Thomas Jefferson and Indian removal
Andrew Jackson is often erroneously credited with initiating Indian Removal, because Congress passed the Indian Removal Act in 1830, during his presidency, and also because of his personal involvement in the forceful extermination and removal of many Eastern tribes. But Jackson was merely legalizing and implementing a plan laid out by Jefferson in a series of private letters that began in 1803, although Jefferson did not implement the plan during his own presidency.
Acculturation and assimilation
The rise of Napoleon in Europe, and rumor of a possible transfer of the Louisiana Territory from the Spanish empire to the more aggressive French, was cause for consternation amongst some people in the American republic. Jefferson advocated for the militarization of the Western border, along the Mississippi River. He felt that the best way to accomplish this was to flood the area with a large population of white settlements.
Still recovering from the American Revolutionary War, the U.S. federal government was unable to risk starting a broad conflict with the powerful Native American nations that surrounded their borders. They were worried that this would cause a broader Indian War, and which would perhaps be joined by the other European nations. In his instructions to Meriwether Lewis, Jefferson emphasized the necessity for treating all Indian tribes in the most conciliatory manner.
Jefferson wanted to expand his borders into the Indian territories, without causing a full-scale war. Jefferson's original plan was to coerce native peoples to give up their own cultures, religions, and lifestyles in favor of western European culture, Christian religion, and a sedentary agricultural lifestyle. Jefferson's expectation was that by assimilating the natives into a market-based, agricultural society and stripping them of their self-sufficiency, they would become economically heavily dependent on trade with white Americans, and would thereby be willing to give up land that they would otherwise not part with, in exchange for trade goods or to resolve unpaid debts.
In an 1803 private letter to William Henry Harrison, Jefferson wrote:
- To promote this disposition to exchange lands, which they have to spare and we want, for necessaries, which we have to spare and they want, we shall push our trading uses, and be glad to see the good and influential individuals among them run in debt, because we observe that when these debts get beyond what the individuals can pay, they become willing to lop them off by a cession of lands.... In this way our settlements will gradually circumscribe and approach the Indians, and they will in time either incorporate with us as citizens of the United States, or remove beyond the Mississippi. The former is certainly the termination of their history most happy for themselves; but, in the whole course of this, it is essential to cultivate their love. As to their fear, we presume that our strength and their weakness is now so visible that they must see we have only to shut our hand to crush them, and that all our liberalities to them proceed from motives of pure humanity only. Should any tribe be foolhardy enough to take up the hatchet at any time, the seizing the whole country of that tribe, and driving them across the Mississippi, as the only condition of peace, would be an example to others, and a furtherance of our final consolidation.
Jefferson believed that this strategy would "get rid of this pest, without giving offence or umbrage to the Indians". He stated that Harrison was to keep the contents of the letter "sacred" and "kept within [Harrison's] own breast, and especially how improper for the Indians to understand. For their interests and their tranquility, it is best they should see only the present age of their history."
Forced removal and extermination
In cases where Native tribes resisted assimilation, Jefferson believed that they should be forcefully removed from their land and sent west. As Jefferson put it in a letter to Alexander von Humboldt in 1813:
- You know, my friend, the benevolent plan we were pursuing here for the happiness of the aboriginal inhabitants in our vicinities. We spared nothing to keep them at peace with one another. To teach them agriculture and the rudiments of the most necessary arts, and to encourage industry by establishing among them separate property. In this way they would have been enabled to subsist and multiply on a moderate scale of landed possession. They would have mixed their blood with ours, and been amalgamated and identified with us within no distant period of time. On the commencement of our present war, we pressed on them the observance of peace and neutrality, but the interested and unprincipled policy of England has defeated all our labors for the salvation of these unfortunate people. They have seduced the greater part of the tribes within our neighborhood, to take up the hatchet against us, and the cruel massacres they have committed on the women and children of our frontiers taken by surprise, will oblige us now to pursue them to extermination, or drive them to new seats beyond our reach.
He told his Secretary of War, General Henry Dearborn (who was the primary government official responsible for Indian affairs): "if we are constrained to lift the hatchet against any tribe, we will never lay it down until that tribe is exterminated, or driven beyond the Mississippi."
Jefferson's first promotions of Indian Removal were between 1776 and 1779, when he recommended forcing the Cherokee and Shawnee tribes to be driven out of their ancestral homelands to lands west of the Mississippi River. Indian removal, said Jefferson, was the only way to ensure the survival of Native American peoples. His first such act as president, was to make a deal with the state of Georgia that if Georgia were to release its legal claims to discovery in lands to the west, then the U.S. military would help forcefully expel the Cherokee people from Georgia. At the time, the Cherokee had a treaty with the United States government which guaranteed them the right to their lands, which was violated in Jefferson's deal with Georgia.
- Manifest Destiny
- Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas
- Thomas Jefferson and slavery
- Miller, 2006: p. 90
- Drinnon, 1997:[page needed]
- Owens, 2007: pp. 76-77
- Rockwell, 2010: pp. 38-39
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- Sheehan, 1974: p. 171
- Gill, Indermit Singh et al. Crafting labor policy: techniques and lessons from Latin America. Oxford University Press. pp. 61–62. ISBN 9780821351116.
- Rockwell, 2010: p. 88
- Thomas Jefferson (2000). "President Jefferson to William Henry Harrison: February 27, 1803". In Prucha, Francis Paul. Documents of United States Indian policy. University of Nebraska Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780803287624.
- Prucha, Francis Paul (1995). The great father: the United States government and the American Indians. University of Nebraska Press. p. 120. ISBN 9780803287341.
- Drinnon, 1997: pp. 87-88
- "Letter From Thomas Jefferson to Alexander von Humboldt December 6, 1813". Retrieved 2009-03-12.
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- Sheehan, Bernard (1974). Seeds of extinction: Jeffersonian philanthropy and the American Indian. W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 9780393007169.
- Ostler, Jeffrey (2004). The Plains Sioux and U.S. colonialism from Lewis and Clark to Wounded Knee. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521605908.