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Thornbury shown within Gloucestershire
|Population||12,342 (2001 UK census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Unitary authority||South Gloucestershire|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|Police||Avon and Somerset|
|EU Parliament||South West England|
|UK Parliament||Thornbury and Yate|
Thornbury is a market town and civil parish in Gloucestershire, England, approximately 12 miles (19 km) north of the city of Bristol, with a population of 12,342 at the 2001 UK census. The 2011 census gives a population of 12,063 for the Parish of Thornbury and 11,687 for the Built up Area.
The town hosts South Gloucestershire Council headquarters and is twinned with Bockenem in Germany. Thornbury is a Britain in Bloom award-winning town and has its own competition, Thornbury in Bloom. Its suburbs include the Morton and Thornbury Park districts. The civil parish also includes the hamlet of Milbury Heath.
There is evidence of human activity in the Thornbury area in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, but Roman presence is limited to the Thornbury hoard, of 11,460 Roman coins dating from 260 to 348 AD, which were found in 2004 while a resident was digging out for a fishpond. The earliest documented evidence of a village at "Thornbyrig" comes at the end of the ninth century. The Domesday Book noted a manor of "Turneberie" belonging to the Conqueror's consort, Matilda of Flanders, with 103 residents.
St. Mary's church, begun in the twelfth century with later additions, is the oldest surviving building in the town. The town charter was granted in 1252 by Richard de Clare, Earl of Gloucester and Lord of the Manor of Thornbury. The charter's 750th anniversary in 2002 was celebrated with a "750" flower bed planted on Grovesend Road. The town grew around the site of its cattle market. Thornbury lost its status as a borough in the 19th century local government reforms, but in 1974 the parish council exercised its new right to designate itself a town council.
The ancient parish of Thornbury covered a large area, extending to the River Severn, and also included Rangeworthy, a detached part of the parish. In 1866 Rangeworthy became a separate civil parish. In 1894 the western part of the parish was separated to create the civil parish of Oldbury-on-Severn, and the eastern part of the parish was separated to create the civil parish of Falfield.
In 1765 Dr John Fewster of Thornbury presented a paper to the Medical Society of London entitled "Cow pox and its ability to prevent smallpox". Fewster was a major influence on his friend and colleague, pioneer of the smallpox vaccine, Edward Jenner.
Thornbury was once served by a railway line; it was the terminus of a branch line of the Midland Railway (later part of the LMS), from Yate on the Bristol to Gloucester main line, with intermediate stations at Iron Acton and Tytherington. The branch lost its passenger services in June 1944 but lived on as a freight route, and also to serve quarries at Tytherington. The Thornbury railway station and line have been redeveloped into a supermarket, a housing estate, a bypass road and a long footpath. More remains of the line can be found at Tytherington quarry to the east of the town. There are plans to reopen the line to Yate via Tytherington and Iron Acton, and possibly run services to Gloucester and Bristol.
Thornbury had a market, held on the High Street and in the Market Hall. It moved to Rock Street in 1911 but closed down in the late 1990s and was partly replaced with a smaller market in a car park near the United Reformed Church. The older site has been redeveloped as a new community centre, called "Turnberrie's", ; the older community centre, at 'the Chantry', on Castle Street, remains in active use however. The Market Hall is now a clothes shop.
Thornbury's coat of arms combines the arms of four families important in the town's history: Attwells, Howard', Clare and Stafford. John Attwells left £500 in his will for the establishment of the Free School which merged with the grammar school in 1879. The Attwells coat of arms was later adopted as the badge for the grammar school, now Marlwood School. The other three families held the manor at Thornbury over several centuries. It has the motto Decus Sabrinae Vallis (Latin for "Jewel of the Severn Vale").
Thornbury features a high street, a shopping centre (St Mary's Centre), two supermarkets and many smaller shops. The town has seven churches: St Mary's Church, Christ the King Catholic Church, the Methodist Church, United Reformed Church, St Paul's Church, The Hackett, and Thornbury Baptist Church. On the outskirts of Thornbury, at Lower Morton, is an independent evangelical church, Morton Baptist Church.
The town has a large number of public houses. The White Lion, Thornbury, is a public house on the High Street. In 2003 it won the Thornbury in Bloom award, and in 1999 the Britain in Bloom award for Best Pub Display.
The shop front of the Wildings (formerly Worthingtons) clothing shop was used in the Two Ronnies serial sketch, "The Worm That Turned." In urban legend it is proposed that Ronnie Barker got the idea for Open All Hours when he visited the local Riddifords grocer's – however, Open All Hours ran from 1976, following a pilot in 1973, long before the filming and broadcast of "The Worm That Turned" in 1980. The nearby nuclear power station at Oldbury-on-Severn, Tytherington quarry and Stokefield Close were used as locations for the 1976 four-part Doctor Who serial The Hand of Fear. The Castle School, Thornbury was used to film an episode of Casualty which was broadcast on 2 May 2009.
Musical and drama groups
There are a number of musical and drama groups performing in Thornbury. The largest venue is the Armstrong Hall near the town centre capable of seating 350 and adjacent to this is the Cossham Hall with a seating for 140. Performances also take place in church halls and occasionally in the leisure centre. Some of the local amateur groups are listed below.
Thornbury Musical Theatre Group (TMTG) perform shows at the Armstrong Hall. They normally perform a main musical in October, a Pantomime in the February school half term and a concert style production in June. Rehearsals take place in Tytherington village hall. TMTG Web Page
Thornbury Amateur Dramatic Society (TADS) perform several plays each year, often in the Armstrong Hall or the adjacent Cossham Hall. TADS Web Page
North Avon Youth Theatre (NYTC) are a youth group who perform an annual show at the Armstrong Hall in Thornbury in April.
Thornbury Area Music Trust (TAMT) is a charitable music trust, running musical groups for children aged 4–18. On Saturday mornings the Thornbury Area Music Centre and Junior Music Centre meet at Marlwood School. They perform regularly in venues around Thornbury.
The South Cotswold Youth Orchestra (SCYO) is a youth Orchestra for musicians of Grade 5 standard and above. It performs at least one concert per term in the Thornbury area, and provides an opportunity for the best musicians in South Gloucestershire, North Bristol and the southern area of Gloucestershire to play symphonic music. 
An industrial estate is located to the south of the town. One of the biggest industries there is Essilor, who manufacture lenses for glasses. The construction of the Midland Way road has provided a boost for industry by allowing traffic to avoid the steep and narrow B4061 road.
Major roads and streets
- The B4061 loops off the A38 at Alveston, passes through the centre of the town, and rejoins the A38 at Whitfield, thus forming the main routes into the town from the north and south.
- Gillingstool and Grovesend Road form an easterly link from the centre to the A38.
- The High Street is on the very edge of the town to the west.
- The Plain is at the north end of the High Street, notable for the pump in the middle of the road.
- Castle Street heads north from The Plain to Thornbury Castle and St Mary's Church; it passes several older buildings including 'the Chantry' which is now used by the community association (TDCA).
- Midland Way and Morton Way are modern additions forming a roughly semi-circular eastern boundary to the town, and allow HGVs headed for the industrial estate to avoid the centre.
One of Thornbury's most notable features is its castle, a Tudor structure begun in 1511 as a home for Edward Stafford, 3rd Duke of Buckingham. The two intricate redbrick chimneys were built in 1514, and are similar to those found at Hampton Court Palace. Cardinal Wolsey beheaded the Duke for treason in 1521. Following the Duke's demise the castle was confiscated by King Henry VIII who stayed at the castle for ten days in 1535 with Anne Boleyn.
The Church of Saint Mary the Virgin is Thornbury's parish church. Building started in 1340, with major additions in 1500, 1848 and 1988. The church is used for worship, baptism, confirmation, marriages, funerals and remembrance services.
The town pump is on a small island at the bottom of the High Street. It has a sign saying "To Gloucester" with a pointing hand. The original water pump was removed in 1924 after its declaration as a road hazard by the council. In 1984 a new one was built. In 2002 it was temporarily painted gold to celebrate the Golden Jubilee. The pump is usually decorated with flowers, and there are often "Birthday Greetings" notices placed on the pump.
Walks and scenery
- Streamside Walk
A footpath called Streamside Walk starts at Gillingstool Primary School, passes over several roads and bridges, past Thornbury Hospital and Manorbrook Primary School and on to the north of Thornbury where the stream leaves the town. Another stream runs through the north east of Thornbury and merges at an old mill.
- Old railway line
Although the station is no more, the old railway line is now a footpath. The footpath was constructed in the 1990s to support new housing and industrial developments, previously it was grassed over and neglected. Starting from the industrial estates it follows the route of the streets of Streamleaze and Avon Way ending near a roundabout at the top of Avon Way.
- Heritage trail
Created by the Thornbury and District Heritage Trust as a Millennium project, the heritage trail is a walk encompassing the town's historic buildings. There are forty waymarkers indicating the route, which starts outside the town hall.
Sport and leisure
Mundy playing fields were donated to Thornbury by Mrs Violet Mundy in 1937. The fields feature a children's play area and sports ground. Nearby is Thornbury Golf Club, Thornbury Leisure Centre, Thornbury Lawn Tennis Club and a skate park. In south Thornbury there is a small children's play area. There are green spaces around the town. A Thornbury Community Garden was set up near Gillingstool School but has closed because of housing development. A replacement Community Garden is to be built next to the new Community Centre.
Thornbury RFC play in the South west 1 League, and despite being a Thornbury club, their ground is located in Rockhampton, on the outskirts of Thornbury.
Thornbury Town FC play in the Gloucestershire County League which is tier 11 in the English football (soccer) league. They won their first league title in the 2009–2010 season.
Real Thornbury FC play in the Bristol and District Senior Division which is tier 14 in the English football (soccer) league. They were founded as an FA affiliated team in 2009 and have gained promotion each season of their existence, with back to back league titles since 2010-2011 season.
Attractions include Filnore Woods, Armstrong and Cossham Halls, and Thornbury Museum. A heritage trail offers information signs about places of interest, starting from the Town Hall (which used to be the police station and magistrates court in Thornbury). The MacLaine Memorial fountain is dedicated to the memory of Lieutenant Hector Maclaine, who was a local man who helped protect the British in India from the Russians and Afghans in 1880. Thornbury has an antiquarian mathematics bookshop.
The Castle School is Thornbury's secondary school. The former Thornbury Grammar School buildings on Gloucester Road are now its sixth form centre. (Thornbury Grammar School was relocated to new buildings in neighbouring Alveston in 1972 when it received its first comprehensive school intake and was renamed Marlwood School.)
Gillingstool Primary School dates back to 1862, and is known for its school bell. The school was rebuilt in a project that began in spring 2009. The Victorian era buildings are being retained and will continue in their present use as a Sure Start Children's Centre.
Other schools include St Mary's Church of England Primary School (founded in 1839), Crossways Infant and Junior schools, Christ The King Roman Catholic Primary School, Manorbrook Primary School, New Siblands Special School, and The Sheiling School (an independent special school part of the Camphill Movement). John Attwells's Free School existed in the 19th century, a plaque about this school can be seen on a shop in St Mary's Shopping centre.
- Beverley Robinson (1723–1792), American loyalist, died in Thornbury.
- William Holwell (1726–1798), classicist and lexicographer, was presented to the vicarage of Thornbury by Christ Church, Oxford in January 1762.
- The politicians George (1794–1875) and John Rolph (1793–1870) were born in Thornbury.
- Handel Cossham (1824–1890), politician, was born in Thornbury.
- E. M. Grace (1841–1911), international and county cricketer, later played for Thornbury Cricket Club.
- W. N. Hodgson (1893–1916), a war poet, was born in Thornbury.
- R. W. G. Dennis (1910–2003), mycologist and plant pathologist, was born in Thornbury and attended Thornbury Grammar School.
- Tony Britton (born 1924), actor, attended Thornbury Grammar School.
- Sarah Singleton (born 1966), novelist and children's writer, was born in Thornbury.
- Comedian John Robins (born 1982) grew up in Thornbury.
- Tennis player Emily Webley-Smith (born 1984) was born in Thornbury.
- The Thornbury hoard was acquired by Bristol Museum for £40,000. treasurehunting.tv
- Thornbury Location 7 history
- Thornbury & District Museum: The Historic Borough and Town of Thornbury
- Vision of Britain website
- Smith, George, History of Delaware County, PA, Delaware County Institute of Science, 1862.
- Nicolau Barquet and Pere Domingo. "Smallpox: The Triumph over the Most Terrible of the Ministers of Death". Annals of Internal Medicine. Retrieved 4 May 2009.
- NYTC Web Page
- Thornbury Area Music Trust Web Page
- South Cotswold Youth Orchestra Page
- Gillingstool Primary School Newsletter Extra 6 June 2008
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