Thomas Lake Harris
|Thomas Lake Harris|
|Born||15 May 1823
Fenny Stratford, Buckinghamshire, England
|Died||23 March 1906|
|Home town||Santa Rosa, California, USA|
Thomas Lake Harris (1823 – 1906) was an Anglo-American preacher, spiritualistic prophet, poet, and vintner. Harris is best remembered as the leader of a series of communal religious experiments, culminating with a group called the Brotherhood of the New Life in Santa Rosa, California.
Thomas Lake Harris was born May 15, 1823 at Fenny Stratford in Buckinghamshire, England. His parents were strict Calvinistic Baptists and very poor. When Harris was five years old his parents emigrated from England, settling in the town of Utica, New York. His mother died when he was still a young boy and Harris was forced by circumstances to help support the family from the age of 9.
From 1848 he became minister of an independent Christian congregation in New York City. In that church he came into contact with young newspaper publisher Horace Greeley, who was so moved by one of Harris's sermons that he was inspired to organize Harris's congregation to help found the New York Juvenile Asylum.
Mysticism and communalism
Harris soon turned towards spiritualism, becoming a devotee of the Swedish mystic Emanuel Swedenborg. By 1851 he had departed New York for Virginia where together with Rev. J. L. Scott he launched the first of his communal enterprises, the Mountain Cove Community of Spiritualists, on pristine land claimed by one of the group's leaders to be the actual site of the mythical Garden of Eden. It was intended to there create a "city of refuge" from which angels were to descend and ascend. The experiment proved to be short-lived, however, racked by squabbling over property and personalities, and after two years the Virginia religious commune collapsed.
Following the collapse of the Mountain Grove Community, Harris went back to his native England, where he preached modified Swedenborgian ideas to a London congregation for several years. There he began his career as a writer and poet, publishing several books. Harris's poetry was well regarded and he was made the subject of a chapter by Alfred Austin in his book The Poetry of the Period.
Brotherhood of the New Life
Harris subsequently returned to America, settling in the town of Amenia in Dutchess County, New York. He would remain at Amenia for five or six years, establishing a bank, a flour mill, and a vineyard and gathering around him a small group of devoted religious disciples. Included among the approximately sixty converts were five orthodox clergymen and about 20 Japanese from Satsuma Province, among others. The community — the Brotherhood of the New Life — decided to settle at the village of Brocton, New York on the shore of Lake Erie. Its nature was co-operative rather than communistic, and farming and industrial occupations were engaged in by his followers, numbering at one time about 2,000 in the United States and Great Britain
In Brocton, Harris established a winemaking industry. In reply to the objections of teetotallers, Harris said that the wine prepared by himself was filled with the divine breath so that all noxious influences were neutralized. Harris also built a tavern and strongly advocated the use of tobacco. He exacted complete surrender from his disciples, even the surrender of moral judgment. He taught that God was bisexual, and apparently, though not in reality, that the rule of society should be one of married celibacy. He professed to teach his community a change in the mode of respiration which was to be the visible sign of possession by Christ and the seal of immortality.
Harris took part of the community to Santa Rosa, California, where he created the Fountain Grove community in about 1875. For a time in 1876 Harris discontinued public activities, but issued, to a secret circle, books of verse dwelling mainly on sexual questions. In 1891 he announced that his body had been renewed, and that he had discovered the secret of the resuscitation of humanity. He also made a third marriage, and visited England intending to remain there. However, Harris was called back by a fire which destroyed large stocks of his wine, and remained in New York till 1903, when he visited Glasgow. His followers believed that he had attained the secret of immortal life on earth, and after his death on the March 23, 1906 declared that he was only sleeping. It was three months before it was acknowledged publicly that he was really dead.
He was succeeded by Nagasawa Kanaye, who led the sect until his death in 1934.
Dissension and influence
The Oliphants broke away from the sect in about 1881, charging Harris with robbery and succeeding in getting back from him many thousands of pounds by legal proceedings. But while losing faith in Harris himself, they did not abandon his main teaching. In Laurence Oliphant's novel Masollam his view of Harris will be found. Briefly, he held that Harris was originally honest, greatly gifted, and possessed of certain psychical powers. But in the end he came to practice unbridled licence under the loftiest pretensions, made the profession of extreme disinterestedness a cloak to conceal his avarice, and demanded from his followers a blind and supple obedience.
The utopian ideals promoted by Harris had significant influence among his Japanese followers. These included:
- Arai Osui, who initially transmitted Harris's ideas to Japan.
- Hatakeyama Yoshinari (1843–1876), later president of Tokyo Kansei Gakko.
- Ichiki Kanjuro – commonly known as Mitsumura Junzo (1842–1919), later an admiral in the Japanese Imperial Navy.
- Samejima Hisanobu (1846–80) later ambassador
- Yoshida Kiyonari (1845–91), later ambassador
- Nagasawa Kanaye (1852–1934), Harris's California lieutenant who acted as developer and manager of the community's 2,000 acres (8 km2) of vineyards near Santa Rosa. He also succeeded Harris and acted as leader of the brotherhood until 1934.
Harris's community left a significant stamp on the history of Santa Rosa and today that part of town is still called Fountaingrove, the round barn that was part of the winery of Harris's protege, Kanaye Nagasawa, still dominates the area, and there the street, Thomas Lake Harris Drive, is named for him. A local park and lake were recently named in Nagasawa's honor.
Publications and sources
A good deal of the verse published by Harris in more than 40 volumes had what we would call today science-fictional themes. He depicted interplanetary empires, imperial cities entirely covering planets, and the "ancient astronaut" myth, in which space travellers help early humans with agriculture, technology and spiritual development.
The Path (Vol. VI, February, 1892, pp. 346–47) printed the article “The Brotherhood of the New Life” by W. Q. Judge stating that the “The Brotherhood of the New Life” has nothing in common with the Theosophical Society. Judge was a follower of Helena P. Blavatsky, the founder of Theosophy.
The authoritative biography from the side of his disciples is the book Life by A. A. Cuthbert, published in Glasgow in 1908. Containing language common to Harris's sect, it also contains some biographical facts as well as quotations. Mrs Oliphant's Life of Laurence Oliphant (1891) has not been shaken in any important particular, and Oliphant's own portrait of Harris in Masollam is apparently unexaggerated. But Harris had much personal magnetism, unbounded self-confidence, along with endless fluency, and to the last was believed in by some disciples of character and influence.
- William Alfred Hinds, American Communities and Co-operative Colonies. Second Edition. Chicago, IL: Charles H. Kerr & Co., 1908; pg. 422.
- Hinds, American Communities and Co-operative Colonies, pg. 423.
- Hinds, American Communities and Co-operative Colonies, pg. 424.
- Juvenile Depravity and Crime in Our City: A Sermon. New York: C.B. Norton, 1850.
- An Epic of the Starry Heaven. New York: Partridge and Brittan, 1855.
- A Lyric of the Golden Age. New York: Partridge and Brittan, 1856.
- A Lyric of the Morning Land. New York: Partridge and Brittan, 1856.
- Wisdom of Angels (1856)
- Hymns of Spiritual Devotion. New York: New Church Publishing Association, 1857.
- The First Book of the Christian Religion. New York: New Church Publishing Association, 1858.
- Regina: A Song of Many Days. London: William Whie, 1860.
- The Second Visibility of Jesus. London: William White; Manchester: Johnson and Rawson, .
- Arcana of Christianity: An Unfolding of the Celestial Sense of the Divine Word Through Thomas Lake Harris.
- Part III — The Apocalypse: Volume 1. New York: Brotherhood of the New Life, 1867.
- Modern Spiritualism (1860)
- The Great Republic: A Poem of the Sun. New York: Brotherhood of the New Life, 1867.
- The Breath of God with Man: An Essay on the Grounds and Evidences of Universal Religion. New York: Brotherhood of the New Life, 1867.
- The Lord: The Two-in-One: Declared, Manifested, and Glorified. Salem-on-Erie, NY:: Brotherhood of the New Life, 1876.
- The Wedding Guest. With Lily C. Harris. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove, 1877-1878.
- Bridal Hours: Dedication Ode for the House of Jesus and Yessa Aestivossa, 1875. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove Vineyard, 1878.
- The Wisdom Of The Adepts: Esoteric Science in Human History. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove, 1884.
- The Joy Bringer: Fifty-three Melodies of the One-in-Twain: February-March MDCCCLXXXVI. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove, 1886.
- Star-Flowers: A Poem of the Woman's Mystery. In Nine Cantos. 1886-1887.
- Canto the First. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove, 1886.
- The New Republic: A Discourse of the Prospects, Dangers, Duties and Safeties of the Times. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove, 1891.
- God's Breath in Man and in Humane Society. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove, 1891.
- Brotherhood of the New Life: Its Fact, Law, Method and Purpose. Santa Rosa, CA: T.L. Harris, 1891.
- Conversation in Heaven: A Wisdom Song. [Santa Rosa, CA]: Fountaingrove, 1894.
- In Dawnrise: A Song of Songs. [Santa Rosa, CA]: [Fountaingrove], 1896.
- The Song of Theos: A Trilogy. Glasgow: C. W. Pearce & Co., 1903.
- Respiro, The Brotherhood of the New Life: An Epitome of the Works and Teachings of Thomas Lake Harris. In Five Volumes. London: E.W. Allen, 1896.
Other sources used
- William Robertson Nicoll (1911). "Harris, Thomas Lake". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Rines, George Edwin, ed. (1920). "Harris, Thomas Lake". Encyclopedia Americana. This work in turn cites:
- Allen, T. L. Harris, The Seer (1897)