Thomas More Law Center
The Thomas More Law Center is a prominent conservative Christian, not-for-profit law center based in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and is active throughout the United States. Its stated goals are defending the religious freedom of Christians, restoring "time honored values" and protecting the sanctity of human life. The Law Center also supports a strong national defense and an independent, sovereign United States of America. Its motto is "The Sword and the Shield for People of Faith." The Law Center characterizes itself as "Christianity's answer to the ACLU".
The issues the Law Center pursues, mostly through litigation, are generally in line with modern American social conservatism: opposing same-sex marriage; opposing pornography; supporting pro-life positions and initiatives, and opposing the removal of the Ten Commandments and other religious monuments from municipal and school buildings.
The Law Center says its lawyers maintain "the highest moral and ethical standards of our Christian faith and our legal profession." The center considers its work "ministry" and states it was inspired by what it calls a "cultural war being waged across America" against "Christians and their faith." A policy statement of the center states "The Thomas More Center seeks to transform the national culture by taking cases across the United States consistent with its mission. The Law Center currently is handling over 120 legal matters in 27 different states." Currently, the Law Center has cases in 41 to 44 of 50 states, and has a team of over 600 pro bono attorneys.
Though it is active in many controversial social issues and cases, the Law Center is most widely known for its instigation, litigation and loss of the Dover, Pennsylvania intelligent design case, defending LtCol Jeffrey Chessani against misconduct allegations during the November 2005 Haditha killings, its strong anti-abortion position, and for its current federal lawsuit against the government regarding the constitutionality of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Attorneys from the Law Center have appeared on numerous local and national television and radio programs including The O'Reilly Factor, Hannity and Colmes, MSNBC, EWTN, the Laura Ingraham Show, The Radio Factor w/Bill O'Reilly, American Family Radio, and Dennis Prager.
Founding and history 
The Center was founded in 1999 by Tom Monaghan, founder of Domino's Pizza, and Richard Thompson, the former Oakland County, Michigan, prosecutor known for his role in the prosecution of Jack Kevorkian, and who now serves as the Law Center's President and Chief Counsel. Among those who have sat on the Law Center's advisory board are: Senator Rick Santorum, former Senator and retired Rear Admiral Jeremiah Denton, former Major League Baseball commissioner Bowie Kuhn, noted Catholic academic Charles Rice, former Fortune 500 CEO Mary Cunningham Agee, and Ambassador Alan Keyes. Santorum has played a crucial role in promoting intelligent design through his Santorum Amendment; however, following the Center's defeat in the Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District case (see below), Santorum resigned from the Law Center's advisory board. Originally, the Law Center's funding came from Monaghan's Ave Maria Foundation, but is now primarily financed by contributions from individuals, foundations, and corporations.
The Law Center is named after St. Thomas More, the 16th century Lord Chancellor whose refusal to accept King Henry VIII's claim as supreme head of the Church of England ended his political career and led to his execution as a traitor to the King. St. Thomas More is patron saint of lawyers in the Catholic Church.
Notable cases involving the Thomas More Law Center 
1999 - 2005 
In August 2001, the Center filed a lawsuit against the San Diego chapter of Planned Parenthood, in which it sued Planned Parenthood to force it to inform women of a possible link between abortions and breast cancer. Although PP and medical experts denied any such link, a Thomas More Law Center lawyer claimed that a "preponderance of medical evidence" did establish a link. The case was later dismissed by the judge, who said there was little likelihood the lawsuit would succeed. The Center was ordered to pay $77,835 in legal fees.
In September 2001, the Center publicly offered to provide legal assistance to "American citizens who believe they have been unconstitutionally denied the right to fly the American flag or express their faith in God", claiming that there had been numerous incidents of such denials in the aftermath of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
In July 2002, the Thomas More Law Center sued the Ann Arbor Public Schools, claiming the district violated a student's constitutional rights by "promoting homosexuality". It eventually won the case, with the judge ruling that the district had violated the student's rights when she wasn't allowed to express her Catholic views in a panel discussion about gays and religion. The case was dismissed on a technicality. The Center later filed a similar lawsuit against Michigan State University. In 2008, the Supreme Court of Michigan ruled in the Center's favor, 5-2.
In the same month it sued Contra Costa County's Byron Union School District for allegedly violating students' constitutional rights after a seventh-grade class used the workbook "Islam: a Simulation of Islamic History and Culture", in which pupils were encouraged to role-play situations from Islamic history from 610 to 1100 A.D. The Center also represented pro-life activists who had produced the controversial Nuremberg Files website displayed the names and locations of various doctors who perform abortions throughout the United States. The case eventually went to the United States Supreme Court, where the pro-life activists lost. The Law Center sued New York's school district in December 2002 for banning Nativity scenes in public schools. The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit rejected the lawsuit in a 2-1 decision.
In March 2003, the Law Center intervened in the controversy over the "Ten Commandments monument" erected in the Alabama Supreme Court building by Judge Roy Moore. It filed a brief in support of Moore, claiming that the "First Amendment does not require the existence of an impenetrable wall between church and state." Alabama's Court of the Judiciary later removed Moore from his post as Chief Justice.
Later in 2003, it sued the Ann Arbor Public School District in an attempt to stop the district from using public funds to pay for insurance benefits for same-sex partners of district employees. The case was dismissed in 2005.
The Thomas More Law Center also intervened in the Terri Schiavo case in Florida in October 2003, sending Governor Jeb Bush a legal opinion stating that "Bush could legally intervene to order a criminal investigation into whether Terri Schiavo may have been abused at some point by her husband, Michael Schiavo, who has always denied such charges." The Florida legislature passed "Terri's Law," giving Bush the authority to intervene in Schiavo's case. The law was later struck down by Judge W. Douglas Baird, a Circuit Judge in the Florida Sixth Circuit, as unconstitutional.
In January 2004, the Law Center sued Washburn University in Topeka, Kansas for displaying a sculpture of a Catholic bishop with a grotesque facial expression wearing a phallus on his head that is shaped like a bishop's mitre and entitled "Holier than Thou."  The case was thrown out the following month.
Also in 2004, the Center played a central role in crafting South Dakota House Bill 1119, a bill which controversially banned all abortions in the state. Governor Mike Rounds vetoed the bill, although a similar bill, the Women's Health and Human Life Protection Act, was passed in 2006 and later repealed by popular referendum.
An article in an October 2006 article in the Agape Press said Law Center attorney Edward L. White III said "favoritism toward non-Christian religions in the United State is improper" and that "the courts, the schools, and even the military should stop favoring religions that don't represent the values and traditions of America." White expanded on this:
"The courts and the schools, in particular, look at [those other religions] as though this is something different [and] it's okay to do things that we would never allow you to do when it comes to Christianity," the attorney says. That attitude, he explains, has a snowball effect. "The problem with that is that, all of a sudden, it starts running rampant," White continues. "It starts running through the public schools, even all the way to the military of sensitivity training with regard to various things that there's really no need for."
LtCol Jeffrey Chessani 
Jeffrey R. Chessani is a Lieutenant Colonel in the United States Marine Corps and was the commanding officer 3rd Battalion, 1st Marines during the time of the November 19, 2005, urban combat in Haditha, Iraq, where Marines in his battalion were accused of having killed 15 civilians while pursuing insurgents. The Thomas More Law Center defended LtCol Chessani against the charge that he failed to investigate the killings, and all criminal charges against Chessani regarding this incident have been dismissed. He was also defended by the Center before an administrative Board of Inquiry wherein the Board found that there was no misconduct.
On June 17, 2008, Military Judge Colonel Steven Folsom dismissed all charges against Lt. Colonel Jeffrey Chessani on the grounds that General James Mattis, who approved the filing of charges against Chessani, was improperly influenced by an investigator probing the incident. The ruling was without prejudice, which allows the prosecution to refile.
In 2008 an appeal filed on behalf of the Marine Corps claims that a judge abused his power when he dismissed dereliction of duty charges against Lt. Col. Jeffrey Chessani in the 2005 slaying of two dozen Iraqi civilians. On March 17, 2009, a military appeals court upheld the dismissal of war crimes charges against Chessani.
LtCol Chessani’s commanding general, Major General Huck, reported up the chain of command, "I support our account and do not see the necessity for further investigation." General Huck was also allowed to retire without loss of rank and without going to a Board of Inquiry.
On August 28, 2009, the new general in charge of LtCol Chessani's case, Marine LtGen George Flynn, Commanding General of the Marine Corps Combat Development Command in Quantico, VA, decided that criminal charges were not warranted. Instead, he ordered LtCol Chessani to face an Navy administrative procedure, called a Board of Inquiry, which found no misconduct and recommended that he be allowed to retire without loss of rank.
Richard Thompson, President and Chief Counsel of the Thomas More Law Center, said, "The government's persecution of this loyal Marine officer continues because he refused to throw his men under the bus to appease some anti-war politicians and press, and the Iraqi government. Any punishment of LtCol Chessani handed down by a Board of Inquiry would be a miscarriage of justice because he did nothing wrong, and our lawyers will mount the same vigorous defense in this administrative proceeding as they did in the criminal."
The dismissed misconduct allegations against LtCol Chessani were for failing to properly report and investigate the November 19, 2005, incident. However, evidence shows that LtCol Chessani immediately reported the deaths of the 15 civilian Iraqis to his superiors. And not one of his superiors hearing of the civilian deaths— including top generals— considered it unusual. Not one ordered a further investigation. Instead, they commended him for a job well done. In fact, LtCol Chessani's immediate superior told him that no investigation was needed because it was a bona fide combat action, which was consistent with the orders in effect at the time: no investigation of civilian deaths related to combat action. That order was changed in April 2006, well after the Haditha incident.
Intelligent design 
The Thomas More Law Center gained attention as the law firm for the defendants in one of the country's first intelligent design cases, Kitzmiller v. Dover Area School District.
Prior to taking on this particular case, the lawyers of the Thomas More Law Center traveled the country shopping for a school board willing to withstand a lawsuit as a test case for the teaching of intelligent design in public schools, forcing the first test case for intelligent design in the courts. In a May 2000 visit to Charleston, West Virginia, Robert Muise, one of the lawyers, tried to persuade the school board to buy and use Of Pandas and People as a textbook for its science classes. Muise warned the board in Charleston that it would undoubtedly be sued if the district taught intelligent design, but that the Thomas More Law Center would provide legal defense at no cost: "We'll be your shields against such attacks," he told the school board, referencing the Center's motto. Muise told the board they could defend teaching intelligent design as a matter of academic freedom.
In the summer of 2004, the Dover, Pennsylvania, school board, after receiving legal advice from the Discovery Institute, accepted the center's offer of advice and possible representation, as they worked to change their science curriculum. On November 19, 2004, the board issued a press release stating that, starting in January 2005, each biology class would be read a statement indicating the alleged uncertainties about some aspects of Darwinian evolution, and directing the students to Of Pandas and People, of which a large number had been donated to the school by a member of the school board who purchased them using money he had given to his father, Donald Bonsell, and said they were donations solicited from his church. A month later, on December 14, 2004, the ACLU and Americans United for Separation of Church and State filed suit on behalf of eleven Dover parents, claiming that the statement was a violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment.
The Law Center defended the school district in the trial, which lasted from September 26 through November 4. The case was decided on December 20, 2005. Judge John E. Jones III delivered a 139 page decision in favor of the plaintiffs, ruling that Intelligent Design is not science but essentially religious in nature, and consequently inappropriate for a biology class. Members of the board that had originally enacted the policy were not re-elected, preventing an appeal.
Other notable cases 
- Pledge of Allegiance - The Law Center has filed several amicus briefs in the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and the United States Supreme Court on behalf of itself, the Catholic League and others challenging rulings which have held that recitation of the Pledge by public school children violated the Establishment Clause because it contained the phrase "Under God." The law center has also offered free legal services to several schools denied the right to permit students to recite the Pledge of Allegiance.
- Los Angeles County Seal - The Law Center's West Coast office filed an unsuccessful federal lawsuit against Los Angeles County officials for their decision to remove a small cross from the county seal after they were threatened with lawsuit by the American Civil Liberties Union. The Law Center also provided legal supervision to a ballot initiative to keep the cross on the seal, which didn't generate enough signatures for placement on the ballot.
- Mount Soledad cross - The Law Center's West Coast office attempted to intervene on behalf of the Citizens for the Mt. Soledad National War Memorial, to prevent the city of San Diego from removing a 20 ft cross from the existing Mt. Soledad war memorial. The intervention was denied, but the Law Center subsequently appealed to the United States Supreme Court, asking for a stay in destruction of the memorial, which was granted by Justice Anthony Kennedy.
- American Family Association v. Michigan State University - The Thomas More Law Center has sued Michigan State University over their policy of providing health care benefits to same-sex domestic partners employed by the university, potentially in violation of Michigan’s recently enacted Defense of Marriage Act. This is the second such lawsuit the TMLC has filed, the first being against Ann Arbor Public Schools (that case was dismissed due to lack of standing by the plaintiffs).
- Planned Parenthood v. American Coalition of Life Activists - The Thomas More Law Center defended the American Coalition of Life Activists, twelve activists, and an affiliated organization on the grounds of the First Amendment Right to free speech. The ACLA had created Old West "Wanted" style posters of various abortion doctors, listing their names and addresses online. The posters were described as "a hit list for terrorists" by Gloria Feldt, then president of Planned Parenthood. This assertion was furthered by the fact that three of doctors on list were murdered and several wounded, after which the murdered doctors' names on the list were crossed out and the wounded doctors' names set in gray text. The defense lost the case at the lower court, a ruling which was overturned on appeal, but then restored by the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals sitting en banc.
- Charter Amendment One (Gainesville, Florida) — The City Council of Gainesville, Florida, voted to enact protection for sexual preference and gender identity in January 2008. The Thomas More Law Center wrote an amendment to repeal the protection that went to popular vote on March 24, 2009, losing with 42% of the vote in favor of repeal and 58% against repeal.
- Michael Savage — American radio broadcaster Michael Savage was banned from entry into the United Kingdom as he is "considered to be engaging in unacceptable behaviour by seeking to provoke others to serious criminal acts and fostering hatred which might lead to inter-community violence". by the United Kingdom's Home Secretary. Savage and his lawyers from Thomas More Law Center are arguing this is a violation of several international treaties concerning political and civil rights.
Notable active cases 
Catholic League et al. v. City of San Francisco 
The Law Center filed a federal lawsuit against the City of San Francisco on behalf of the Catholic League and two Catholic citizens after the city passed an official resolution condemning the Catholic Church's teaching which opposed adoptions by homosexual couples. The Law Center alleges that the resolution, adopted March 21, 2006, referred to the Vatican as a "foreign country" meddling in the affairs of the city and proclaimed the Church’s moral teaching and beliefs on homosexuality as "insulting to all San Franciscans", "hateful", "insulting and callous", "defamatory", "absolutely unacceptable", "insensitive", and "ignorant". The resolution made reference to the Inquisition; and it urged the Archbishop of San Francisco and Catholic Charities of San Francisco to defy Church directives.
The basis of the Law Center's claim was that the Establishment Clause of the Constitution does not permit government hostility toward religion. The lower court dismissed the case. The Law Center then appealed the ruling to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals A three-judge panel affirmed the lower court decision. The Law Center's request for an en banc rehearing of the appeal by the entire panel of the Ninth Circuit Court was granted, with the panel affirming the prior ruling. The Center has asked the U.S. Supreme Court to review the case.
Johnson v. Poway Unified School District 
The Law Center filed a federal lawsuit against a Southern California school district on behalf of math teacher Brad Johnson who was ordered to remove several banners from his classroom because school officials claimed the banners promoted an impermissible "Judeo-Christian" viewpoint. The banners, which the teacher had been displaying for the past 25 years without a single complaint, contained slogans such as "In God We Trust", "One Nation Under God", and the preamble to the Declaration of Independence. The school district filed a motion to dismiss and in a lengthy opinion the federal judge denied the motion, ruling in the Law Center's favor. Upon the completion of discovery, the parties filed cross-motions for summary judgment. The court granted summary judgment for the plaintiff. On September 13, 2011, the 9th Circuit U.S. Court of Appeals overturned the summary judgment and ruled that the school district did not violate Johnson’s free speech rights. The unanimous decision of the federal appeals court relied on U.S. Supreme Court rulings that said governments can limit the free speech rights of public employees in the workplace. <http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/2011/sep/13/federal-court-teacher-cant-use-god-in-classroom/>
Kevin Murray v. U.S. Treasury Sec. Timothy Geithner, et al. 
The Law Center filed a federal lawsuit against the Department of Treasury and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve, challenging a portion of the Emergency Economic Stabilization Act of 2008 that appropriated $40 billion in taxpayer money to fund the federal government’s majority ownership interest in AIG. The lawsuit claimed that the federal government, through its ownership of AIG, engages in Sharia-based Islamic religious activities. The Law Center claimed the use of taxpayer dollars to fund Shariah-based Islamic religious activities violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment. While federal Judge Lawrence P. Zatkoff a the request by the Department of Justice to dismiss the lawsuit in 2009, he reached a summary judgment in January, 2011, noting that the religious involvement did not achieve the "excessive entanglement" required under a precedential ruling. The plaintiff announced intent to appeal.
Center for Bioethical Reform, et al. v. U.S. DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano, et al. 
The Law Center filed a federal lawsuit against Janet Napolitano and the Department of Homeland Security after their publication of a nine-page intelligence assessment of "right-wing extremism". The case is currently pending in Federal District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan.
Gary Glenn, et al. v. U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder 
The Law Center filed a federal lawsuit against U.S. Attorney General Eric H. Holder, Jr., challenging the constitutionality of the recently-enacted federal Hate Crimes Prevention Act. The Act addresses crimes motivated by a person's "actual or perceived" "sexual orientation" or "gender identity." The lawsuit was filed in the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, on behalf of Pastor Levon Yuille, Pastor Rene Ouellette, Pastor James Combs, and Gary Glenn, the president of the American Family Association of Michigan (AFA-Michigan).
Thomas More Law Center v. Barack Obama, et al. 
The Thomas More Law Center filed a federal lawsuit against the new health care law known as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. The Law Center is challenging its constitutionality in the Federal District Court (Eastern District of Michigan). The purpose of the lawsuit is to permanently enjoin enforcement of the new health care legislation. The lawsuit was filed on behalf of the Law Center itself, and four individuals from the Southeastern Michigan area. None of the individuals have private health care insurance. Named as defendants in the lawsuit are: President Barack Obama, Kathleen Sebelius, Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services; Eric H. Holder, Jr., U.S. Attorney General; and Timothy Geithner, Secretary of the US Department of Treasury. All the defendants were sued in their official capacity. On October 7, 2010, U.S. District Court Judge George Caram Steeh dismissed two out of six of their claims, upholding these provisions under Congress's interstate commerce clause powers. The others remain pending.
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- Archived Detroit News article Requires paid subscription.
- "Taking the Gospel to the Rich." New York Times, February 14, 1999.
- "Planned Parenthood sued over abortion's risk." San Diego Union-Tribune, August 16, 2001.
- "Suit alleging abortion-cancer link dismissed." San Diego Union-Tribune, March 21, 2002.
- "Anti-abortion group must pay legal fees." San Diego Union-Tribune, June 20, 2002.
- "Free Legal Assistance Offered to Those Ordered to Remove American Flags or 'God Bless America' Slogans". Thomas More Law Center press release, September 20, 2001.
- "Group sues Ann Arbor schools over diversity program." Associated Press Newswires, 10 July 2002
- "Judge: Ann Arbor schools violated student's rights." Associated Press, 8 December 2003
- "Thomas More Law Center Sues MSU : Dispatches from the Creation Wars". Scienceblogs.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "Michigan court: marriage law bans same-sex couples benefits". Christiantelegraph.com. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "A school lesson on 'jihad'." San Francisco Chronicle, September 8, 2002.
- "Lawsuit Attacks Schools' Ban on Nativity Scenes." New York Times, December 11, 2002.
- Appeals Court Upholds New York City Department of Education's Holiday Displays Police. New York City Law Department , Feb. 3, 2006
- "Conservative, religious groups file briefs in support of Alabama Ten Commandments monument." Associated Press, 26 March 2003
- "Thomas More Law Center Sues to Stop Taxpayer Funding of Same-Sex Benefits in Michigan." TMLC press release, 22 September 2003
- —Julie Saltman 6:51 PM Permalink (2005-04-16). "The Washington Monthly". The Washington Monthly. Retrieved 2011-09-19. Text " Trackbacks " ignored (help)
- "Conservative attorneys urging Bush to intervene in Schiavo case." Associated Press, 16 October 2003
- Baird, W. Douglas, Circuit Judge. (2005-05-05). "Michael Schiavo, as Guardian of the person of Theresa Marie Schiavo, Petitioner, v. Jeb Bush, Governor of the State of Florida, and Charlie Crist, Attorney General of the State of Florida, Respondents, Case No. 03-008212-CI-20". Florida Sixth Judicial Circuit. Retrieved 2006-02-03.
- "Anti-Catholic Sculpture Focus of Federal Lawsuit against Washburn University in Kansas." TMLC press release, 7 January 2004
- Washburn University can display controversial sculpture . The Associated Press, February 27, 2004
- Nancy McDermott. Beyond Roe vs Wade: let the debate begin. Spiked, Signet House, April 20, 2006
- "South Dakota House Passes Bill Criminalizing Abortions; Challenge to Roe vs. Wade." TMLC press release, 11 February 2004
- Groening, Chad (October 25, 2006). Favoritism Toward Non-Christian Religions in U.S. Improper, Says Attorney. Agape Press.[dead link]
- "Marine Cleared In Haditha Massacre". CBS News. 2008-07-17. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
- North County Times
- Retrieved on 2009-03-17.
- "Government Pursuit of LtCol Chessani Continues; Marine Ordered to Face Board of Inquiry". Thomasmore.org. 2009-08-31. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Goodstein, Laurie (November 4, 2005). "In Intelligent Design Case, a Cause in Search of a Lawsuit". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Lebo, Laura (2005). "Judge grills Dover official". York Daily Record. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
- "The Official Website of the Petition Drive to Save the Los Angeles County Seal". Savetheseal.net. 2009-12-16. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "The Claremont Institute - The L.A. County Seal Case". Claremont.org. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- "The Fear Factor". Law.com. 2002-06-05. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Letter From Richard Thompson, President and Chief Counsel Of TMLC, Thomas More Law Center website, April 24, 2008. Retrieved on March 25, 2009.
- Voters say no to Amend. 1, The Gainesville Sun, March 25, 2009. Retrieved on March 25, 2009.
- "UK 'least wanted' list published". BBC. 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "'Who is on UK least wanted list'". BBC. 2009-05-05. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- US talkshow host Michael Savage to sue Jacqui Smith over ban from Britain Alex Spillius, telegraph.co.uk, 06 May 2009.
- Savage Appeals To Hillary Clinton, World Net Daily website, May 13, 2009. Retrieved on May 14, 2009.
- Shrestha, Bibeka (2011-01-14). "Judge Nixes Catholic Man's Suit Over AIG Bailout". Law360. Retrieved 2011-09-19.
- Pelofsky, Jeremy (October 7, 2010). "US judge upholds key part of Obama healthcare law". Reuters.
- Thomas More Law Center website
- Science Wars - Should Schools Teach Intelligent Design An October 2005 public debate hosted by the American Enterprise Institute that included the TMLC.
- Thomas More Law Center successfully defends Christian high school club against being forced to admit gay students Additional coverage
- Thomas More Law Center sues Florida town for refusing public Nativity displays
- In Intelligent Design Case, a Cause in Search of a Lawsuit, The New York Times, November 4, 2005.
- Thomas More Law Center vs ACLU on intelligent design
- Full text of Judge Jones' Kitzmiller v Dover ruling, dated December 20, 2005 (317.8 KB PDF file)
- Summary Opinion of Planned Parenthood v. American Coalition of Life Activists
- Creators of Anti-Abortion Web Site Told to Pay Millions
- Court reduces award to harassed abortion clinics