Thomas Whittemore (January 2, 1871– June 8, 1950) was an American scholar and archaeologist who founded the Byzantine Institute of America. His close personal relationship with Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, founder and the first president of the Turkish Republic, enabled him to gain permission from the Turkish government to start the preservation of the Hagia Sophia mosaics in 1931.
Thomas Whittemore was born in the Cambridgeport neighborhood of Cambridge, Massachusetts, on January 2, 1871. He earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English Literature from Tufts College in 1894. He taught at Tufts for a year and then studied at Harvard Graduate School of Arts and Sciences.
From 1911 until his death Whittemore served as American representative on the Egyptian Exploration Fund.
Whittemore worked in various capacities to provide relief to Russian refugees during World War I and following the Russian Revolution. He spent 8 months in Russia in 1915-16 and reported on conditions there when he returned to New York to organized shipments of supplies. He was a member of the U.S.-based Russian Relief Commission and a committee for war relief organized by Grand Duchess Tatiana Nikolaovna.
Of the radical and sudden transformation of Hagia Sophia from an active mosque to a secular museum in 1931 he wrote: "Santa Sophia was a mosque the day that I talked to him. The next morning, when I went to the mosque, there was a sign on the door written in Ataturk's own hand. It said: 'The museum is closed for repairs'"
In 1934, Harvard University appointed him keeper of Byzantine coins and seals at the Fogg Art Museum for a year. He also accepted a presidential appointment to represent the United States at the Byzantine Conference in Sofia in September of that year.
His work was widely reported in the United States. In 1942, the New York Times noted his return to Istanbul for his "ninth year in uncovering Byzantine mosaics in the St. Sophia Museum".
On June 8, 1950, he suffered a heart attack while visiting the U.S. Department fo State in Washington, D.C. He was buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
- "Prof. Whittemore of Harvard Dead". New York Times. June 9, 1950. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Russian in Want, But Won't Ask Aid". New York Times. June 10, 1916. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- John Patrick Douglas Balfour, Baron Kinross, Hagia Sophia: A History of Constantinople (W.W. Norton & Company, 1972), 128
- "To Join Harvard Faculty". New York Times. March 29, 1934. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "To Attend Byzantine Congress". New York Times. September 5, 1934. Retrieved January 27, 2015.
- "Whittemore Back in Istanbul". New York Times. February 28, 1942. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- Foster, R.D. "Istanbul's Overlooked Gem". ALO Magazine. Retrieved January 28, 2015.
- "Whittemore, Thomas", Dictionary of Art Historians
- Laurian Douthett, "The Leading Protagonist: Thomas Whittemore", May 10, 2013
- Whitmore Papers at Dumbarton Oaks
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