Thomas Rickman (8 June 1776 – 4 January 1841), was an English architect and architectural antiquary who was a major figure in the Gothic Revival. He is particularly remembered for his Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture (1817), which established the basic chronological classification and terminology that are still in widespread use for the different styles of English medieval ecclesiastical architecture.
Rickman was born on 8 June 1776 at Maidenhead, Berkshire, into a large Quaker family. He avoided the medical career envisaged for him by his father, a grocer and druggist, and instead went into business for himself. He married his first cousin Lucy Rickman in 1804, a marriage that estranged him from the Quakers.
The failure of his business dealings in London and the death of his first wife left Rickman despondent: the long walks into the countryside that he took for his state of mind were the beginning of his first, antiquarian interest in church architecture. All his spare time was spent in sketching and making careful measured drawings, and classifying medieval architecture, at first through its window tracery, into the sequence that he labelled "Norman" "Early English", "Decorated English" and "Perpendicular English", names that have remained in use, which he was already employing in his diaries in 1811; he gained a knowledge of architecture which was very remarkable at a time when little taste existed for the beauties of the Gothic styles. The Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 reported that "in 1811 alone he is said to have studied three thousand ecclesiastical buildings". In September that year he gave the first of a series of lectures on medieval architecture at the small Philosophical Society of Liverpool, which he had joined.
His first publication was an article on Gothic architecture for Smith's Panorama of Arts and Sciences (Liverpool). This was separately published in 1817 as An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of English Architecture from the Conquest to the Reformation, the first systematic treatise on Gothic architecture and a milestone in the Gothic Revival. It ran through many editions and provided the basis of Rickman's public reputation. He was elected a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries in 1829.
Rickman's architectural practice
As an architect, Rickman was self-taught. When in the Church Building Act of 1818 a large grant of money was set by the government to build new "Waterloo churches", Rickman sent in a design of his own which was successful in an open competition; thus he was fairly launched upon the profession of an architect, for which his natural gifts strongly fitted him. Rickman then moved to Birmingham where he designed the St George's Church (demolished in 1960) for the city. The design also consisted of churchyard gates, completed in 1822, which remain today. By 1830 Rickman had become one of the most successful architects of his time. He built churches at Hampton Lucy, Ombersley, and Stretton-on-Dunsmore, St George's at Birmingham, St Philip's, St Mary the Virgin and St Matthew's in Bristol, two in Carlisle, St Peter's and St Paul's at Preston, St David's in Glasgow, Grey Friars at Coventry, St Michael's Church, Aigburth and many others. He also designed New Court of St John's College, Cambridge, a palace for the bishop of Carlisle, and several large country houses.
Rickman attracted a large share of the Church Building Committee's patronage in the new churches built in the West Midlands pursuant to the Church Building Act of 1818. Rickman's transitional Gothic style, that later designers looked down on as "Church Commissioners' Gothic", did not stand the more rigorous scrutiny of better-informed historicists in the age of photography. The Encyclopædia Britannica 1911 said of his churches "These are all in the Gothic style, but show more knowledge of the outward form of the medieval style than any real acquaintance with its spirit, and are little better than dull copies of old work, disfigured by much poverty of detail." A later, more generous critic, Sir Howard Colvin, has remarked:
- "He was no ecclesiologist. If the detailing of his buildings was unusually scholarly, the planning remained Georgian, and the total effect of most of his churches is thin and brittle, if by no means unattractive"
Rickman nevertheless played an important part in the revival of taste for medievalism, perhaps second only to Pugin.
Death and burial
Rickman died at Birmingham on 4 January 1841. He was buried in the churchyard of the church he had designed: St George's Church. His tomb, designed by R. C. Hussey and completed in 1845, still stands, although the church does not.
Rickman was married three times: first to his cousin, Lucy Rickman of Lewes; secondly to Christiana Hornor; and thirdly to Elizabeth Miller of Edinburgh, by whom he had a son and a daughter.
- St. George's Church, Everton 1813
- St. Michael's Church, Aigburth 1813
- Church of St Thomas, Birmingham (war damaged 1940, now St. Thomas' Peace Garden) 1826-29
- Bank for Birmingham Banking Company (now Midland Bank), Temple Row, Birmingham 1830.
- Holy Trinity Church, Lawrence Hill 1832
- Keeper's Lodge, Audley End, Essex 1835
- St. Stephen's Church, Sneinton 1837
- Bishop Ryder Church, Birmingham 1838
- Rose Castle (alterations), Cumbria
- List of new churches by Thomas Rickman
- List of church restorations and alterations by Thomas Rickman
- List of non-ecclesiastical works by Thomas Rickman
- According to Alex Kerr, Rickman was disowned, in 1804, for marrying his first cousin "before a priest", but continued to attend Meetings for Worship. He was widowed and, in 1813, applied to be re-admitted, prior to his second marriage, which was accepted. However, he later became an Irvingite. See Kerr, Alex (1985). "Thomas Rickman in France". In Blamires, David; Greenwood, Jeremy; Kerr, Alex. A Quaker Miscellany for Edward H. Milligan. Manchester: David Blamires. pp. 111–120. ISBN 0-9510152-1-4.
- Rickman's diaries are conserved at the R.I.B.A. Library.
- "Church of St Peter Ad Vincula". Images of England. Retrieved 2007-05-07.
- Douglas Hickman (1970). Birmingham. Studio Vista Ltd.
- H. Colvin, A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 3rd ed. sub "Thomas Rickman", p 813.
- Leslie Stephen (1896). Dictionary of National Biography. Smith, Elder. p. 267.
- Ballard, Phillada (2009), Birminghams Victorian & Edwardian Architects, Oblong for the Birmingham and West Midlands Group of the Victorian Society, ISBN 978-0-9556576-2-7
- Howard Colvin, 1993. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects 1600-1840 3rd ed.
- ODNB article by Megan Aldrich, ‘Rickman, Thomas (1776–1841)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 , accessed 13 Dec 2007.
- Photographs of St. Michael in the Hamlet, Liverpool
- Photographs of St. Georges Everton, Liverpool
- Rose Castle Website