Sunrise at Thoothukudi beach
Location in Tamil Nadu, India
|Talukas||Ettayapuram, Kovilpatti, Ottapidaram, Sathankulam, Srivaikundam, Thoothukkudi, Tiruchendur, Vilathikulam.|
|• Collector||M.Ravikumar,I.A.S, IAS|
|• Total||4,745 km2 (1,832 sq mi)|
|• Density||369/km2 (960/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||[[ISO 3166-2:IN|]]|
Thoothukudi District, also known as Tuticorin District, is a district of Tamil Nadu state in southern India. The town of Thoothukudi (Tuticorin) is the district headquarters. The district is known for pearl cultivation, with an abundance of pearls being found in the seas offshore. It is known as the gateway of Tamil Nadu. It was formerly ruled by one of the oldest kingdoms in India, the Pandyan Dynasty. The port of Korkai, Kulasekerapattinam, was famous in ancient world with its fame reaching as far as Rome.Tuticorin city is the headquarters and also the largest city in the district.Kovilpatti and Tiruchendur are the other two major cities.The district in one of most urbanised and has high socio-economic wealth.It is the 4th richest district in Tamil Nadu by Percapital GDP with 53,854 INR.It also has higher HDI,Literacy,Sex Ratio than many other districts. The archaeological site at Adichanallur holds the remains of the ancient Tamil civilization.
- 1 Location
- 2 History
- 3 Administrative divisions
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Infrastructure and Economy
- 6 Culture and Religion
- 7 Recreation and Places of Interest
- 8 List of ongoing/proposed projects in and around Tuticorin
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
Thoothukudi district is situated in the extreme South-Eastern corner of Tamil Nadu. It is bounded on the north by the districts of Tirunelveli, Virudhunagar, and Ramanathapuram, on the east and southeast by the Gulf of Mannar and on the west and southwest by Tirunelveli district. The total area of the district is 4621 km². The administrative headquarters is an urban agglomeration and also one of the taluk headquarters within. Thoothukkudi District was derived from Tirunelveli District in 1986.
The district of Thoothukudi was carved out as a separate district on 20 October 1986 as a result of bifurcation of the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu State. Thiru. R. Arumugam, I.A.S. was the first Collector of this District.
Thoothukudi (Tuticorin) is one of the major seaports in India with its history dating back to the 6th century A.D..
The Thoothukudi district has given India many great freedom fighters, like the great poet Subramanya Bharathi, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, Oomaithurai, Veerapandiya Kattabomman, Vellaiyathevan, Veeran Sundaralingam etc.From this Port only V.O.Chidambaram Pillai sailed the first Indian Swadesi Steamer S.S.Gaelia on 1 June 1907.
The district is divided into twelve revenue blocks for rural and urban development. The twelve revenue blocks are Tuticorin, Thiruchendur, Udangudi, Sathankulam, Srivaikundam, Alwarthirunagari, Karunkulam, Ottapidaram, Kovilpatti, Kayathar, Vilathikulam and Pudur. The District has one municipal corporation, Thoothukudi, two municipalities, Kayalpattinam and Kovilpatti, nineteen town panchayats, and 403 panchayat villages.
- Kovilpatti Assembly Constituency
- Ottapidaram Assembly Constituency
- Srivaikundam Assembly Constituency
- Tiruchendur Assembly Constituency
- Thoothukudi Assembly Constituency
- Vilathikulam Assembly Constituency
According to the 2011 census Thoothukudi district has a population of 1,750,176, roughly equal to the nation of The Gambia or the US state of Nebraska. This gives it a ranking of 277th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 378 inhabitants per square kilometre (980 /sq mi). Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 9.14%. Thoothukkudi has a sex ratio of 1024 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 86.52%.
Tamil is the main language spoken here, while English is also widely used.Missionaries like G.U.Pope, Veerama Munivar, Caldwell stayed here and contributed a lot for Tamil language and literature. As per the 2001 census, the total population of the district was 1,572,273. Hindus form the majority of the population (78.58%), followed by Christians (16.71%), Muslims (4.63%) and others with religious brotherhood (0.08%).
Infrastructure and Economy
Commerce and Trade
V.O.Chidambaram Port Trust plays a very crucial and pivotal role in the devolpement of Tamil Nadu. It is an all-weather port. Its growth rate is 12.08%. It provides major employment to people of Tuticorin followed by T.N.E.B.
Tuticorin host a number of Major Industries such as SPIC, Sterlite, Tuticorin Alkaline Chemicals, Heavy Water Plant, DCW, Zirconium Plant and numerous salt packing companies. Many coal based power plants are at various stages of commissioning. Kovilpatti consists of many small sized industry especially match stick industries.
Roadways- National Highway 45B,7A allows fast transit of Raw materials and Commercial goods from Port to business centres. The State Highways SH-32,33,40,44,75,76,77,93,176 connect to other parts of the State. State Highway 49 or East Coast Road is extended up to Tuticorin. The Ramanthapuram - Tuticorin ECR 4 way laning is proposed to begin shortly. District Roads connect all the Villages. Government Buses connect the District with other parts of State. Mini buses, Share Autos connects all roads within City Limits.
State Transport Corporation Buses operates daily to Chennai, Bangalore, Trivandrum, Ernakulam, Kollam, Alappuzha, Kottayam, Velur, Pondicherry, Tirupathy.
Railways-Railway station started in 1899. Vanchimaniachi is an important Junction connecting trains to Tirunelveli, Nagarkoil and Trivandrum. Trains from Tuticorin station are 1. Pearl City Express (12693/12694) connects Chennai - Tuticorin (656 km). 2. Tuticorin-Mysore express connects Tuticorin to Mysore (via Bangalore)(Distance between Bangalore and Thoothukudi is 583 km). 3. Vivek express connect Tuticorin to Okha (Bi- weekly). 4. Tuti- CBE express connects Tuticorin to Coimbatore. 5. Tuticorin- Chennai Egmore link express serves as a day time train to Chennai. 6. Tiruchendur passenger connects Tuticorin- Tirunelveli- Tiruchendur.
There is a plan for connecting Madurai - Tuticorin via Arupukottai. Also, plans are going for ECR railway track connecting tuticorin with Rameshwaram in the north and Kanyakumari in the south.
Waterways - The Port of Tuticorin is the only port in South India providing weekly container service to U.S with transit time of 22 days. Regular weekly transit includes to Europe (17 days), China (10 days), Red Sea Ports (8 days).
Airway - The Airport is situated near Vaigaikulam and need Expansion to handle growing business activities. Currently, Spicejet operates two flights from Chennai, connecting with Bangalore, Hubli (same flight) and Hyderabad, New Delhi, Mumbai etc. (change flights)
There are no large reservoirs in this district so the Papanasam and Manimuthar dams located in the Tirunelveli district in the Thamirabarani River's flow are the main sources of irrigation. Other than the Thamirabarani River, the river Vaipar in Vilathikulam taluk, the river Karumeni which traverses through Sathankulam, and Tiruchendur taluks, Palayakayal are all sources. In Ottapidaram taluk, there is one small reservoir at Eppodumvendran village. And banana tree is famous in Kulaiyankarisal here most banana leaf is delivered to various district
Paddy is cultivated in the Palayakayal Srivaikundam, Sattankulam and Tiruchendur taluks. Cumbu, Cholam, Kuthiraivali and other pulses are raised in the dry tracts of Kovilpatti, Vilathikulam,Nagalapuram Ottapidaram, and Thoothukudi taluks. Cotton is cultivated in Kovilpatti, Ottapidaram and Thoothukudi Taluks. Groundnut cultivation is undertaken in Kovilpatti, Tiruchendur, and Sattankulam taluks. Groundnut cake is being used as manure and cattle feed. Nagalapuram makes its economy to be solely dependent agriculture. Main business of this area is dry chilly, cholam, cumbu wood charcoal, etc. With 35% share, the district is the top producer of Cumbu in Tamil Nadu.
Palmyrah trees are grown mostly in Tiruchendur, Srivaikundam, Sattankulam and Vilathikulam taluks. In srivaikundan taluk, there are so many lakes like sivagalai kulam and perungulam near Sivagalai which is the main sources for the farmers in the village Sivagalai and its surroundings. Jaggery is produced from palmyrah juice; the production of jaggery is the main occupation of the people of Tiruchendur and Sattankulam taluks. Banana and other vegetables are raised in Srivaikundam and Tiruchendur taluks. The road going towards Kulaiyan karisal from Thiruchendur has banana farms on one side and a salt farm on the other; each farm needs a different type of water. Thoothukudi district is the largest exporter of bananas in Tamil Nadu.
There are numerous Educational Institutions, Polytechnic Colleges, Schools in and around Tuticorin giving Quality Education.
The Agricultural College and Research Institute, Killikulam was established in 1984 – 85 as the third constituent College of Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. At the beginning, the College started functioning in rented building of MDT Hindu College, Pettai in Tirunelveli. Subsequently, after the acquisition of lands and buildings from the State Seed Farm, Killikulam, a part of the educational activities was shifted to Killikulam during 1986–'87. Consequent on the completion of hostel buildings, entire academic activities were shifted to Killikulam campus from 01.11.1989.The institution was upgraded as Agricultural College and Research Institute in 1989. The college was also upgraded as a Post-graduate teaching institute from November 1990. The first batch of B.Sc. (Ag.), graduates passed out in 1988. The institution was made into a co-education institution from 1990–'91.
V.O.C College is one of the few Colleges in Tamil Nadu offering course in Geology.
The district constitutes 70 per cent of the total salt production of Tamil Nadu and 30 per cent of that of India. Tuticorin is the second largest producer of Salt in India next to Gujarat.
Puthiamputhur is one of important village involved in manufacturing ready-made clothes. The clothes are sent all over Tamil Nadu & even to several parts of India like Mumbai. It provides employment for more than 10,000 people mostly hailing from near villages.
Culture and Religion
- Sri Subrahmanya Swami Devasthanam, Tiruchendur.The temple is located on the shore of the Bay of Bengal. Tiruchendur temple is the second of the six abodes of Lord Murugan, enshrining Senthilandavar and is very popular with pilgrims.
- Alwarthirunagari is one of the most well known festivals of Sri Vaishnavam. It is celebrated to mark the birth of Swami Namalwar, who was born in the month of Vaikasi and the star of Visakam, hence the name. Vaikasi Visakam is a 10 day festival.
- Arulmigu Mutharamman Temple, Kulasekaranpattanam. This temple is famous for dasara fesival, it is 10 day festival. The main thing of this festival is Dasara Kuzhu.
- Sri Sanakara Rameswarar temple,Tuicorin is dedicated to Lord Shiva and legend says that Lord Sri Rama before waging war over Sri Lanka workship this Lord and get blessing.
- Sri Vaikundapathy Temple,Tuticorin is built by Pandya King Sankara Pandyan.
- Nava Thirupathy,Srivaikundam is present near banks of Tamiraparani.
- Sinthalakarai,near Ettayapuram is one of the famous Saktipeedam.
- Kazhugu Malai, near Kovilpatti is famous for Jain Cave Temple and Jain Architecture .Kalugasalamoorthy Temple is also present here
- kootampuli santhana muthu mariyamman temple festival function avani 2nd Tuesday
- Our Lady of Snows Basilica, Tuticorin Church was built in 16th century with Portuguese architecture. St. Francis Xavier visited the church in 1542. The Church of Our Lady of Snows celebrated its 400th anniversary in 1982, Pope John Paul II raised it to the status of Basilica.*Vanathirupathi in Punnai Nagar built by P.Rajagopal Founder, Hotel Saravana Bhavan chain of hotels is recently famous in the district.
- St. Michael and all Angels church in Mudalur is one of the oldest church in Thoothukudi District. The height of the church tower is 193 feet.
- Meignanapuram church is one of the famous churches. Its height is 196 feet.
- Church of Holy Cross built1581, Manapad contain the true fragments of Holy Cross.Manapad is the Ist place where St.Francis Xavier landed in India, 1542.
Mosque and Maqbara
- Mohiyedeen Jumma Mosque,Tuticorin
- Maqbara of Hazrat Kazi Syed Alauddin, Kayalpattinam
- Hazrat Shamsudeen Shaheed Raziyallah Dargah, Vaippar
Recreation and Places of Interest
- Hare Island,Tuticorin
- Harbour Beach,Tuticorin
- Roche Park,Tuticorin
- Pearl Beach, Tuticorin
- Lord Subramanya Temple, Trichendur (40 km)
- Lady of Snow Church, Tuticorin
- Kulasekarapattinam Beach (54 km)
- Holy Cross Church, Manapad (58 km)
- Panchalankurchi (18 km)
Distance to Tourist Destinations
- Kanyakumari ( 133 km)
- Rameshwaram (181 km)
- Madurai (135 km)
- Courtallam (109 km)
- Kodaikanal (274 km)
- Trivandrum (192 km)
- Munnar (294 km)
List of ongoing/proposed projects in and around Tuticorin
- Food processing special economic zone (SEZ)
- Gas pipeline from CHENNAI - TUTICORIN
- Madurai-Thoothukudi(Tuticorin) Industrial Corridor. The project proposes to create four manufacturing regions, one agri-business region, two business investment regions, a special tourism zone, one rural tourism hub and one knowledge hub. This will attract Rs 1,90,000 crore of industrial investment over a period of 10 years.
Port & Power related
- Ship Building in Tuticorin (TN state budget 2013-14)
- Outer Harbour development in Tuticorin @ 7500 crores (Union budget 2013-14)
- Power projects worth Rs 86,000 crore planned in & round Tuticorin that will generate 17,274 MW .
- ABG private container terminal in Tuticorin
Beautification & Entertainment
- Botanical Garden and Boating centre
- New Beaches
- Museum at Adichanallur near Tuticorin(3800 years history)
- Thiruchendur Murugan Statue proposed(World tallest)
- Water Sports Centre at Manapad
- Ramnad - Tuticorin Four laning
- Tuticorin to Kanyakumari ECR
- New flyover to decongest traffic
- Integrated Bus Terminus
- Desalination plant ( TN.govt. project & all Private upcoming industries)
- Day time train to Chennai via Madurai (Rail budget 13-14)
- Okha train to Tuticorin (Rail budget 12-13)
- Kendriya vidyalaya proposed for Tuticorin
- (Excel). Missing or empty
- Thoothukudi district. Government of Tamil Nadu. State Transport Authority.
- Majeed, A. Abdul (1987). "A note on Korkai Excavations". Tamil Civilization (Tamil University, Thanjavur) 5 (1/2): 73–77.
- Palanithurai, Ganapathy; Parthiban, T. and Vanishree, Joseph (2007). Empowering Women: Grassroots Experience from Tamil Nadu. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 35. ISBN 978-81-8069-454-7.
- "Administration". District Collectorate, Thoothukudi. Archived from the original on 3 April 2012.
- "Thoothukudi District, Tamil Nadu". Thoothukudi.nic.in. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
- "Reports of National Panchayat Directory: Block Panchayats of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu". Ministry of Panchayati Raj, Government of India. Archived from the original on 13 November 2011.
- "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01.
- "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30.
- [dead link]
- Agriculture. Government of Tamil Nadu. State Transport Authority.
- A to Z of Thoothukudi
- All About Thoothukudi
- Thoothukudi corporation
- Thoothukudi District Friends Community
- Tuticorin City
- Thoothukudi District
- Thoothukudi Churches
||Virudhunagar district||Ramanathapuram district|
|Tirunelveli district||Gulf of Mannar|