (1738-1796), John Marshall Harlan (1833-1911), Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965), and Sandra Day O'Connor (1930- ).[55] Others are Charles Goodyear (1800-1860) and Henry Sloane Coffin (1877-1954).[citation needed]

Notes[edit]

Footnotes
  1. ^ Alternately spelled "Gardiner, Gardener"
  2. ^ The Gardner Memorial book details descendants of son, George"
Citations
  1. ^ a b Gardner 1907, p. 6.
  2. ^ Mackenzie 1912, p. 279.
  3. ^ A Brief Post-Pilgrim History of Cape Ann (via cape-ann.com)
  4. ^ Fiske 1899, p. 92.
  5. ^ Goff 2009, p. 24.
  6. ^ Felt, J.B. (1827) Annals of Salem W.&S. B. Ives
  7. ^ Goff 2009, p. 21.
  8. ^ Higginson 1891.
  9. ^ Anderson 1995, p. 731/732 (Offices).
  10. ^ Anderson 1995, p. 731.
  11. ^ Gardner 1907, p. 4.
  12. ^ a b Goff 2009, p. 19.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Gardner 1933.
  14. ^ Browne, G.W. (1906) "The Merrimack River: Story of its First Survey" Granite State Magazine, Vol. 1, p 133 (via Google books)
  15. ^ Gardner 1907, p. 92.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Gardner, Frank A., MD [1907] Thomas Gardner Planter and Some of his Descendants, Essex Institute, Salem, Massachusetts (via Google Books)
  17. ^ (1905) The Diary of William Bentley, D.D. The Essex Institute (via google.com)
  18. ^ a b 'Descendants of John Balch'. First Reunion. (via archive.org) – F.A. Gardner in attendance
  19. ^ Hinchman 1901, p. 171.
  20. ^ Dunn, Anthony T. 'The Gardners of Massachusetts: An American Legacy' (via Micmacfarm.com)
  21. ^ William Balch (via balchipedia.wikidot.com)
  22. ^ Hinchman, L.S. (Compiler) (1901) Early Settlers of Nantucket (2nd ed) Ferris & Leach p. 161 (via archive.org)
  23. ^ Hart, C. (2004) "A Genealogy of the Wives of the American Presidents ..." McFarland, p. 190 (via Google books)
  24. ^ a b c d Paine, SC (1912) Paine Ancestry via Google Books
  25. ^ Balch, G.B. (1897) "Genealogy of the Balch families in America" E. Putnam, Salem, MA p. 310 (via archive.org)
  26. ^ a b (2013) 'The story of two cousins' "Gardner's Beacon Vol. III, No. 2" (via Thomas Gardner Society, Inc.)
  27. ^ Schley, Winfield S Commander, US Navy [1887] 1884 Greely Relief Expedition Washington Printing Office (via American Libraries)
  28. ^ 'ENGLAND'S PRESENT TO AMERICA.; THE STEAM-SHIP ALERT FOR THE GREELY SEARCH EXPEDITION', 4/23/1884, New York Times.(via NYT Archives)
  29. ^ Hart, C. (2004) "A Genealogy of the Wives of the American Presidents ..." McFarland, p. 192 (via Google books)
  30. ^ Lee, T.A. (1922) 'Old Boston Families VI: The Lee Family' "The New England Historical and Genealogical Register" V. 76, p 210
  31. ^ New England Historical Genealogical Society. 'Bush and Kerry related'. (via notablekin.org
  32. ^ 'A Short History of Salem Woods'. (via Friends of Salem Woods)
  33. ^ Macy, S.J. (1868) Genealogy of the Macy Family from 1635-1868 p. 245 (via Google books)
  34. ^ Hinchman 1901, p. 161.
  35. ^ Hinchman 1901, p. 258.
  36. ^ Hinchman, L.S. (Compiler) (1901) 'Neutrality during Revolution' Early Settlers of Nantucket (2nd ed) Ferris & Leach p. 258 (via Google books)
  37. ^ Henry Clay Folger Biography Folger Shakespeare Library
  38. ^ Hinchman, L.S. (Compiler) (1901) 'Neutrality during Revolution' Early Settlers of Nantucket (2nd ed) Ferris & Leach p. 114 (via archive.org)
  39. ^ Young, A. [1846]. Chronicles of the first planters of the Colony of Massachusetts Bay, from 1623–1636. (via Google Books)
  40. ^ Hinchman, L.S. (Compiler) (1901) 'Cornell connection with Nantucket' Early Settlers of Nantucket (2nd ed) Ferris & Leach p. 211 (via archive.org)
  41. ^ Rantoul, R.S. (1881) 'Memoir of Benjamin Peirce' "Historical Collections of the Essex Institute" p. 172 (via Google books)
  42. ^ George Gardner Family Papers 1659–1900. (The Massachusetts Historical Society)
  43. ^ Gardner Family Papers 1772–1915. (The Massachusetts Historical Society)
  44. ^ a b Higginson, T.W. (1900) The alliance between pilgrim and puritan in Massachusetts Salem, MA (via google.com)
  45. ^ Hugh Cabot Family "Cabot family. Papers, 1786-1945: A Finding Aid" Harvard University Library (via OASIS)
  46. ^ Wexler, D.B. (1998) Reared in a Greenhouse Taylor&Francis (via Google books)
  47. ^ Willson, E.B. (1878) Memorial of John Clarke Lee Salem Press (via Google books)
  48. ^ a b Roberts, G.B. [1986] Notable Kin: Nantucket Soup NEHGS (via americanancestors.org)
  49. ^ Coolidge-Lowell Family Papers 1757-1923 (via Massachusetts Historical Society)
  50. ^ Daniel Hovey Association (1913) The Hovey Book Press of L.R.Hovey p. 214 (via archive.org)
  51. ^ Hinchman, L.S. (Compiler) (1901) Early Settlers of Nantucket (2nd ed) Ferris & Leach p. 277 (via Google books)
  52. ^ Hinchman, L.S. (Compiler) (1901) Early Settlers of Nantucket (2nd ed) Ferris & Leach p. 280 (via Google books)
  53. ^ Switlik, J.M. (2014) "The Trials of the Wilson Family" The Essex Genealogist Vol 34, Number 3 (to be published, Aug 2014)
  54. ^ Hobbs, W.H. (1902) Kimball-Weston Memorial Private printing p. 11 (via Google books)
  55. ^ Reitwiesner 2010, p. William Shattuck.

References[edit]


External links[edit]