Thomas ap Catesby Jones
|Thomas ap Catesby Jones|
A young Thomas Jones
|Born||Westmoreland County, Virginia|
|Died||1858 (aged 67–68)|
|Buried at||Fairfax, Virginia|
|Years of service||1812–1858|
|Commands held||Pacific Squadron|
Jones was born in 1790 in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Thomas ap Catesby Jones means Thomas, son of Catesby Jones in the Welsh language. His brother was Roger Jones, who would become Adjutant General of the U.S. Army.
War of 1812
In 1826, Commodore Jones while in command of the veteran sloop-of-war Peacock, signed a treaty with Queen regent Kaʻahumanu and other chiefs of the Kingdom of Hawai'i. In 1827, Peacock was severely damaged in an attack by a whale; upon return to New York in October 1827, she was decommissioned and broken up in 1828 to be rebuilt as Peacock (1828), intended as an exploration ship of the United States Exploring Expedition. Jones was to have been the expedition commander, but it was delayed by lack of funding until 1838, by which time he had resigned the appointment.
From 1841 to 1844, Jones commanded the United States Pacific Squadron, and again from 1848 to 1850. In 1842, mistakenly thinking that war with Mexico had begun, he seized the California port of Monterey, for one day before returning control to Mexico. Hearing that British Captain Lord George Paulet had seized the Kingdom of Hawaii, he sailed there and arrived July 22, 1843. The king was restored July 31, and Jones tried to hasten peace by hosting all parties to dinner aboard his ship.
In 1843, Jones returned a young deserter, Herman Melville, to the United States from the Sandwich Islands, as the Hawaiian Islands were then known. Later, Melville modeled "Commodore J—" in Moby-Dick, and the commodore in White-Jacket after Jones. In 1827 the Peacock under Jones's command had been severely damaged in an attack by a whale, which Melville took to have been a sperm whale. Moby-Dick may have been partially inspired the story told of Jones in Chapter 45 – The Affidavit.
In 1848, Jones arrived in Mazatlán just at the end of the Mexican-American War, maintaining order until he could transport those who had aided the United States in that war to Monterey.
For the next two years, during the chaotic Gold Rush days, Jones provided a U.S. Navy presence in the San Francisco area while the United States debated what to do with the newly acquired California Territory.
In 1850, in a politically charged court-martial shortly after White-Jacket was published, Jones was found guilty on three counts mostly related to "oppression" of junior officers and relieved of command for two and a half years. In 1853, President Millard Fillmore reinstated him and in 1858, the United States Congress restored his pay.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Thomas ap Catesby Jones.|
- Gene A. Smith (2000). Thomas ap Catesby Jones, Commodore of Manifest Destiny. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-848-8.
- Hawaii-United States Treaty - 1826. Retrieved on 2011-11-27.
- Stauffer, Robert H. (February 22, 2009). The Hawai'i-United States Treaty of 1826. University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa: Hamilton Library (Hawaii). Retrieved December 27, 2012.
- Frank W. Gapp (1985). ""The Kind-Eyed Chief": Forgotten Champion of Hawaii's Freedom". Hawaiian Journal of History 19 (Hawaii Historical Society). pp. 101–121. hdl:10524/235.