The Gallipoli peninsula (//; Turkish: Gelibolu Yarımadası; Greek: Καλλίπολη i.e. "beautiful city") is located in Turkish Thrace (or East Thrace), the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. Gallipoli derives its name from the Greek "Καλλίπολις" (Kallipolis), meaning "Beautiful City". In antiquity, it was known as the Thracian Chersonese (Latin: Chersonesus Thracica, Greek: Θρακική Χερσόνησος).
The peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea, between the Hellespont (now known as the Dardanelles) and the bay of Melas (today Saros bay). Near Agora it was protected by a wall running across its full breadth. The isthmus traversed by the wall was only 36 stadia in breadth (about 6.5 km), but the length of the peninsula from this wall to its southern extremity, Cape Mastusia, was 420 stadia (about 77.5 km).
In ancient times, the Gallipoli Peninsula was known as the Thracian Chersonesus ("Chersonesus" means "peninsula") to the Greeks and Romans. it was the location of several prominent towns, including Cardia, Pactya, Callipolis (Gallipoli), Alopeconnesus, Sestos, Madytos, and Elaeus. The peninsula was renowned for its wheat. It also benefited from its strategic importance on the main route between Europe and Asia, as well as from its control of the shipping route from Crimea. The city of Sestos was the main crossing-point on the Hellespont (Dardanelles).
The Thracian Chersonese was originally only inhabited by Thracians. Settlers from Ancient Greece, mainly of Ionian and Aeolian stock, founded about 12 cities on the peninsula in the 7th century BC. The Athenian statesman Miltiades the Elder founded a major Athenian colony there around 560 BC. He took authority over the entire peninsula, building up its defences against incursions from the mainland. It eventually passed to his nephew, the more famous Miltiades the Younger, around 524 BC. The peninsula was abandoned to the Persians in 493 BC after the outbreak of the Greco-Persian Wars (499–478 BC).
The Persians were eventually expelled, after which the peninsula was for a time ruled over by Athens, which enrolled it into the Delian League in 478 BC. The Athenians established a number of cleruchies on the Thracian Chersonese and sent an additional 1,000 settlers around 448 BC. Sparta gained control between 431 BC-404 BC, but the peninsula subsequently reverted to the Athenians. In the 4th century BC, the Thracian Chersonese became the focus of a bitter territorial dispute between Athens and Macedon, whose king Philip II sought possession. It was eventually ceded to Philip in 338 BC.
After the death of Philip's son Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the Thracian Chersonese became the object of contention among Alexander's successors. Lysimachus established his capital Lysimachia here. In 196 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus III seized the peninsula. This alarmed the Greeks and prompted them to seek the aid of the Romans, who conquered the Thracian Chersonese, which they gave to their ally Eumenes II of Pergamon in 188 BC. At the extinction of the Attalid dynasty in 133 BC it passed again to the Romans, who from 129 BC administered it in the Roman province of Asia. It was subsequently made a state-owned territory (ager publicus) and during the reign of the emperor Caesar Augustus it was imperial property.
The Thracian Chersonese subsequently passed to the Byzantine Empire, which ruled it until the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the 14th century AD. In 1356 the peninsula became the first part of Europe to fall to the Ottomans, who subsequently made it a major base for raids and incursions into territories further afield.
In 443 AD, Attila the Hun invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula during one of the last stages of his grand campaign against the Eastern Roman Empire during that year. He captured both Kallipolis and Sestus, and he destroyed a significant portion of the Eastern Roman Army somewhere on the peninsula.
After the devastating 1354 earthquake, the Greek city of Gallipoli was almost abandoned, but swiftly reoccupied by Turks from Anatolia, the Asiatic side of the straits, making Gallipoli the first Ottoman position in Europe, and the staging area for their expansion across the Balkans. The Greeks living there were allowed to continue their everyday life. In the 19th century, Gallipoli (Turkish: Gelibolu) was a district (kaymakamlik) in the Vilayet of Adrianople, with about thirty thousand inhabitants: comprising Greeks, Turks, Armenians and Jews.
Gallipoli did not experience any more wars until World War I, when British and colonial forces attacked the peninsula in 1915, seeking to secure a route to relieve their ally Imperial Russia in the east. The Ottomans set up defensive fortifications along the peninsula and the attackers were eventually repulsed.
In 1920 after the defeat of the Russian White army of General Pyotr Wrangel, a significant number of emigre soldiers and their families evacuated to Gallipoli from the Crimean Peninsula. From there, many went to European countries, such as Yugoslavia, where they found refuge. A stone monument was erected and a special "Gallipoli cross" was created to commemorate the soldiers, who stayed in Gallipoli. The stone monument was destroyed during an earthquake, but in January 2008 reconstruction of the monument had begun with the consent of the Turkish government.
In early 1915, attempting to seize a strategic advantage in World War I by capturing Constantinople, the British authorised an attack on the peninsula. The first troops landed on 25 April 1915. After eight months of heavy fighting, the troops were withdrawn around the end of the year.
The campaign was one of the greatest Ottoman victories during the war and is considered a major Allied failure. In Turkey, it is regarded as a defining moment in the nation's history: a final surge in the defence of the motherland as the Ottoman Empire crumbled. The struggle formed the basis for the Turkish War of Independence and the founding of the Republic of Turkey eight years later under Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, who first rose to prominence as a commander at Gallipoli.
The Gallipoli Star was a military decoration created by the Ottoman Empire in 1915 and awarded for the duration of World War I.
The campaign was the first major military action of Australia and New Zealand as independent dominions, and is often considered to mark the birth of national consciousness in those nations. The date of the landing, 25 April, is known as "Anzac Day". It remains the most significant commemoration of military casualties and veterans in Australia and New Zealand.
Callipolis was the seat of a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of Heraclea, the capital and metropolitan see of the Roman province of Europa. Extant documents give the names of three of its bishops of the period before the East–West Schism: Cyrillus, who was at the Council of Ephesus in 431; Harmonius, who took part in a synod that Patriarch Menas of Constantinople held in 536 to condemn the Miaphysite Patriarch Anthimus I of Constantinople; Melchisedec, who participated in the Second Council of Nicaea (787).
The bishopric continued to be a see of the Greek Orthodox Church until after the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne between Greece and Turkey. Lequien mentions three of those bishops who lived in the 14th and 15th centuries. Beginning in the early 13th century, there were also Latin Church bishops of Callipolis.
Notable people from Gallipoli
- Mustafa Ali (1541–1600), Ottoman historian, politician and writer
- Ahmed Bican, author
- Sofia Vembo (1910–1978), Greek singer and actress
- Salih Yazıcı, 14th-century scribe; writer of the masnavi Shemsiyye, a work of divinations in the Turkish language
- Mehmed Yazıcıoğlu, author of the Muhammediyye, one of the key works of Islamic Ottoman literature
- Καλλίπολις, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, at Perseus project
- Xenophon, Hellenica, iii. 2; Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca, xiv. 38; Pliny, Natural History, iv. 18; Agathias, Histories, v; Plutarch, Parallel Lives, "Pericles", 19
- Herodotus, The Histories, vi. 36; Xenophon, ibid.; Pseudo-Scylax, Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, 67 (PDF)
- Herodotus, vi. 34; Cornelius Nepos, Lives of Eminent Commanders, "Miltiades", 1
- Crowley, Roger. 1453: The Holy War for Constantinople and the Clash of Islam and the West. New York: Hyperion, 2005. p 31 ISBN 1-4013-0850-3.
- Crimea, Victorian Web.
- Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 427
- Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 1123-1124
- Raymond Janin, La hiérarchie ecclésiastique dans le diocèse de Thrace, in Revue des études byzantines, tomo 17, 1959, pp. 148-149.
- Konrad Eubel, Hierarchia Catholica Medii Aevi, vol. 1, pp. 158–159; vol. 2, pp. XVIII e 115; vol. 3, p. 147; vol. 4, p. 130; vol. 5, p. 137; vol. 6, p. 141
- Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 856
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 
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