Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk

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Thomas Howard
Duke of Norfolk
ThomasHoward4HerzogvonNorfolk.jpg
Spouse(s) Mary FitzAlan
Margaret Audley
Elizabeth Leyburne
Noble family House of Howard
Father Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey
Mother Frances de Vere
Born (1536-03-10)10 March 1536
Died 2 June 1572(1572-06-02) (aged 36)
Tower Hill , London, England
Arms of Sir Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk, KG

Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk (third creation), KG Earl Marshal (10 March 1536 – 2 June 1572) was an English nobleman.

Norfolk was the son of the poet Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey. He was taught as a child by John Foxe, the Protestant martyrologist, who remained a lifelong recipient of Norfolk's patronage. His father predeceased his grandfather, so Norfolk inherited the Dukedom of Norfolk upon the death of his grandfather, Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk in 1554.

Norfolk was the second cousin of Queen Elizabeth I through her maternal grandmother, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and he was trusted with public office despite his family's history and leanings towards Catholicism (although he was brought up a Protestant). It was the 4th Duke of Norfolk who commissioned Thomas Tallis, probably in 1567, to compose his renowned motet in forty voice-parts, Spem in alium.

Marriages and plots[edit]

First wife[edit]

Thomas Howard's first wife was Mary FitzAlan, who after the death of her brother Henry in 1556 became heiress to the Arundel estates of her father Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel. She died after a year of marriage, having given birth to a son:

It is from this marriage that the present Duke of Norfolk derives his name of 'FitzAlan-Howard' and his seat in Arundel. Though her funeral effigy is there, Mary FitzAlan was never buried at Framlingham, but at the church of St. Clement Without, Temple Bar and then (under the direction of her grandson's will) at Arundel.

Second wife[edit]

Norfolk next married another heiress, Margaret Audley, widow of Sir Henry Dudley and daughter of Thomas Audley, 1st Baron Audley of Walden.

Margaret's children by her marriage to Norfolk were:

Both Mary FitzAlan and Margaret Audley have their tomb effigies at St Michael the Archangel, Framlingham. [3]

Third wife[edit]

After Margaret's death, Norfolk married Elizabeth Leyburne (1536 – 4 September 1567), widow of Thomas Dacre, 4th Baron Dacre of Gillesland.

Norfolk's three sons by his first two wives, Philip, Thomas, and William, married, respectively, Anne, Marie, and Elizabeth Dacre. The Dacre sisters were the daughters of Elizabeth Leyburne by her marriage to Thomas Dacre and were, therefore, stepsisters to Norfolk's sons.

Public offices[edit]

Norfolk was Earl Marshal of England and Queen's Lieutenant in the North. From February to July 1560, Norfolk was commander of the English army in Scotland in support of the Lords of the Congregation opposing Mary of Guise. He negotiated the Treaty of Berwick (1560) by which the Congregation invited English assistance.[4]

Norfolk was the Principal of the commission at York in 1568 to hear evidence against Mary, Queen of Scots presented by Regent Moray, including the casket letters.[5]

Attempted fourth marriage, plots and death[edit]

Queen Elizabeth imprisoned Norfolk in 1569 for scheming to marry Mary, Queen of Scots.

Following his release, he participated in the Ridolfi plot with King Philip II of Spain to put Mary on the English throne and restore Catholicism in England, though the strength of the evidence for his participation in the Ridolfi plot is doubted by some.[citation needed] He was executed for treason in 1572. He is buried at St Peter ad Vincula within the walls of the Tower of London.

Norfolk's lands and titles were forfeit, although much of the estate was later restored to his sons. The title of Duke of Norfolk was restored, four generations later, to Thomas Howard.

In books and film[edit]

Ancestry[edit]

See also[edit]

John George Howard, a Toronto architect who claims to be related to the Duke.

Further reading[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.geni.com/people/Elizabeth-Howard/6000000008630850694
  2. ^ http://www.geni.com/people/Margaret-Howard/6000000000151561135
  3. ^ "Churchmouse: Framlingham, Suffolk. Church of St. Michael the Archangel". Homepage.ntlworld.com. May 2, 2000. Retrieved September 7, 2012. 
  4. ^ Calendar of State Papers Scotland, vol. 1 (1898), 323, 440.
  5. ^ HMC: Manuscripts of the Earl of Salisbury at Hatfield, vol.1 (1883), p.461.
Political offices
Preceded by
The Duke of Norfolk
Earl Marshal
1554–1572
Succeeded by
The Earl of Shrewsbury
Preceded by
The Earl of Sussex
Lord Lieutenant of Norfolk
1559–1572
Succeeded by
Unknown
Peerage of England
Preceded by
Thomas Howard
Duke of Norfolk
(3rd creation)

1554–1572
Vacant
Title next held by
Thomas Howard
Earl of Surrey
(3rd creation)

1554–1572
Vacant
Title next held by
Thomas Howard
Baron Mowbray
1554–1572
Succeeded by
Philip Howard